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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Nov 2012
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Sep 2012
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Jul 2012
Volume 20, Issue 3 - May 2012
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Mar 2012
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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The NCF Algorithm for the Control of an Electro-mechanical Active Suspension System
Han, In-Sik ; Lee, Yoon-Bok ; Choi, Kyo-Jun ; Kim, Jae-Yong ; Jang, Myeong-Eon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.001
The NCF control algorithm for an active suspension system was proposed and investigated. The NCF algorithm using spring dynamic variation force and suspension relative velocity was applied to the 1/4 vehicle model and numerical analysis was performed. Vehicle's performances such as vehicle displacement, vehicle acceleration, suspension deflection, tire deflection and absorbed power were calculated and compared with those of the passive, semi-active and LQR active suspension system that use full state feedback. Numerical results show that the proposed NCF active suspension system has superior performance compared with the passive and semi-active suspension system and has very similar performance compared with the LQR active suspension system. So the proposed NCF algorithm is considered as a highly practical algorithm because it requires only one displacement sensor in a 1/4 vehicle model.
The Optimization of Passenger Seat Belt Design for Female Passenger
Kim, Yun-Bae ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Han, Jae-Nyung ; Kim, Hyung-Il ; Chae, Soo-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 10~15
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.010
The design of automobile occupant seat belt system has been studied by using MADYMO. Based on the FMVSS 208 (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 208) and the USNCAP (United States New Car Assessment Program) regulations, seat belt design parameters were chosen for the design improvement to the 5th percentile female dummy: limit force of load limiter, time to fire of shoulder belt, inlet length of shoulder belt, inlet length of lap belt. The design of experiment method was employed to optimize the design parameters of passenger seat belt. Range of injury probability due to the change of H-point position was estimated by the simulation.
Detecting Lane Departure Based on GIS Using DGPS
Moon, Sang-Chan ; Lee, Soon-Geul ; Kim, Jae-Jun ; Kim, Byoung-Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 16~24
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.016
This paper proposes a method utilizing Differential Global Position System (DGPS) with Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) and pre-built Geo-graphic Information System (GIS) to detect lane departure of a vehicle. The position of a vehicle measured by DGPS with RTK has 18 cm-level accuracy. The preconditioned GIS data giving accurate position information of the traffic lanes is used to set up coordinate system and to enable fast calculation of the relative position of the vehicle within the traffic lanes. This relative position can be used for safe driving by preventing the vehicle from departing lane carelessly. The proposed system can be a key component in functions such as vehicle guidance, driver alert and assistance, and the smart highway that eventually enables autonomous driving supporting system. Experimental results show the ability of the system to meet the accuracy and robustness to detect lane departure of a vehicle at high speed.
Effect of Fast ATF Warm-up on Fuel Economy Using Recovery of EGR Gas Waste Heat in a Diesel Engine
Heo, Hyung-Seok ; Lee, Dong-Hyuk ; Kang, Tae-Gu ; Lee, Heon-Kyun ; Kim, Tae-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 25~32
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.025
Cold start driving cycles exhibit an increases in friction losses due to the low temperatures of metal components and media compared to the normal operating engine conditions. These friction losses are adversely affected to fuel economy. Therefore, in recent years, various techniques for the improvement of fuel economy at cold start driving cycles have been introduced. The main techniques are the upward control of coolant temperature and the fast warm-up techniques. In particular, the fast warm-up techniques are implemented with the coolant flow-controlled water pump and the WHRS (waste heat recovery system). This paper deals with an effect of fast ATF (automatic transmission fluid) warm-up on fuel economy using a recovery system of EGR gas waste heat in a diesel engine. On a conventional diesel engine, two ATF coolers have been connected in series, i.e., an air-cooled ATF cooler is placed in front of the condenser of air conditioning system and a water-cooled one is embedded into the radiator header. However, the new system consists of only a water-cooled heat exchanger that has been changed into the integrated structure with an EGR cooler to have the engine coolant directly from the EGR cooler. The ATF cooler becomes the ATF warmer and cooler, i.e., it plays a role of an ATF warmer if the temperature of ATF is lower than that of coolant, and plays a role of an ATF cooler otherwise. Chassis dynamometer experiments demonstrated the fuel economy improvement of over 2.5% with rapid increase in the ATF temperature.
