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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 21, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
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Collision-induced Derailment Analysis of a Finite Element Model of Rolling Stock Applying Rolling Contacts for Wheel-rail Interaction
Lee, Junho ; Koo, Jeongseo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1~14
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.001
In this paper, a finite element analysis technique of rolling stock models for collision-induced derailments was suggested using rolling contacts for wheel-rail interaction. The collision-induced derailments of rolling stock can be categorized into two patterns of wheel-climb and wheel-lift according to the friction direction between wheel flange and rail. The wheel-climb derailment types are classified as Climb-up, Climb/roll-over and Roll-over-C types, and the wheel-lift derailment types as Slip-up, Slip/roll-over and Roll-over-L types. To verify the rolling contact simulations for wheel-rail interaction, dynamic simulations of a single wheelset using Recurdyn of Functionbay and Ls-Dyna of LSTC were performed and compared for the 6-typical derailments. The collision-induced derailment simulation of the finite element model of KHST (Korean High Speed Train) was conducted and verified using the theoretical predictions of a simplified wheel-set model proposed for each derailment type.
Material Arrangement Optimization for Automotive BIW considering a Large Number of Design Variables
Park, Dohyun ; Jin, Sungwan ; Lee, Gabseong ; Choi, Dong-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 15~23
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.015
Weight reduction of a automobile has been steadily tried in automotive industry to improve fuel efficiency, driving performance and the production profits. Since the weight of BIW takes up a large portion of the total weight of the automobile, reducing the weight of BIW greatly contributes to reducing the total weight of the vehicle. To reduce weight, vehicle manufacturers have tried to apply lightweight materials, such as aluminum and high-strength steel, to the components of BIW instead of conventional steel. In this research, material arrangement of an automotive BIW was optimized by formulating a design problem to minimize weight of the BIW while satisfying design requirements about bending and torsional stiffness and perform a metamodel-based design optimization strategy. As a result of the design optimization, weight of the BIW is reduced by 45.7% while satisfying all design requirements.
Automotive Engine Cooling Using a Phase Change Material
Kim, Ki Bum ; Moon, Byung Heun ; Choi, Kyung Wook ; Lee, Ki Hyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 24~29
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.024
An automotive cooling system is designed sufficiently large enough to endure the excessive heat load. In general driving condition, the cooling systems are too large to operate optimally. An experimental study was performed to evaluate a novel automotive cooling strategy using the latent heat of a phase change material (PCM). The strategy is expected to reduce the cooling system size up to around 35% and the engine warm-up time around 60%. The strategy will help improve fuel economy and emissions characteristics of vehicles as a result of reduced total body weight and shortened engine warm-up time by a smaller radiator, as well as more stable combustion mode due to constantly maintained coolant temperature.
Aerodynamic Performance Dependency on the Geometric Shape and Mounting Location of OSRVM
Han, Hyun Wook ; Park, Hyun Ho ; Kim, Moon Sang ; Ha, Jong Paek ; Kim, Yong Nyun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 30~42
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.030
This study investigates the effects of OSRVM mounting location and its configurations such as stalk height and housing height on the aerodynamic performance of the passenger car. In order to validate the flow solver, FLUENT which is very well known commercial code, the flow field around an Ahmed Body was analyzed numerically and compared with the experimental data. The predicted aerodynamic performance and flow patterns around a car show good agreements with the experimental data. Mounting location and stalk height should be designed while OSRVM is mounted on the car to evaluate the aerodynamic performance precisely. Housing height, however, may be designed independent of the car because the aerodynamic interference between housing height and car configuration is negligible.
An Investigation about Combustion and Emission Characteristics for Pilot Injection Timing on Partially Premixed Charge Combustion Ignition Engine Fueled with DME
Jeong, Jaehoon ; Lim, Ocktaeck ; Pyo, Youngduck ; Lee, Youngjae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 43~49
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.043
This work investigated the effects of engine speed and injection timing on combustion and emissions characteristics in a partially premixed charge compression ignition (pPCCI) engine fueled with DME. pPCCI engine especially has potential to achieve more homogeneous mixture in the cylinder, which results in lower NOx and smoke emission. In this study single cylinder engine was equipped with common rail and injection pressure is 700 bar. Total injected fuel mass is 64.5
per cycle. The amount of pilot injection of the entire injection 12.5% is tested. Results show that NOx emission is decreased while IMEP is increased as the retard of injection timing. Besides, NOx emissions are slightly rised as well as IMEP is increased with the increase of engine speed.
