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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Nov 2012
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Sep 2012
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Jul 2012
Volume 20, Issue 3 - May 2012
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Mar 2012
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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Development of Chassis Parts Using High Toughness Micro-alloyed Steel
Lee, Si-Yup ; Kim, Hyuk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.001
This paper developed the chassis part as micro-alloyed steel with high toughness. The performance of micro-alloy steels are superior to similar heat treated steels. The strengthening effects of vanadium make micro-alloyed steels particularly suited for high-strength-steel applications. The disadvantages are that ductility and toughness are not as good as quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels. Precipitation hardening increases strength but may contribute to brittleness. Toughness can be improved by reducing carbon content and titanium additions. dispersed titanium nitrides (TiN) formed by titanium additions effectively prevents grain coarsening. Grain refinement increases strength but also improves toughness. For the chassis parts using high toughness micro-alloy steel, it had proven superior to a plain steel forging by static strength test and endurance test.
Effect of EGR Rate and Injection Timing on the Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions in Light-duty Diesel Engine
Gong, Ho-Jeong ; Hwang, In-Goo ; Ko, A-Hyun ; Myung, Cha-Lee ; Park, Sim-Soo ; Lim, Chang-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 7~12
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.007
Cooled EGR system is widely used to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engine. But when EGR rate was increased, combustion stability was worsened and PM level was increased. So determining optimized control point of EGR rate is important. In order to determine this point, it is important to figure out the effect of EGR system on the exhaust emissions. In this research, NOx and PM emissions were analyzed with various coolant temperature supplied to the EGR cooler at several positions such as downstream of turbocharger, upstream and downstream of DPF. Effects of some variables such as EGR rate, hot / cooled EGR and change of injection timing were estimated. And
emissions were measured at exhaust and intake manifold to calculate EGR rate at each engine operating condition. Also combustion analysis was performed in each engine operating conditions. In the result of this study, there was trade-off between NOx emissions and PM emissions. When EGR rate was increased, combustion pressure was decreased and COV of IMEP was increased.
Evaluation of Occupant Protection of Van and Light Truck Vehicle
Kim, Guan-Hee ; Park, In-Song ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 13~19
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.013
The fatalities rate for passenger vehicles, vans, and commercial vehicles is 1.23, 1.90 and 2.46 deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles, respectively. This shows that vans and commercial vehicles are vulnerable compare to passenger vehicles. To evaluate the crashworthiness of van and Light Truck Vehicle(LTV), we carried out frontal offset crash test at 64km/h, 40% overlap as per IIHS(Insurance Institute for Highway Safety). The test result show that LTV is very poor to protect occupant at frontal crash cause there is no safety system such as airbag and pretensioner and front end length(distance from front bumper to steering wheel) is short. One of the van rated as the lowest rating even it is equipped with airbag, cause its safety cage was collapsed during the test. This result shows that the structural integrity is very important in terms of occupant protection.
Performance Analysis of High Efficiency Co-generation System Using the Experimental Design Method
Ryu, Mi-Ra ; Lee, Jun-Sik ; Park, Jeong-Ho ; Lee, Seong-Beom ; Lee, Dae-Hee ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 20~25
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.020
As a kind of distributed energy system, the co-generation system based Diesel engine using after-treatment device was devised for its environmental friendly and economic qualities. It is utilized in that the electric power is produced by the generator connected to the Diesel engine, and waste heat is recovered from both the exhaust gases and the engine itself by the finned tube and shell & tube heat exchangers. An after-treatment device composed ceramic heater and DOC(Diesel Oxidation Catalyst) is installed at the engine outlet in order to completely reignite the unburned fuel from the Diesel engine. In this study, mutual relation of each experimental condition was derived through minimum number of experiment using Taguchi Design and ANOVA recently used in the various fields. It is found that the total efficiency (thermal efficiency plus electric power generation efficiency) of this system reaches maximum 94.4% which is approximately higher than that of the typical diesel engine exhaust heat recovery system.
