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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 21, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Development of Vehicle Environment for Field Operational Test Data Base of Driver-vehicle`s Behaviour
Kim, Jinyong ; Jeong, Changhyun ; Jeong, Minji ; Jung, Dohyun ; Woo, Jinmyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.001
Recently, the automotive technology has developed with electronics and information technology as convergence technology while vehicles had been regarded as machines. Moreover, vehicles are becoming more intelligent and safer devices, assembly of advanced technologies by customers` demand. Even though all of installations of vehicle have attracted as diverting devices, it cause drivers` mistakes like delay of response on traffic condition. Here, we proposed the Field Operational Test (FOT) environment which could be used as driving and road conditions collector(Vehicle motion, Traffic condition, Driver input, Driver state, etc.) for researches about Driver Friendly Intelligent System(SCC, LDWS, etc.), Human Vehicle Interface(Driving Workload, etc.) and Economic Drive Model. Furthermore driving patten and fuel consumption patten of drivers were analyzed by measured data and direction of future research was suggested.
A Study on Analysis on an Automotive Fire Case that Broke Out due to an Electrical Cause during Engine Stopping
Lee, Euipyeong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.009
Although it is widely accepted that a fire can occur due to electrical causes even when an engine stops, there is little introduction of detailed case analysis. This study analyzed a fire case caused by an electrical cause during engine stopping at parking lot in detail. Moreover, it was revealed that the fire was mainly caused by design defect.
A Study of Optimal Braking Force Proportioning Magnitude for the Braking Stability of a 8×4 Vehicle
Kim, Kwanju ; Lee, Juhyoung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 17~22
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.017
Design of braking system is one of the most critical subjects in vehicle stability. In this paper, optimal scheme for brake force proportioning of all-wheel-drive vehicle is proposed to guarantee the vehicle dynamic stability under plausible drive circumstances. A brake force distribution of generic
vehicle is calculated according to proposed scheme and braking stability of this vehicle is verified by using a commercial vehicle software, Trucksim.
Study on Heat Transfer Characteristics by Heater Conditions of Hydrogen Sensor for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
Suh, Hocheol ; Park, Kyoungsuk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.023
In recent years, development of energy conversion systems using hydrogen as an energy source has been accelerated globally. Even though hydrogen is an environment-friendly energy source, safety and effectiveness issues in storage, transportation, and usage of hydrogen should be clearly resolved in every application. Therefore, sensors for detecting hydrogen leakage, especially for fuel cell electric vehicles, should be designed to have much higher resolution and accuracy in comparison with conventional gas sensors. In this study, we conducted to determine the design parameters for the semiconductor hydrogen sensor with optimized sensing conditions under the thermal distribution characteristic and thermal transfer characteristic. The heat generation study on power supply voltage was studied for correlation analysis of thermal energy according to the power supply voltage variation from 1.0 voltage to 10.0 voltage every 0.5 voltage. And we studied for the temperature coefficient of resistance with hydrogen sensor.
The Study on Precision Enhancement at Brake Pedal Analysis
Kim, Heejin ; Lee, Daewon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 30~35
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.030
The brake pedal is one of the most important parts for controlling the speed of the vehicle. Incorrect design of the brake pedal can place the driver in danger. CAE is being done for weight reduction to improve the safety of the driver and the vehicle performance and research is performed to improve the accuracy of analysis. The accuracy of the experimental and analysis values in regard to the stiffness of brake pedals, however, is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present appropriate analysis conditions based on the factors that influence the analysis in order to obtain accurate analysis results.
A Study on the Enhancement of the Cooling Structure for In-wheel Motor
Kim, Dae Geon ; Kim, Sung Chul ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 36~42
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.036
Recently, the automobile of the future will be able to substitute an electric vehicle for an internal combustion engine, so the following research is actively in the process of advancing. A traction motor is one of the core parts which compose the electric vehicle. Especially, it is difficult to connect cooling water piping to an in-wheel motor because the in-wheel motor is located within the wheel structure. This structure has disadvantage for closed type and air cooling, so the cooling design of motor housing and internal in-wheel motor is important. In this study, thermo-flow analysis of the in-wheel motor for vehicles was performed in consideration of ram air effect. In order to improve cooling efficiency of the motor, we variously changed geometries of housing and internal shape. As a result, we found that the cooling efficiency was most excellent, in case the cooling groove direction was same with air flow direction and arranged densely. Furthermore, we investigated the cooling performance enhancement with respect to variable geometries of internal in-wheel motor.