Deformation and Residual Stress Analysis of Automotive Frame Following as Welding Sequency Variation
Park, Tae Won ; Kim, Kee Joo ; Won, Si-Tae ; Han, Chang-Pyung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 50~57
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.050
The high temperature thermal attacks in welding can affect the residual stress of a frame for automotive assembly accompanying frame deformation. Also the residual stress can induce the negative effect on durability performance of the automobile. In order to analyze the frame deformation, the simplified test frame which had the similar shape (form) of the real automotive frame was fabricated. The contactless optical 3D scanner was used for the shape difference measurement of the frame between before and after the welding. The FE-model of the test frame was composed and the deformation and residual stress simulation were performed. The simulated results were compared with the measured results for the reference of the frame design following as the variation of welding sequency. The deformation shape of the frame by simulation was in good agreement with that by the experimental measurement. In addition, the optimized welding sequency with reduced deformation after welding could be achieved through these analyses.
A Study on Power Characteristic of Electric Motorcycle using ASM
Lee, Taehyung ; Kim, Byeongwoo ; Kim, Youngeun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 58~65
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.058
In this paper, we propose that a model based design for an electric motor cycle system using ASM (Automotive Simulation Models). Before prototyping a realistic electric motorcycle, a reliable simulation program is required to test the capacities of the power sources and optimize the parameters of an electric motorcycle. Because ASM is based on Simulink, we can design the drivetrain and powertrain of the vehicle model systems easily. To verify the electric motorcycle system analysis of design parameters such as max power, capacity, state of charge and slope angle is carried out by the simulation and experimental method. The predicted results by the development model were in good agreement with the experimentally obtained results. Therefore, the proposed electric motorcycle model can effectively reduce the expenses during the designing of an electric motorcycle system.
Occupant Neck Injury Assessment Caused by Backward Movement of a Preceding Vehicle at a Low Impact Velocity
Kim, Seongjin ; Jeon, Woojung ; Park, Woosik ; Seo, Youngil ; Son, Kwon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 66~73
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.066
This study assesses neck injury of occupants in a real traffic accident case that a preceding vehicle moved backward and impacted a parked vehicle at a low velocity. This case is different from a case of whiplash injury caused by rear impact on vehicle. The impact velocity was estimated from damages of the two vehicle bumpers and the displacement of the parked vehicle was also estimated from CCTV images. MADYMO simulation was performed based on the vehicle specifications and investigation report. The comparison of neck flexion moments with the corresponding injury criteria revealed that occupants of the parked vehicle might have hardly neck injury.
Fundamental Study on the Chemical Ignition Delay Time of Diesel Surrogate Components
Kim, Gyujin ; Lee, Sangyul ; Min, Kyoungdoug ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 74~81
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.074
Due to its accuracy and efficiency, reduced kinetic mechanism of diesel surrogate is widely used as fuel model when applying 3-D diesel engine simulation. But for the well-developed prediction of diesel surrogate reduced kinetic mechanism, it is important to know some meaningful factors which affect to ignition delay time. Meanwhile, ignition delay time consists of two parts. One is the chemical ignition delay time related with the chemical reaction, and the other is the physical ignition delay time which is affected by physical behavior of the fuel droplet. Especially for chemical ignition delay time, chemical properties of each fuel were studied for a long time, but researches on their mixtures have not been done widely. So it is necessary to understand the chemical characteristics of their mixtures for more precise and detailed modeling of surrogate diesel oil. And it shows same ignition trend of paraffin mixture with those of single component, and shorter ignition delay at low/high initial temperature when mixing paraffin and toluene.
PM Reduction Characteristics of Partial Metal DPF with Screen Mesh Filter Structure
Kim, Chunghui ; Kim, Hyunchul ; Lee, Geesoo ; Choi, Jeonghwang ; Chon, Munsoo ; Shin, Suk Shin ; Suh, Hyun Kyu ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 82~87
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.082
In this work, the 1L grade integrated metal DOC/DPF filter that can install in engine manifold position was developed to investigate the effect of platinum-coating amount of filter on the improvement of filter activation temperature and reduction of particulate matter (PM). This filter was installed in 2.9L CI engine which meets the EURO-4 emission regulation. Tests for PM reduction efficiency of filter were conducted under ND-13 mode with full-load test condition. It was revealed that the time to reach the activation temperature of metal filter (
) was shorter as the amount of platinum-coating increased. This short activation time can be helpful for the reduction of CO and HC emissions during cold start condition. At the same time, PM reduced as the coating amount increased. The reduction percentage of
were 96.7% (2.34 mg/kW`h), 95.1% (3.47 mg/kW`h), and 94.5% (3.69 mg/kW`h) compared to previous result (71.4 mg/kW`h), respectively.