A Study on Inequality Rate of Lubrication for Motor-driven Cylinder Lubricator by the Electronically Controlled Quill System Equipped with an Accumulating Distributor in a Large Two-stroke Diesel Engine
Bae, Myung-Whan ; Jung, Hwa ; Bae, Chang-Hwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 26~36
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.026
Minimizing the cylinder wear and the consumption rate of cylinder oil in a large two-stroke diesel engine is of great economic importance. A motor-driven cylinder lubricator for Sulzer RT-flex large two-stroke diesel engines developed by authors is in need of mounting a quill system to lubricate cylinder parts for a smooth operation. In order to apply the common-rail lubricating system to the developed cylinder lubricator as the second research stage, the mechanical quill system with a progressively quantitative distributor (M.D.S.) is improved in the electronically controlled quill system with an accumulating distributor (E.D.S.). In this study, the effects of lubricator motor speed, plunger stroke and cylinder back pressure on oil feed rate and inequality rate are experimentally investigated by applying E.D.S. to the developed cylinder lubricator. It is found that the oil feed rate of E.D.S. is higher than that of M.D.S. because of the increase of delivery speed and volume by changing the role of accumulator in the same experimental condition. It can be also shown that, in E.D.S., the inequality rate is decreased a little or hardly unchanged as the cylinder back pressure and plunger stroke is elevated, while the inequality rate increased in M.D.S.. The inequality rates of E.D.S. and M.D.S. are lowered as the lubricator motor speed is increased.
A Study on Stable Indication for a Sloshing of Fuel-quantity according to Driving State of Vehicle
Hur, Jin ; Park, Jong-Myeong ; Lee, Seon-Bong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.037
In this paper, the application of robust fuel gauge algorithm in the external environment to general fuel gauge system is proposed. The proposed fuel gauge system is composed of two modules which are Moving Average Filter (MAF) and Inclination Filter (IF). They are used to show correctly the amount of fuel in the external environment which are curve road, slope or acceleration/deceleration driving. In parallel, verification and validation processes using Software In the Loop Simulation (SILS) in personal computer and Hardware In the Loop Simulation (HILS) similar to actual vehicle environments are established. Through this research, it turned out to be possible to operation of gauge become correct of external environment.
An Investigation for 2-stage Injection Strategy on Combustion and Emissions in a D.I Compression-ignition Engine Fueled with DME
Jeong, Jae-Hoon ; Jung, Dong-Won ; Lim, Ock-Taek ; Pyo, Young-Duck ; Lee, Young-Jae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 45~51
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.045
This work was investigated 2-stage injection strategy on combustion and emissions in a direct injection compression-ignition engine fueled with DME. Single cylinder engine was equipped with common rail. Injection pressure was 700bar, dSOI between the main injection and the pilot injection was varied. Diesel was used as compared fuel of DME in all cases. The results was shown that maximum pressure was higher than all cases and its amount of DME and diesel was similar. Regardless the pilot injection, the main fuel injection timing was same. The heat release rate of the main injection for diesel was high while that of pilot injection for DME was high. The THC was very low regardless of the fuel type and injection strategy. In the single injection, NOx was increased to retard of main injection timing regardless of the fuel type. NOx emissions was decreased with the retardation of the main injection timing regardless of the fuel type in the case of 2-stage injection strategy.
Door Effort Analysis for Hybrid Door Checker
Kang, Sung-Jong ; Kim, Dong-Hwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 52~57
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.052
Proper door effort is required for the safety of passenger and pedestrian while securing door operating convenience. 3D finite element analyses for a hybrid door checker were carried out to estimate door checker arm resistance force. And, from the estimated door checker arm resistance force and theoretically calculated self-closing force, door effort was predicted. The analysis results at checker arm peaks showed excellent correlation with the test results. Also, in order to reduce solving time, a modified model with simple spring element was investigated. Finally an equation to easily calculate checker arm resistance force from checker arm shape and spring constant was suggested and its usefulness in early design stage was discussed.