Development of Automotive Structural Part Considering the Formability of Sandwich Panel
Choi, Won-Ho ; Choi, Bo-Sung ; Lee, Dug-Young ; Hwang, Woo-Seok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 33~38
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.033
Sandwich composite panel with high strength steel face can reduce the weight of the automotive structural parts. Unlike the parts in aerospace application, the automotive parts are made by the forming process for mass production. The CAE simulation can predict the failures caused by forces and deformation during the forming process. Since the material properties are very important factor for the simulation, we performed the tensile test to get the material properties. The inspections by the optical microscope at each strain level show the states of the polymer resin. The material properties measured by the tensile tests are used for the input data of simulation. The simulation predicts the forming process of the bumper back beam very exactly compared with the try out results.
A Study on the Lean Combustion Characteristics with Variation of Combustion Parameter in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine
Park, Cheol-Woong ; Oh, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Hong-Suk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.039
Today gasoline engines for vehicular application are not only faced with stringent emission regulation but also with increasing requirements to better fuel economy, while guaranteeing power density. The spray-guided type gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine has an advantage of improved thermal efficiency and lower harmful emissions. Centrally mounted high pressure injector and adjacent spark plug allow stable lean combustion due to the flexible mixture stratification. In the present study, the performance and emissions characteristics of developed spray-guided type GDI combustion system were evaluated at various excess air ratio conditions. The specific fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides (
) emissions were reduced due to the achievement of stable lean combustion under flammability limit. Multiple injection strategy was not helpful to improve fuel consumption while further reduction of
emissions was possible.
Determination of Valve Gate Open Timing for Minimizing Injection Pressure of an Automotive Instrument Panel
Cho, Sung-Bin ; Park, Chang-Hyun ; Pyo, Byung-Gi ; Choi, Dong-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 46~51
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.046
Injection pressure, an important factor in filling process, should be minimized to enhance injection molding quality. Injection pressure can be controlled by valve gate open timing. In this work, we decided the valve gate open timing to minimize the injection pressure. To solve this design problem, we integrated MAPS-3D (Mold Analysis and Plastic Solution-3Dimension), a commercial injection molding CAE tool, to PIAnO (Process Integration, Automation and Optimization), a commercial PIDO (Process Integration, and Design Optimization) tool using the file parsing method. In order to reduce computational cost, we performed an approximate optimization using meta-models that replaced expensive computer simulations. At first, we carried out DOE (Design of Experiments) using OLHD (Optimal Latin Hypercube Design) available in PIAnO. Then, we built Kriging models using the simulation results at the sampling points. Finally, we used micro GA (Genetic Algorithm) available in PIAnO. Using the proposed design approach, the injection pressure has been reduced by 13.7% compared to the initial one. This design result clearly shows the validity of the proposed design approach.
Front Aluminum Subframe of High Level Vacuum Die-casting
Cho, Young-Gun ; Lim, Tae-Seong ; Jang, Sang-Gil ; Cho, Cheol-Hwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 52~59
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.052
The subframe has been generally manufactured by using stamped steel material. Recently, automotive designers are considering aluminum as lightweight material. This paper describes the development process of an aluminum subframe which is made by high level vacuum die casting process, which is beneficial for minimizing gas contents and material properties. The weight of manufactured subframe is reduced by 4kg with the comparison of steel subframe. The aluminum subframe is packaged for the current vehicle layout and the imposed requirement is to attain a better structural performance that is evaluated in terms of mounting stiffness, noise and vibration, and endurance performance. The NVH evaluation results show that sound level is decreased by 8dB with the help of high roll-rod mounting stiffness as well as high structural modes.