System Response of Automotive PEMFC with Dynamic Modeling under Load Change
Han, Jaeyoung ; Kim, Sungsoo ; Yu, Sangseok ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 43~50
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.043
The stringent emission regulation and future shortage of fossil fuel motivate the research of alternative powertrain. In this study, a system of proton exchange membrane fuel cell has been modeled to analyze the performance of the fuel cell system for automotive application. The model is composed of the fuel cell stack, air compressor, humidifier, and intercooler, and hydrogen supply which are implemented by using the Matlab/Simulink(R). Fuel cell stack model is empirical model but the water transport model is included so that the system performance can be predicted over various humidity conditions. On the other hand, the model of air compressor is composed of motor, static air compressor, and some manifolds so that the motor dynamics and manifold dynamics can be investigated. Since the model is concentrated on the strategic operation of compressor to reduce the power consumption, other balance of components (BOP) are modeled to be static components. Since the air compressor model is empirical model which is based on curve fitting of experiments, the stack model is validated with the commercial software and the experiments. The dynamics of air compressor is investigated over unit change of system load. The results shows that the power consumption of air compressor is about 12% to 25% of stack gross power and dynamic response should be reduced to optimize the system operation.
A Study on Image Processing Algorithms for Improving Lane Detectability at Night Based on Camera
Kim, Heungryong ; Lee, Seonbong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 51~60
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.051
In this paper, to control the existing headlamp control system using steering wheel angle more efficiently and more actively, image processing algorithm which improved the detection rate of lane at night based on camera was suggested. And to recognize road lane more clearly in the conditions of low illumination, new algorithms were developed in the aspects of improving brightness, extracting clear lane edge and using the characteristics of lane. Through this research, it turned out that lane detection ability by using the normalized stretching, angular mask and expected-area scan have good performance in the night compare to existing algorithms.
A Prediction of the Relation between the Disc Brake Temperature and the Hot Judder Critical Speed
Kim, Jaemin ; Lee, Mingyu ; Kim, Bumjin ; Cho, Chongdu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 61~67
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.061
In this paper, it was studied how the critical speed which could occur hot judder due to disk temperature. Through the dynamometer experiment, we measured the critical velocity and surface temperature when the hot judder occur on the disk break. Also with the critical velocity theory equation and the temperature change graph of factors which used in the equation, we was induced experiment equation including theory equation and experiment values. And it has compared with the method which approach as linea. From this, we predicted the change of critical speed which could occur hot judder due to disk temperature. In addition, critical speed graph has compared with actual driving speed and disc temperature at a vehicle test. Therefore it was estimate to possibility of arising hot judder.
AUTOSAR-ready Light Software Architecture for Automotive Embedded Control Systems
Lee, Kangseok ; Park, Inseok ; SunWoo, Myoungho ; Lee, Wootaik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 68~77
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.068
This paper presents AUTOSAR-ready light software architecture (AUTOSAR-Lite), which is a light weighted version of the AUTOSAR, for automotive embedded control systems. The proposed AUTOSAR-Lite reduces overhead problems caused by the excessive standard specifications of AUTOSAR. Concurrently, AUTOSAR-Lite keeps advantages of AUTOSAR such as a scalability, re-usability, reliability, and transferability. The fundamental design of AUTOSAR-Lite is originated from the AUTOSAR standard. AUTOSAR-Lite is composed of three layers such as an application software, runtime environment, and basic software layer. The application software layer adopts component-based design methodology as AUTOSAR. The runtime environment layer integrates interfaces between application and basic software layers. In case of the basic software layer, restrictions of the module configurations and interfaces of basic software are minimized. In order to validate the feasibility of AUTOSAR-Lite, a software design result based on AUTOSAR-Lite software architecture for electronic throttle control (ETC) system is suggested.
ABS Sliding Mode Control considering Optimum Road Friction Force of Tyre
Kim, Jungsik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 78~85
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.078
This paper presents the sliding mode control methods for anti-lock brake system (ABS) with the friction force observer. Using a simplified quarter car model, the sliding mode controller for ABS is designed to track the desired wheel slip ratio. Here, new method to find the desired wheel slip ratio which produces the maximum friction force between road and tire is suggested. The desired wheel slip ratio is varying according road and tire conditions to produce maximum friction force. In order to find optimum desired wheel slip ratio, the sliding mode observer for friction force is used. The proposed sliding mode controller with observer is evaluated in simulation, and the control design is shown to have high performance on roads with constant and varying adhesion coefficients.