A Design of Linear State Observers for Motorized Seat Belt System
Lee, Kang-Seok ; Choi, Chin-chul ; Lee, Woo-Taik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 58~66
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.058
This paper describes a design and a verification of linear state observers for a motorized seat belt system to estimate state information such as angular velocity and load torque. The motorized seat belt system provides functions to protect passengers and improve passenger`s convenience. To realize these functions, sensors which can measure an angular velocity and load torque are needed. By use of the linear state observer, state information can be estimated without sensors. The motorized seat belt system is analysed and represented as a state space model which contains load torque as an augmented state. By the developed state space model, a full and reduced order observer are designed and verified by experiments. The full and reduced order observer are also compared from points of view of execution time and noise robustness.
Collision Analysis of the Next Generation High-speed EMU Using 3D/1D Hybrid FE Model
Kim, Geo-Young ; Koo, Jeong-Seo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 67~76
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.067
In this paper, collision analysis of the full rake for the Next Generation High-speed EMU is conducted using a 3D/1D hybrid model, which combines 3-dimensional (3D) front-end structure of finite element model and 1-dimensional (1D) multi-body dynamics model in order to analyze train collision with a standard 3D deformable obstacle. The crush forces, passengers` accelerations and energy absorptions of a full rake train can be easily obtained through a simulation of a 1D dynamics model composed of nonlinear springs, dampers and masses. Also the obtained simulation results are very similar to those of a 3D model if an overriding behavior does not occur during collision. The standard obstacle in TSI regulation has been changed from a rigid body to a deformable body, and therefore 3D collision simulations should be conducted because their simulation results depends on the front-end structure of a train. According to the obstacle collision analysis of this study, the obstacle collides with the driver`s upper structure after overriding over the front-end module. The 3D/1D hybrid model is effective to evaluate a main energy-absorbing module that is frequently changed during design process and reduce the need time of the modeling and analysis when compared to a 3D full car body.
Light-weight Design of Automotive AA6061 Rear Sub-frame Based on CAE Simulation
Kim, Kee-Joo ; Lim, Jong-Han ; Park, Jun-Hyub ; Choi, Byung-Ik ; Lee, Jae-Woong ; Kim, Yoon-Jae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 77~82
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.077
It is well known that the targeted fuel efficiency could only be achieved by more than 40% reduction of the vehicle weight through improved design and extensive utilization of lightweight materials. In order to obtain the goal of the weight reduction of automobiles, the researches about lighter and stronger rear sub-frame have been studied without sacrificing the safety of rear sub-frame. In this study, the weight reduction design process of rear sub-frame could be proposed based on the variation of von-Mises stress contour by substituting an AA6061 (aluminum 6061 alloy) having tensile strength of 310 MPa grade instead of SAPH440 steels. In addition, the stress ratio variations (stress over fatigue limit) of the rear sub-frame were examined and compared carefully. It could be reached that this approach method could be well established and be contributed for light-weight design guide and the optimum design conditions of the automotive rear sub-frame development.
Reduction of the Axial Force of Water Pump Using CFD
Jo, Sok-Hyun ; Shin, Dong-Sung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 83~87
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.083
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method has been used to investigate the axial force of automotive water pump. As the excessive axial force can make some unexpected problems like impeller interference and coolant leakage we have focused on finding the cause of axial force and its reduction in this paper. First, we have tested the closed type water pump with and without balance hole by the calculation methods. By examining the pressure contour around the impeller, we have found that the axial force arises not only from the pressure difference around shroud but also from the pressure difference around hub. So we have tested two impellers - one is normal open type impeller and the other is open type impeller with modified hub. The results show that the axial force reduction is about 150~200N for normal one and 700N@3000RPM for modified impeller. And the hydraulic efficiency which is important in aspect of engine fuel efficiency is reduced about 6.5% for normal one but increased 4%@3000RPM for modified impeller.