Robust Air-to-fuel Ratio Control Algorithm of Passenger Car Diesel Engines Using Quantitative Feedback Theory
Park, Inseok ; Hong, Seungwoo ; Shin, Jaewook ; Sunwoo, Myoungho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 88~97
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.088
This paper presents a robust air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) control algorithm for managing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. In order to handle production tolerance, deterioration and parameter-varying characteristics of the EGR system, quantitative feedback theory (QFT) is applied for designing the robust AFR control algorithm. A plant model of EGR system is approximated by the first order transfer function plus time-delay (FOPTD) model. EGR valve position and AFR of exhaust gas are used as input/output variables of the plant model. Through engine experiments, parameter uncertainty of the plant model is identified in a fixed engine operating point. Requirement specifications of robust stability and reference tracking performance are defined and these are fulfilled by the following steps: during loop shaping process, a PID controller is designed by using a nominal loop transmission function represented on Nichols chart. Then, the frequency response of closed-loop transfer function is used for designing a prefilter. It is validated that the proposed QFT-based AFR control algorithm successfully satisfy the requirements through experiments of various engine operating points.
Study on Formability Enhancement of Electromagnetic Forming using Gurson Plasticity Material Model
Kim, Jeong ; Song, Woojin ; Kang, Beomsoo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 98~104
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.098
The effect of the tool-sheet interaction on formability enhancement in electromagnetic forming is investigated using FEM. A free bulging and a conical forming die with 0.7mm AL1050 sheet are used to evaluate damage evolution based on Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman plasticity material model. The impact between the tool and sheet results in complex stress states including compressive hydrostatic stresses, which leads to a suppression of void growth and restrain ascending void volume fraction of the sheet. Therefore, the damage suppression due to the tool-sheet interaction can be the main factor contributing to the increased formability in the electromagnetic forming process.
Comparative Analysis of Maximum Driving Range of Electric Vehicle and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle
Kim, Jeongmin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 105~112
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.105
In this paper, EV (Electric Vehicle) and ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) vehicle simulators are developed to compare maximum driving range of EV and ICE vehicle according to different driving patterns. And, simulations are performed for fourteen constant velocity cases (20, 30, 40,
, 150 km/h) and four different driving cycles. From the simulation results of constant velocity, it is found that the decreasing rate of maximum driving range for EV is larger than the one for ICE as both the vehicle velocity and the driving power increase. It is because the battery efficiency of EV decreases as both the velocity and the driving power increase, whereas the engine and transmission efficiencies of ICE vehicle increase. From the results of four driving cycle simulation, the maximum driving range of EV is shown to decrease by 50% if the average driving power of driving cycle increases from 10 to 20kW. It is because the battery efficiency decreases as the driving power increases. In contrast, the maximum driving range of ICE vehicle also increases as the average driving power of driving cycle increases. It is because the engine and transmission efficiencies also increase as the driving power increases.
Study on Structural Safety Analysis of Upper Arm
Cho, Jaeung ; Han, Moonsik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 113~125
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.113
This study analyzes upper arm as the part of suspension through the structural analyses of fatigue. Maximum displacement is shown at the knuckle joint connected with the bracket of automotive body. Among the cases of nonuniform fatigue loads, `SAE bracket history` with the severest change of load becomes most unstable but `Sample history` becomes most stable. Maximum life at `Sample history` or `SAE transmission` can be shown with 60 or 3.5 times more than `SAE bracket history` respectively. In case of `Sample history` with the average stress of
MPa and the amplitude stress 0 to
MPa, the possibility of maximum damage becomes 3%. This stress state can be shown with 5 or 6 times more than the damage possibility of `SAE Bracket history` or `SAE transmission`. This study result is applied with the design of upper arm and it can be useful at predicting prevention and durability against its damage.
A Study on Contaminants Analysis of Components in LPG Fuel System
Kim, Jae-Kon ; Yim, Eui Soon ; Jung, Choong-Sub ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 126~133
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.126
Recently, it was reported that complaints about problems being experienced with the performance of vehicles operating on autogas in Korea. The problem was being assumed due to contaminants in LPG and an oily material which was being deposited in vaporizer, injector in LPG fuel system. This study is focused on the analysis of contaminant of automobile parts on LPG fuel system. The sampling points of contaminants are injectors, fuel filters, vaporizer in automobile equipment and it was also investigated by GC-MS, ICP-AES, SIMDIS and EDS. According to results, it was presumed that this contaminants had been analyzed plasticizers with hydrocarbons with high boiling point, Fe from steel corrosion, greases from gas station.