Development of a Vehicle Driving Cycle in a Military Operational Area Based on the Driving Pattern
Choi, Nak-Won ; Han, Dong-Sik ; Cho, Seung-Wan ; Cho, Sung-Lai ; Yang, Jin-Saeng ; Kim, Kwang-Suk ; Chang, Young-June ; Jeon, Chung-Hwan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 60~67
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.060
Most of a driving cycle is used to measure fuel consumption (FC) and emissions for a specified vehicle. A driving cycle was reflected geography and traffic characteristics for each country, also, driving pattern is affected these parameters such as vehicle dynamics, FC and emissions. Therefore, this study is an attempt to develop a driving cycle for military operational area. The proposed methodology the driving cycle using micro-trips extracted from real-world data. The methodology is that the driving cycle is constructed considering important parameters to be affected FC. Therefore, this approach is expected to be a better representation of heterogeneous traffic behavior. The driving cycle for the military operational area is constructed using the proposed methodology and is compared with real-world driving data. The running time and total distance of the final cycle is 1461 s, 13.10 km. The average velocity is 32.25 km/h and average grade is 0.43%. The Fuel economy in the final cycle is 5.93 km/l, as opposed to 6.10 km/l for real-world driving. There were about 3% differences in driving pattern between the final driving cycle and real-world driving.
Driveline Output Torque Estimation Using Discrete Kalman Filter
Gi-Woo, Kim ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 68~75
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.068
This paper presents a study on the driveline output torque estimation using a discrete Kalman filter. The in-situ output shaft torque is first measured by a non-contacting magneto-elastic torque transducer. The linear state-space system equations are first derived and the discrete Kalman filter is designed based on the Kalman filter theory to recover the driveline output torque contaminated by random noises. In addition to using torque measurement, the estimation of the output torque using two angular velocities: the output and wheel, is also conducted. The experimental results show that the discrete Kalman filter can be effective for not only removing the random noise in output torque but also estimating the output torque without torque measurement.
A Study on the Way to Improve Efficiency of a Waste Heat Recovery System for an Automotive Engine
Cha, Won-Sim ; Choi, Kyung-Wook ; Kim, Ki-Bum ; Lee, Ki-Hyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 76~81
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.076
In recent, there are tremendous efforts to apply co-generation concept in automobile to improve its thermal efficiency. The co-generation is basically a simple Rankine Cycle that uses the waste heat from the engine exhaust and coolant for heat source. In spite of developed nano technology and advance material science, the bulky co-generation system is still a big concern in automotive application. Therefore, the system should be effectively designed not to add much weight on the vehicle, but the capacity of the waste heat recovery should be still large. With such a goal in mind, the system thermal efficiency was investigated in terms of the system operation condition and working fluid. This paper provides a direction for the optimal design of the automotive co-generation system.
Development and Feasible Study of Train to Pedestrian Protection Airbag
Yoo, Wan-Dong ; Ham, Joung-Sik ; Cho, Kyue-Sang ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 82~91
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.082
This paper deals with the development and feasible study of the train to pedestrian protection airbag. The concept of the airbag system is to protect the pedestrian like as workers on railroad. The airbag system includes cushions, gas generators, a housing, sliding fixture, anti-bouncing airbag, and a leg protection bumper. Those things were designed and fabricated. The performance of the airbag system was evaluated in the sense of the static deployment test, drop test, dynamic motion test and field(train level) test. The deployment logic, TTF(Time to fire), and the inner pressure of the cushion were also investigated for the airbag.