Evaluation of Droplet Breakup Models and Application to the Diesel Engine Combustion Analysis
Park, Wonah ; Lee, Hyowon ; Min, Kyoungdoug ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 86~91
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.086
It is important to understand the fuel injection characteristics, particularly the atomization, penetration, and breakup, for reducing the emissions in Diesel engines because those characteristics are related to the formation of the emissions. 3-dimensional CFD code can provide a fundamental understanding of those characteristics. In this study, two different breakup models (the Reitz-Diwakar model and the Kelvin-Helmholts Rayleigh Taylor model) were validated with the experimental data in a constant volume vessel. Then, the effect of the breakup model on the characteristics of the engine combustion and emission was studied.
Comparison of the Fuel Economy of Series and Parallel Hybrid Bus System Using Dynamic Programming
Jeong, Jongryeol ; Lee, Daeheung ; Shin, Changwoo ; Jeong, Daebong ; Min, Kyoungdoug ; Cha, Suk Won ; Park, Yeong-Il ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 92~98
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.092
There are lots of studies about hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) because of the global warming and energy problems. Series and parallel HEVs are the common types of many developing hybrid vehicle types. Series HEV uses engine only as the generator for the battery but parallel HEV utilizes engine for driving and generating of the vehicle. In this paper, backward simulations based on dynamic programming were conducted for the fuel economy analysis of two different types of hybrid transit buses depending on driving cycles. It is shown that there is a relation between the type of HEV and the characteristics of driving cycles. Regarding the aggressiveness, the series hybrid bus is more efficient than the parallel system on highly aggressive driving cycle. On the other hand, the parallel hybrid bus is more efficient than the series system on low aggressive driving cycle. Based on this results of the paper, it is expected to choose more efficient type of the hybrid buses according to the driving cycle.
Study on the Optimum Design of High Pressure Common-rail DME Injector Nozzle with Consideration of Cavitation
Jeong, Soo-Jin ; Park, Jung-Kwon ; Lee, Sang-In ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 99~106
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.099
DME (Di-Methyl Ether) is synthetic product that is produced through dehydration of methanol or a direct synthesis from syngas. And it is able to save fossil fuel and reduce pollutants of emission such as PM and
. In spite of its advantages it is difficult to design DME fuelled engine system because DME fuel may cause to severely generate cavitation and corrosion in fuel delivery system due to physical properties of DME. Therefore, in this study three-dimensional internal flow characteristics with consideration of cavitation were predicted in the DME injector using diesel and DME fuel. Moving grid technique was employed to describe needle motion and 1-D hydraulic simulation of injector was also simulated to obtain transient needle motion profiles. The results of simulation show that cavitations was generated at the inlet of nozzle near high velocity region both diesel and DME. And mass flow rate of DME is reduced by 4.73% compared to that of diesel at maximum valve lift because cavitation region of DME is much more larger. To increase flow rate of DME injector, internal flow simulation has been conducted to investigate the nozzle hole inner R-cut effect. The flow rates of diesel and DME increase as R-cut increases, and flow coefficient of DME fuel injector was increased by 6.3% on average compared with diesel fuelled injector. Finally, optimum shape of DME injector nozzle is suggested through the comparison of flow coefficient with variation of nozzle hole inner R-cut.
A Real-world Accident Study on Vehicle Damage Types and Occupant Injury
Hong, Seungjun ; Park, Wonpil ; Ha, Sungyong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 107~112
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.107
Base on insurance vehicle collision and bodily injury claim reports, 23,655 cases of vehicle to vehicle accidents occurred in Korea 2010 are investigated in order to understand vehicle damage severities, repair costs and occupant injury types. The results of our statistical analysis reveal that minor damages with small dent or scratches on vehicle body panels which is assumed to imply during very low speed crashes are major portion of accident severities types. The most vulnerable body regions due to the real-world accident are neck. The 86.3% of total injured driver in minor rear damaged vehicles has reported neck pains and they are followed by whole bodies and head but with much lower occurrence rates.