Evaluation of Shear Strength for Pb-free Solder/Ni and Cu Plate Joints due to Reflow Time
Ha, Byeori ; Yu, Hyosun ; Yang, Sungmo ; Ro, Younsik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 134~141
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.134
Reflow soldering process is essential in electronic package. Reflow process for a long time results from the decrease of reliability because IMC is formed excessively. Solder alloys of Sn-37Pb and Sn-Ag with different kinds of Cu contents (0, 0.5 and 1 wt.%) as compared with Ni and Cu plate joints are investigated according to varying reflow time. The interfaces of solder joints are observed to analyze IMC (intermetallic compound) growth rate by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Shear test is also performed by using SP (Share-Punch) tester. The test results are compared with the solder joints of two different plates (Ni and Cu plate).
IMCs are formed on Cu plate interfaces after reflows in all samples. Ni3Sn4 and
IMCs are also formed on Ni plate interfaces. The IMC layer forms are affected by reflow time and contents of solder alloy. These results show that mechanical strength of solder joints strongly depends on thickness and shape of IMC.
Development of Tire Vertical Force Estimation Algorithm in Real-time using Tire Inner Surface Deformation
Lee, Jaehoon ; Kim, Jin-Oh ; Heo, Seung-Jin ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 142~147
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.142
Over the past few years, intelligent tire is developed very actively for more accurate measurement of real-time tire forces generated during vehicle driving situation. Information on the force of intelligent tire could be used very usefully to chassis control systems of a vehicle. Intelligent tire is based on deformation of tire`s inner surface from the waveform of a SAW, or Surface Acoustic Wave. The tire vertical force is estimated by using variance analysis of sensor signals. The estimated tire vertical force is compared with the tire vertical force generated during vehicle driving situation in real-time environment. The scope of this paper is a correlation study between the measured sensor signals and the tire vertical force generated during vehicle driving situation.
Durability Analysis on the Prototype of a Korean Light Tactical Vehicle
Suh, Kwonhee ; Yu, Myeongkwang ; Lim, Mintaek ; Jeong, Chanman ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 148~156
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.148
Since the demand for new military vehicle to fulfill the necessary conditions such as multi-purpose, high-mobility, and survivability has raised continuously from the army, the prototype of a Korean light tactical vehicle was developed to meet these requirements using our own technology. In particular, the new tactical vehicle was equipped with a double wishbone independent suspension to improve ride and handling and maximize off-road driving performance. In this paper, a comprehensive virtual durability process to evaluate the service life of the prototype is presented. A reliability of the trimmed body model based on CATIA data was verified by comparison result between mode analysis and modal test. The dynamic model was constructed using ADAMS/Car, and then the weight distribution and lateral slope driving performance of it were compared with the results of static weight and lateral slope tests. The validity of the VTL(Virtual Test Lab) was checked with test results from the 3-inch spaced impact road. The durability performances of trimmed body and suspension components were evaluated through MSM(Modal Superposition Method) fatigue analysis. It is shown that the virtual durability process could be a helpful tool to find out the weak areas and improve their structures in developing new military vehicle.
Analysis of Abnormal Vibration by a Damper Clutch Operation in Low Speed Ranges of A/T Vehicles
Shin, Changwoo ; Kim, Beomsoo ; Lee, Daeheung ; Jeong, Jongryeol ; Lim, Wonsik ; Cha, Sukwon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 157~164
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.157
A damper clutch in automatic transmission systems has some advantages of fuel economy and dynamic performance. Although a damper clutch operation improves a fuel economy of the vehicles, a positive operation of a damper clutch in a low vehicle speed induces abnormal vibration. This paper analyzed one of reasons for abnormal vibration by a damper clutch operation in low engine speed ranges. A simulation model was designed to confirm the effects of a damper clutch operation under unstable regions of an engine. A theoretical analysis was carried out about an engine operation stability. Simulation was conducted to depict abnormal vibration by a damper clutch operation in unstable regions of an engine performance curve. The effects of an engine operation region for abnormal vibration by a damper clutch was investigated according to the range and the slope of unstable regions. As a result of simulations, a damper clutch operation would be better to avoid an engine unstable regions.
Performance Loss & Heat Transfer Characteristics of Synchronous Motors under Various Driving Conditions
Choi, Moon Suk ; Um, Sukkee ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 21, issue 3, 2013, Pages 165~173
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2013.21.3.165
Core loss has a major effect on heat generation in synchronous motors with surface-mounted permanent magnets (SPMs). It is essential to perform heat transfer analysis considering core loss in SPM because core loss is seriously affected by torque and speed of motors. In the present study, mechanical loss, core loss and coil loss are evaluated by measuring input and output energies under various driving conditions. For a better understanding heat transfer paths in synchronous motors, we developed a lumped thermal system analysis model. Subsequently, heat transfer analysis has been performed based on acquired energy loss, temperature data and thermal resistance with three types of SPM. It is shown that the torque constants decrease by Max. 10% as speed increase. At the rated torque, the core loss is Max. 10.9 times greater than the coil loss and the hysteresis loss of magnets is dominant in total loss.