Development of Wind Noise Analysis Procedure and Its Verification Using CFD Tool around an OSRVM
Park, Hyun-Ho ; Han, Hyun-Wook ; Kim, Moon-Sang ; Ha, Jong-Paek ; Kim, Yong-Nyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 92~102
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.092
The process of the wind noise analysis around an OSRVM is developed and is verified by simulating unsteady flow field past a generic OSRVM mounted on the flat plate at the Reynolds number of
based on the mirror diameter. The transient flow field past a generic OSRVM is simulated with various turbulence models, namely DES-SA, LES Constant SGS, and LES Dynamic SGS. The sound radiation is predicted using the Ffowcs- Williams and Hawkings analogy. For the present simulation, the 6.35million cells are generated. Time averaged pressure coefficients at 34 locations on the surface of the generic OSRVM are compared with the available experimental data. Also, 12 Sound Pressure Levels located on the surrounding mirror are compared with the available experimental data. Both of them show good agreements with experimental data.
Comparison of Rule-based Power Management Strategy and Optimal Control Strategy in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles
Zheng, Chun-Hua ; Park, Yeong-Il ; Lim, Won-Sik ; Cha, Suk-Won ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 103~108
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.103
Fuel economy is an important factor in a vehicle owing to recent energy supply and environmental problems. This paper deals with fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs) and introduces a fuel economy evaluation method. The fuel economy of an FCHV depends on its power management strategy. Two rule-based power management strategies are applied to this paper and their fuel economy is evaluated based on the optimal control theory. The concept of the optimal line is also applied to this paper, which is used to compare the fuel consumption of a power management strategy to the optimal result. The two rule-based strategies are also compared to each other.
Development of Gap Searching System for Car Body Assembly by Decomposition Model Representation
Bae, Won-Jung ; Lee, Sung-Hoon ; Park, Sung-Bae ; Jung, Yoong-Ho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 109~118
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.109
Large number of part design for aircraft and automobile is preceded by functional or sectional design groups for efficiency. However, interferences and gaps can be found when the parts and sub-assemblies by those design groups are to be assembled. These interferences and gaps cause design changes and additional repair processes. While interference problem has been resolved by digital mockup and concurrent engineering methodology, gap problem has been covered by temporary treatment of filling gap with sealant. This kind of fast fix causes fatal problem of leakage when the gap is too big for filling or the treatment gets old. With this research, we have developed a program to find the gap automatically among parts of assembly so that users can find them to correct their design before manufacturing stage. By using decomposition model representation method, the developed program can search the gap among complex car body parts to be visualized with volumetric information. It can also define the boundary between the gap and exterior empty space automatically. Though we have proved the efficiency of the developed program by applying to automobile assembly, application of the program is not limited to car body only, but also can be extended to aircraft and ship design of large number of parts.
Evaluation on Displacement Property of Ceramic Belt by Using FEM
Yang, Sung-Mo ; Yu, Hyo-Sun ; Kang, Hee-Yong ; Hwang, Young-Min ; Song, Joon-Hyuk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 119~124
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.119
Ceramics are becoming one of the most important materials due to its good mechanical properties such as high strength, hardness, chemical safety, and high modulus of elasticity. Ceramics have been used widely as a material not only for construction, but also for vehicles, planes, and bones for the human body. Despite these advantages, ceramics have some limitations in actual use due to its brittle fracture characteristic. In order to develop ceramic belt in this study, the data regarding stiffness and strain is necessary. For this purpose, the sensitivities of maximum stress value and displacement are analyzed by applying the load change on ceramic belt with finite element method program.
Numerical Investigation of the Urea Melting and Heat Transfer Characteristics with Three Different Types of Coolant Heaters
Lee, Seung-Yeop ; Kim, Man-Young ; Lee, Chun-Hwan ; Park, Yun-Beom ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 125~132
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.125
Urea-SCR system, which converts nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and water in the presence of a reducing agent, usually AdBlue urea solution, is known as one of the powerful NOx reduction systems for mobile as well as stationary applications. For its consistent and reliable operation in mobile applications, such various problems as transient injection, ammonia slip, and freezing in cold weather have to be resolved. In this work, therefore, numerical study on three-dimensional unsteady heating problems were analyzed to understand the melting and heat transfer characteristics such as urea liquid volume fraction, temperature profiles and generated natural convection behavior in urea solution by using the commercial software Fluent 6.3. After validating by comparing numerical and experimental data with pure gallium melting phenomena, numerical experiment for urea melting is conducted with three different coolant heating models named CH1, 2, and 3, respectively. Finally, it can be found that the CH3 model, in which more coolant is concentrated on the lower part of the urea tank, has relatively better melting capability than others in terms of urea quantity of
for start-up schedule.
Fatigue Analysis of Bike Brake under Nonuniform Load
Cho, Ja-Eung ; Han, Moon-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 133~141
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.133
This study investigates structural and fatigue analyses of bike brake. Maximum equivalent stress of the model of mountain bike is 4 times as much as the model of general bike at static analysis. In cases of mountain and general bikes, maximum damage frequency at load of 'SAE bracket history' with the severest change of load becomes as much as 16 times than the most stable load of 'Sample history' among the nonuniform fatigue loads. In case of mountain bike, the possibility of maximum damage becomes 3% at the load of 'Sample history' with the average stress of 0 to
MPa and the amplitude stress of 0 to
MPa. In case of general bike, the possibility of maximum damage becomes 3% at the load of 'Sample history' with the average stress of 0 to
MPa and the amplitude stress of 0 to
MPa. This stress state can be shown as 5 to 6 times more than the damage possibility of 'SAE bracket history' or 'SAE transmission'. The analysis result of this study can be effectively utilized for the safe design of bike brake.
Experimental Investigation on the Reduction Characteristics of Nitric Dioxide(NO
) over Platinum-based Oxidation Catalyst
Kim, Young-Deuk ; Cho, Ja-Yun ; Lee, Jung-Gil ; Kim, Woo-Seung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 142~149
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.142
The reduction characteristics of
to NO are experimentally studied over a platinum-based catalyst, especially at lower temperatures below about
. In the present work, two types of steady-state experiments, engine bench and synthetic gas bench tests, are carried out in sequence. Steady-state engine bench tests with the DOC mounted on a light duty 4-cylinder 2.0 liter turbocharged diesel engine are performed and prove that CO plays a major role in
abatement at temperatures below the light-off temperature of CO oxidation, about
. Synthetic gas bench tests are then performed using synthetic gas mixtures with CO,
T-range and show that both CO and
are capable of reducing
. It is noted that the reaction rate of
is much higher than that with CO. At temperatures below about
, the reduction of
to NO is promoted with increasing CO concentration and
ratio and with decreasing
concentration, as well as with the presence of
A Study on NOx Reduction Characteristics of LNT Catalyst with Fuel Injection Control in Light-duty Diesel Engine
Hwang, Seung-Kwon ; Ko, A-Hyun ; Yoon, Joo-Wung ; Myung, Cha-Lee ; Park, Sim-Soo ; Kim, Eun-Seok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 20, issue 4, 2012, Pages 150~155
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2012.20.4.150
Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts are capable of reducing exhaust NOx emissions from diesel engines. LNT stores NOx in lean condition and exhausts N2 by reducing NOx in rich condition. NOx reduction characteristic of LNT catalysts using throttle position sensor and fuel injection timing control for light-duty diesel engine was investigated. In contrast to SCR system, LNT catalyst uses diesel fuel in resuctant. Also if the concentration of reductant is exceeded, excessive amount of reductant will slip throughout LNT and cause another emission problem. Thus LNT regeneration with precise engine control established that can make higher NOx conversion efficiency and lower fuel penalty, prevent another emission problem. NOx and reductant concentration were measured by the NOx sensor and Mexa7100D equipped inlet and outlet of catalyst. As a result of engine test, regeneration strategy has reached high of 77.8% NOx conversion efficiency according to engine operation condition. Moreover, we have proved that it is possible to use regeneration strategy of LNT within 5% fuel penalty.