Structural Optimization for Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Solenoid Actuator
Baek, Seokheum ; Kim, Hyunsu ; Jang, Deukyul ; Lee, Seungbeom ; Kwon, Youngseok ; Ro, Euidong ; Lee, Changhoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 113~120
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.113
This paper proposes a design optimization approach for core of solenoid actuators by combining optimization techniques with the finite element method (FEM). A solenoid is an important element part which hydraulically controls a transmission system, etc. The demanded feature of the solenoid is that it performs an electromagnetic force output being constant regardless of the stroke and being proportional to coil current. The plunger compresses a spring with a minimum force of 12 N over an 1.7 mm travel. The orthogonal array, analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques and response surface optimization, are employed to determine the main effects and their optimal design variables. The methodology is demonstrated as a optimization tool for the core design of a solenoid actuator.
Improvement of Vehicle Handling Performance due to Toe and Camber Angle Change of Rear Wheel by Using Double Knuckle
Sohn, Jeonghyun ; Park, Seongjun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 121~127
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.121
In this study, suspension geometry is controlled to improve vehicle handling performance. The toe and camber of the rear suspension is controlled independently by using a double knuckle structure designed to enhance the vehicle cornering stability. Camber and toe changes in the rear wheel during high speed turning maneuver are important factors that influence the vehicle stability. Toe in the rear outer wheel plays a dominant role in cornering. A control algorithm for the camber and the toe angle input is developed to carry out the control simulation of the vehicle such as single lane change, the steady state cornering, the double lane change and the step steering simulation. Effects of the camber and toe angle control are analyzed from the computer simulations. A double lane change simulation revealed that the suspension mechanism with variable camber angle and variable toe angle decreases the peak body slip angle and peak yaw rate, 50% and 10%, respectively.
The Study of Gateway Control Module Using SAE J1939 Protocol
Ko, Youngjin ; Kim, Doyeong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 128~136
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.128
This study presents the development of Gateway Control Module using SAE J1939 protocol for the commercial vehicles. Presently, the load rate of CAN bus is increased by the single network composition and addition of new ECUs for development of intelligent vehicles. Because the embedded system of the integrated network control function has the errors of the CAN bus caused by the increase of ECU, it is needed for development of commercial vehicles. Also, this study presents the development of smart functions that can diagnosis CAN bus errors, fault diagnosis of ECU and basic function that arbitrates CAN bus between ECUs of commercial vehicle. GCM was designed for 4channel separation about Gateway function as solution of load rate decrease and smart functions. HILS(Hardware in the loop simulation)system that can achieve simulation about CAN Messages of all systems on vehicle was applied to evaluate performance and verification of all functions and performance. The load rate on CAN bus was decreased at using functions what was delivery, block and process of GCM. Through this, it was enabled to organize systematic architecture for gateway.
Structural Strength Analysis of ATV Knuckle
Han, Moonsik ; Cho, Jaeung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 137~144
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.137
This study analyzes structural analysis with fatigue and natural frequency on ATV knuckle. The maximum equivalent stresses are happened at the end of knuckle in case of model 1, 2 and 3. As these stresses are below the allowable stress, these models can be stable structurally. The fatigue damage possibility at model 1 becomes more than model 2 and 3. Model 2 or 3 has more durability than model 1 at fatigue. As the resonances are happened at the frequency more than 2000 Hz in case of model 1, 2 and 3, there is no resonance possibilities at real driving. Prevention against damage and durability prediction on automotive chassis parts can be effectively improved by applying this study result on knuckle and improving structural strength.
Material Property Evaluation of High Temperature Creep on Pb-free Solder Alloy Joint to Reflow Time by Shear Punch-creep Test
Ham, Young Pil ; Heo, Woo Jin ; Yu, Hyo Sun ; Yang, Sung Mo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 145~153
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.1.145
In this study, shear punch-creep (SP-Creep) at Sn-4Ag/Cu pad the joint was tested by using environment-friendly Pb-free solder alloy Sn-4Ag of electronic components. Pb eutectic alloy (Sn-37Pb) joints limited to environmental issues with reflow time (10sec, 30sec, 100sec, 300sec) according to two types of solder alloy joints are compared and evaluated by creep strain rate, rupture time and IMC (Intermetallic Compound) behavior. As the results, reflow time increases with increasing thickness of IMC can be seen at overall 100sec later in case of two solder joints on the IMC thickness of Sn-4Ag solder joints thicker than Sn-37Pb solder joints. In addition, when considering creep evaluation factors, lead-free solder alloy Sn-4Ag has excellent creep resistance more than Pb eutectic alloy. For this reason, the two solder joints, such as in the IMC (Cu6Sn5) was formed. However, the creep resistance of Sn-4Ag solder joints was largely increased in the precipitation strengthening effect of dispersed Ag3Sn with interface more than Sn-37Pb solder joints.