On-road Investigation of PM Emissions according to Vehicle Fuels (Diesel, DME, and Bio-diesel)
Lee, Seok-Hwan ; Kim, Hong-Seok ; Park, Jun-Hyuk ; Cho, Gyu-Baek ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 88~97
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.088
To measure the traffic pollutants with high temporal and spatial resolution under real conditions, a mobile emission laboratory (MEL) was designed. The equipment of the mini-van provides gas phase measurements of CO, NOx, CO2 and THC (Total hydrocarbon), and number density & size distribution measurements of fine and ultra-fine particles by a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS) and a condensation particle counter (CPC). The inlet sampling port above the bumper enables the chasing of different type of vehicles. This paper introduces the technical details of the MEL and presents data from the experiment in which a MEL chases a city bus fuelled by diesel, DME and Bio-diesel. The dilution ratio was calculated by the ratio of ambient NOx and tail-pipe NOx. Most particles from the bus fuelled by diesel were counted under 300 nm and the peak concentration of the particles was located between 30 and 60 nm. However, most particles in the exhaust of the bus fuelled by DME were nano-particles (diameter: less than 50 nm). The bus fuelled by Bio-diesel shows less particle emissions compare to diesel bus due to the presence of the oxygen in the fuel.
Component Sizing and Evaluating Fuel Economies of a Hybrid Electric Scooter
Lee, Dae-In ; Park, Yeong-Il ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 98~105
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.098
Recently, most of the countries started to regulate the emission of vehicle because of the global warming. The engine scooter is also one of the factor which cause the pollution. The hybrid system of a vehicle has many advantages such as fuel saving and emission reduction. The purpose of this study is to choose optimal size of engine, motor and battery for hybrid scooter system using Dynamic programming. The dynamic programming is an effective method to find an optimal solution for the complicated nonlinear system, which contains various constraints of control variables. The power source size of hybrid scooter was chosen through the backward simulator using dynamic programming. From the analysis, we choose the optimal size of each power source. To verify the optimal size of the power source, the Forward simulation was carried out. As a result, the fuel efficiency of hybrid scooter has significantly increased in comparison with that of engine scooter.
The Effect of Multi-ignition Strategy on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Ultra Lean Burn GDI Engine
Park, Cheol-Woong ; Kim, Sung-Dae ; Kim, Hong-Suk ; Oh, Hee-Chang ; Bae, Choong-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 106~112
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.106
Since air pollution problem by emissions from automotive vehicles has become social issues, lean-burn gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is focused as an alternative to meet the requirement of reinforced emission regulation and improved fuel consumption. Spray-guided type DI combustion is promising technology, which characterized by the centrally mounted injector and closely positioned spark plug, since stable lean combustion can be realized even at ultra-lean mixture condition. In the present study, the effect of multi-ignition with developed charge coil on combustion and emission characteristics was investigated in optical accessible single cylinder engine. In order to fully understand the in-cylinder phenomena and the mechanisms of emission production, optical diagnostics, such as flame visualization was also carried out at frequently using operating condition. Multi-ignition is effective to improve fuel economy but increase NOx emission at flammability limit.
Development of a Frontal Collision Detection Algorithm Using Laser Scanners
Lee, Dong-Hwi ; Han, Kwang-Jin ; Cho, Sang-Min ; Kim, Yong-Sun ; Huh, Kun-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 113~118
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.113
Collision detection plays a key role in collision mitigation system. The malfunction of the collision mitigation system can result in another dangerous situation or unexpected feeling to driver and passenger. To prevent this situation, the collision time, offset, and collision decision should be determined from the appropriate collision detection algorithm. This study focuses on a method to determine the time to collision (TTC) and frontal offset (FO) between the ego vehicle and the target object. The path prediction method using the ego vehicle information is proposed to improve the accuracy of TTC and FO. The path prediction method utilizes the ego vehicle motion data for better prediction performance. The proposed algorithm is developed based on laser scanner. The performance of the proposed detection algorithm is validated in simulations and experiments.
Noise Source Identification of Electric Parking Brake by Using Noise Contribution Analysis and Identifying Resonance of Vehicle System
Park, Goon-Dong ; Seo, Bum-June ; Yang, In-Hyung ; Jeong, Jae-Eun ; Oh, Jae-Eung ; Lee, Jung-Youn ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 119~125
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.119
Caliper intergrated Electric Parking Brake (EPB) is an automatic parking brake system, attached to rear caliper. Because EPB uses luxury vehicles recently, the drivers of vehicles are sensitive to the EPB noise. EPB is operated by the motor and gear, so noise is generated by motor and gear. In order to reduce noise, One of EPB manufacturers uses helical gear and changes the shape of EPB housing. But these methods are not optimized for reduction of interior noise. There are many noise transfer paths into vehicle interior and it is difficult to identify the noise sources. Therefore, in this study, we performed contribution analysis and modal testing in the vehicle system. It is possible to distinguish between air-borne noise and structure-borne noise in the vehicle interior noise by comparing interior noise peak with resonance mode map.
Crumple Zone Design and Upper Legform Impactor Analysis for Pedestrian Protection
Jeon, Young-Eun ; Moon, Hyung-Il ; Kim, Yong-Soo ; Kim, Heon-Young ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 126~132
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.126
Recently, pedestrian protection related research topics have been actively studied by automotive designers and engineers due to the enhanced pedestrian protecting regulations. It is required to design an energy absorbing structure, such as crumple zone that can sufficiently absorb the impact energy to reduce the leg injury when accident happens. The structure is designed by reducing the height of front end module, considering the mounting location, and investigating impact characteristics. In this paper, the concept of the crumple zone was introduced and the role of the crumple zone was investigated by analyzing the performance of upper legform impact to a bonnet leading edge test, and the design process was suggested.
Study on Bike Frame due to Nonuniform Fatigue Loads
Han, Moon-Sik ; Cho, Jae-Ung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.133
In this study, 3 kinds of models about bike frame are simulated with static structural analysis, And fatigue life, damage and durability according to fatigue load are analyzed. A bike frame model with diamond type is compared with another model on the reinforced support with its type. In case of the reinforced support type, maximum equivalent stress or total deformation is shown with 10% or 20% more than the diamond type respectively. At both types of models, the trends of fatigue life and damage at both types are same. `SAE bracket history` with the severest change of load becomes most unstable but `Sample history` becomes most stable among the cases of nonuniform fatigue loads. In case of `Sample history` with the average stress of 0 to -1MPa and the amplitude stress of 0 to 1MPa, the possibility of maximum damage becomes 3%. This stress state can be shown with 6 times more than the damage possibility of `SAE Bracket history` or `SAE transmission`. In case of the reinforced support type, fatigue life becomes shorter and damage probability becomes larger at the right side installed with support than diamond type. The structural result of this study can be effectively utilized with the design on bike frame by investigating prevention and durability against its damage.
Effects of Pilot Injection on Low Temperature Diesel Combustion
Han, Sang-Wook ; Bae, Choong-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 3, 2012, Pages 141~147
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.3.141
A direct injection diesel engine with large amount of exhaust gas recirculation was used to investigate low temperature diesel combustion. Pilot injection strategy was adopted in low temperature diesel combustion to reduce high carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of low temperature diesel combustion under different pilot injection timings, pilot injection quantities and injection pressures were analyzed. Retarding pilot injection timing, increasing pilot injection quantity and higher injection pressure advanced main combustion timing and increased peak heat release rate of main combustion. As a result of these strategies, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions were reduced. Soot emission was slightly increased with retarded pilot injection timing while the effect of pilot injection on nitrogen oxides emission was negligible under low combustion temperature condition. Spatial distribution of fuel from the spray targeting visualization was also investigated to provide more insight into the reason for the reduction in carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions.