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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Nov 2014
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Sep 2014
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Jul 2014
Volume 22, Issue 4 - May 2014
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Apr 2014
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Feasibility Study of Using Wood Pyrolysis Oil in a Dual-injection Diesel Engine
Lee, Seokhwan ; Jang, Youngun ; Kim, Hoseung ; Kim, Taeyoung ; Kang, Kernyong ; Lim, Jonghan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.001
The vast stores of biomass available in the worldwide have the potential to displace significant amounts of petroleum fuels. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is one of several paths by which we can convert biomass to higher value products. The wood pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been regarded as an alternative fuel for petroleum fuels to be used in diesel engine. However, the use of WPO in a diesel engine requires modifications due to low energy density, high water contents, high acidity, high viscosity, and low cetane number of the WPO. One possible method by which the shortcomings may be circumvented is to co-fire WPO with other petroleum fuels. WPO has poor miscibility with light petroleum fuel oils; the most suitable candidates fuels for direct fuel mixing are methanol or ethanol. Early mixing with methanol or ethanol has the added benefit of significantly improving the storage and handling properties of the WPO. For separate injection co-firing, a WPO-ethanol blended fuel can be fired through diesel pilot injection in a dual-injection dieel engine. In this study, the performance and emission characteristics of a dual-injection diesel engine fuelled with diesel (pilot injection) and WPO-ethanol blend (main injection) were experimentally investigated. Results showed that although stable engine operation was possible with separate injection co-firing, the fuel conversion efficiency was slightly decreased due to high water contents of WPO compare to diesel combustion.
An Experimental Study on the Safety Performance of the Rear Safety Guard with Air Bag for Truck
Park, In-Song ; Yun, Kyung-Won ; Park, Kwang-Jong ; Kim, Hyo-Jun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 10~19
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.010
Despite the movement of safe traffic by the Korean government to reduce deaths in traffic accidents, the casualties increase year by year. In particular, more and more accidents and casualties are reported from car collisions from the back of the vehicles parked for managing traffic accidents on the road, cleaning main roads and medial strips, repairing roads. In order to response to these accidents, the government should take protective measures for road users. In the last decade, seventy-one cases have been reported to occur during highway repair and maintenance. As a result, eight persons were killed and seventy-six were injured, showing the high death rate of 11.3 percent. Therefore, it seems urgent to take some actions against it. The United States and European countries legislate that vehicles of road repair and maintenance should be mandatorily equipped with shock absorber at the back. Korea, however, does not have such legislative measures, which are needed at this time to protect workers on the road. This study compares the performance of the traditional shock absorber for road maintenance vehicles with that of the rear safety guard using air bag, manufactured in accordance with related laws in Korea. Based on the results of the 60km/h rear collision test, this paper proposes improvements in related laws and regulations in an attempt to reduce casualties.
STS Defect Structure Diagonis through the Infrared Thermography Mechanism and Flex-PDE Thermal Analysis
Park, Young Hoon ; Yang, Sung Mo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 20~29
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.020
This research aims to study the new paradigm of NDE measurement which allows the identification of defect locations and sizes of a certain structure by measuring its surface temperature after applying heat. STS which has a certain defect is applied by the heat of 70000W by a heater. Its difference of STS surface temperature is measured by using Infrared thermography. The estimated result of STS experiment and that of theoretical analysis of Flex-PDE are compared and analyzed to diagnose STS defect. Moreover, this study can save time and money and improve accuracy in contrast to the existing ultrasonic NDE experiment. In addition, the new paradigm of NDT/NDE by reverse-engineering will be valid if the data of thermal analysis and temperature distribution from the specifications of many materials is accumulated and verified.
Effects of Electrode Shape on Electrode Life of Resistance Spot Welding of Mg Alloy
Choi, Dongsoon ; Kang, Moonjin ; Ryu, Jaewook ; Kim, Dongcheol ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 30~35
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.030
According to weight lightning trend of automobile body, necessity of resistance spot welding (RSW) of Mg alloy on automobile industry is increasing rapidly because of the highest specific strength among commercial metals. Mg alloy has low electric resistance and high thermal conductivity like as Al alloy, so that needs applying high current in short time when welding. Thick oxide film of Mg alloy pollutes the electrodes and makes partial current carrying paths when on welding. Partial current carrying paths signify excessive concentration of current. There can initiate expulsion easily and reduces electrode life rapidly. Generating partial current carrying paths and expulsions are influenced by shapes of electrode. Therefore, electrode life also influenced by shape. In this study, we perform life test of RSW electrode of radius type. Measure tensile shear load and nugget size every spot alternately. As a result, radius type electrode can extend life over twice as dome type electrode.
Air System Modeling for State Estimation of a Diesel Engine with Consideration of Dynamic Characteristics
Lee, Joowon ; Park, Yeongseop ; Sunwoo, Myoungho ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 36~45
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.036
Model based control methods are widely used to improve the control performance of diesel engine air systems because the control results of the air system significantly affect the emission level and drivability. However, the model based control algorithm requires a lot of unmeasurable states which are hard to be measured in a mass production engine. In this study, an air system model of the diesel engine is proposed to estimate 11 unmeasurable states using only sensors equipped in a mass production engine. In order to improve the estimation performance in the transient condition, dynamic characteristics of the air system are analyzed and implemented as discrete filters. Turbine and compressor efficiency models are also proposed to overcome a limitation of the constant or look-up table based efficiency values. The proposed air system model was validated in steady state and transient conditions by real-time engine experiments. The maximum error of the estimation for 11 physical states was 11.7%.
Study on Design of Railway Hollow Axle
Son, Seungwan ; Jung, Hyunsung ; Choi, Sungkyou ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 46~54
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.046
The hollow design of a railway axle is one of the most effective methods to reduce the weight of an axle. However, the conventional hollow axle has the limitation of a lightweight design because it has the same bore diameter along the axial position. The new type of railway axle, the tapered inner surface railway axle, has a different inner diameter between the journal bearing seat and wheel seat. This design method is one way to increase the weight reduction possibility. The purpose of the present study is to establish and evaluate the design of the tapered inner surface railway axle. The case study and Finite Element Method(FEM) are applied to evaluate the strength of the lightweight railway axle according to the European Norm(EN 13103). Finally, the best design case for reducing the weight of the axle is drawn from the results of the case study.
A Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel-DME Blended Fuels Using Pilot Injection in DICI Engine
Jeong, Jaehoon ; Lim, Ocktaeck ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 55~64
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.055
This work was investigated on pilot injection strategy of blended fuels(Diesel-DME) for combustion and emissions in a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. Diesel and DME were blended by the method of weight ratio. Weight ratios for diesel and DME were 95:05 and 90:10 respectively. dSOI between main and pilot injection timing was varied. A total amount of injected fuels(single injection) was adjusted to obtain the fixed BMEP as 4.2 bar in order to compare with the fuel conditions. Also, the amount of pilot injection fuel was varied by 5%, 10% and 20% of total injection fuel. The engine was equipped with common rail and injection pressure is 700 bar at 1200 rpm. As a result, when mixing ratio increase, indicated thermal efficiency was increased in comparison with DD 100 and CO, THC and smoke were lower than DD 100. The influence of reducing NOx by pilot injection was more effective than DD 100. When pilot injection quantity increase, abrupt increase of NOx was occured at pilot injection quantity of 20%.
A Study to Improve PEMFC Performance by Using Electro Polishing and CrN Coating on Metal Bipolar Plate
Hwang, Sung Tack ; Cheon, Seung Ho ; Song, Jun Seok ; Yun, Young-Hoon ; Kim, Byeong Heon ; Zhang, Xia ; Kim, Dae-Ung ; Hyun, Deoksu ; Oh, Byeong Soo ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 65~71
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.065
As an important component of a fuel cell, the bipolar plate comprises a large proportion in the fuel cell`s volume, weight and price. The bipolar plate is the most widely used; however, graphite bipolar plate is large in volume, brittle and therefore easily broken during assembling. In addition, due to its poor machinability, production costs a lot, unless mass production. Compared with the graphite bipolar plate, the metal bipolar plate has good machinability, high electric conductivity and strong mechanical strength; however, it corrodes easily and has a high contact resistance, so in order to prevent corrosion and reduce the contact resistance, the basic metal needs to be processed by use of electro polishing and coating. The water which is produced by electrochemical reactions in the fuel cell must be discharged smoothly. In this study, in order to prevent corrosion the processes of electro polishing and CrN coating were used. According to the presence or absence of these processes, the contact angles can be measured and different metal bipolar plates can be made, these plates can be used for comparing and analyzing the performance of the fuel cell.
Optimal Vehicle Rear Suspension through Integration of Analysis and Design Process
Kim, Dowon ; Park, Dohyun ; Lee, Jinhwa ; Shin, Sangha ; Choi, Jin-Ho ; Choi, Byung-Lyul ; Choi, Dong-Hoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 72~81
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.072
In this study, we perform the optimization of trailing arm bush in a vehicle rear suspension to improve the ride and handling performance. A design problem was formulated considering 2 objective functions and 7 constraints related to vehicle ride and handling performance. PIAnO, one of the PIDO (Process Integration and Design Optimization) tool, was used to automate analysis procedures and perform a design optimization. In order to assess relation between performances and design variables, we perform the DOE (Design of Experiments). To find the optimal solution, we used Progressive quadratic response surface method (PQRSM), one of the design optimization techniques equipped in PIAnO. As an optimization result, we got an optimal solution and could improve lateral force steer off-center by 43.0% while decreasing brake compliance at wheel center by 8.1%.
Structural Strength Analysis on Recliner Case of Automotive Seat
Han, Moonsik ; Cho, Jaeung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 82~88
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.082
Recliner of automotive seat has the function to control the angle and has a close relation to the safety of seat. Therefore each of parts constituting recliner is important and recliner case to protect these parts from various dynamic loads is also important. As two kinds of recliner cases are designed and analyzed before manufacturing these products, this study result can be contributed to the strength durability.
Analysis of Diagnosis and Failsafe Algorithm Using Transmission Simulator
Jung, Gyuhong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 89~97
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.089
As the digital control technologies in automotive industry have advanced, electronic control units(ECUs) play a key-role to improve system performance. Transmission control unit(TCU) is a shifting controller for automatic transmission of which major functions are to determine the shift and manage the shifting process considering the various sensor signal on transmission and driver`s commands. As with any ECU in vehicle, TCU performs complex algorithms such as shift control, diagnostic and failsafe functions. However, firmware design analysis is hardly possible by the reverse engineering due to code protection. Transmission simulator is a hardware-in-the-loop simulator which enables TCU to work in normal mode by simulating the electrical signal of TCU interface. In this research, diagnosis and failsafe algorithm implemented on commercialized TCU is analyzed by using the transmission simulator that is developed for wheel loader construction vehicle. This paper gives various experimental results on the proportional solenoid current trajectories for different operating modes, error detection criterion and limphome mode gears for all the possible cases of clutch malfunction. The derived results for conventional TCU can be applied to the development of inherent TCU algorithms and the transmission simulator can also be utilized for the test of TCU to be developed.
A Study on the Combustion Characteristics with Control Strategy and Injector Position Changes in a Lean-burn LPG Direct Injection Engine
Park, Cheolwoong ; Park, Yunseo ; Lee, Yonggyu ; Oh, Seungmook ; Kim, Taeyoung ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 98~104
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.098
The technologies employing spray-guided type combustion system for ultra-lean combustion direct injection engine is focused as a promising technology for satisfying emission regulations and improving fuel economy. In the present study, control and design optimization of lean-burn LPG direct injection engine was carried out with control strategy and injection position changes. Inter-injection spark ignition strategy was applied and the effect of the strategy was assessed at relatively higher load operation condition than previous researches. In order to create richer mixture in the vicinity of spark plug electrode, relative distance between the dead-end of injector and the electrode of spark plug was changed.
The Prediction of Rubber Friction considering Road Characteristics
Nam, Seungkuk ; Oh, Yumrak ; Jeon, Seonghee ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 105~110
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.105
This paper presents the hysteresis friction of a sliding elastomer on various types of surfaces. The hysteresis friction is calculated by means of an analytical model which considers the energy spent by the local deformation of the rubber due to surface asperities. By establishing the fractal character of the surfaces, the contribution to rubber friction of roughness at different length scales is accounted for. High resolution surface profilometer is used in order to calculate the main three surface descriptors and the minimal length scale that can contribute to hysteresis friction. The results show that this friction prediction can be used in order to characterize in an elegant manner the surface morphology of various surfaces and to quantify the friction coefficient of sliding rubber as a function of surface roughness, load and speed.
A Study on Characteristics of an Integrated Urea-SCR Catalytic Filter System for Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NO
Emissions in ECU Common-rail Diesel Engines
Bae, Myung-Whan ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 111~120
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.111
The aim of this study is to develop an integrated urea-SCR catalytic filter system for reducing soot and
emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. In this study, the characteristics of exhaust emissions relative to reactive activation temperature under four kinds of engine loads are experimentally investigated by using a four-cycle, four-cylinder, direct injection type, water-cooled turbo intercooler ECU common-rail diesel engine with the integrated urea-SCR
catalytic filter system operating at three kinds of engine speeds. The urea-SCR reactor is used to reduce
emissions, and the catalytic filter system is used to reduce soot emissions. The reactive activation temperature is very important for reacting a reducing agent with exhaust emissions. The reactive activation temperatures in this experiment is applied to 523, 573 and 623 K. The fuel is sprayed by the pilot and main injections at the variable injection timing between BTDC
according to experimental conditions. It is found that the
conversion rate is the highest as 83.9% at the reactive activation temperature of 523 K in all experimental conditions of engine speed and load, and the soot emissions shown by the average reduction rate of approximately 93.3% are almost decreased below 0.6% in all experimental conditions regardless of reactive activation temperatures. Also, the THC and CO emissions by oxidation reaction of Mn, V and Ti are shown in the average reduction rates of 70.3% and 38% regardless of all experimental conditions.
Effect of Intake Flow Control Method on Part Load Performance in SI Engine(2) - EGR Characteristics and Comparison of Dilution Method
Kang, Min Gyun ; Ohm, Inyong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 121~130
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.121
This paper is the second investigation on the effects of intake flow control methods on the part load performance in a spark ignition engine. In the previous work, two control methods, port throttling and masking, were compared with respect to lean misfire limit, fuel consumption and emissions. In this work, the effects of these two methods on EGR characteristics were studied and simultaneously the differences between EGR and lean combustion as a dilution method were investigated. The results show that EGR limit is expanded up to 23% and 3 ~ 5% improvement in the fuel consumption are achieved around 8 ~ 13% rates by the flow controls comparing with 10% limit and 1.5% reduction around 3% rate of non-control case. The masking method is more effective on the limit expansion than throttling as like as lean misfire limit; however there is no substantial difference in fuel consumptions improvement regardless the control methods except high load condition. Also it is observed that there exist critical EGR rates around which the combustion performance and NOx formation change remarkably and these rates generally coincide with optimum rates for the fuel consumption. In addition, dilution with fresh air is much more advantageous than that of the exhaust gas from the view point of dilution limit and fuel consumption, while utilization of the exhaust gas is more effective on NOx reduction in spite of considerably small dilution compared with the use of fresh air. Finally, the improvement of fuel consumption by massive EGR is highly dependent on the EGR limit at which the engine runs stably, therefore the stratified combustion technique might be a best solution for this purpose.
A Roll-behavior Analysis of SUV in Turning Motion on a Slope
Bang, Jeonghoon ; Lee, Byunghoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 131~137
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.131
The SUV has a risk of rollover because of the highness of center of mass. In this paper the roll-behavior of a SUV in turning motion is analyzed. Dynamic model of the vehicle on the slope is developed and simulation is carried out using the software ADAMS/Car. The results show that the relational expression between the ground force acting on the tire and the roll motion is well established. It is also identified that the driving state of the vehicle becomes unstable at the lower or upper position of the slope.
Pattern Recognition Using 2D Laser Scanner Shaking
Kwon, Seongkyung ; Jo, Haejoon ; Yoon, Jinyoung ; Lee, Hoseung ; Lee, Jaechun ; Kwak, Sungwoo ; Choi, Haewoon ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 138~144
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.138
Now, Autonomous unmanned vehicle has become an issue in next generation technology. 2D Laser scanner as the distance measurement sensor is used. 2D Laser scanner detects the distance of 80m, measured angle is -5 to 185 degree. Laser scanner detects only the plane, but using motor swings. As a result, traffic signs detect and analyze patterns. Traffic signs when driving at low speed, shape of the detected pattern is very similar. By shaking the laser scanner, traffic signs and other obstacles became clear distinction.
Design and Application of Accelerated Run-in Test for ECU Quality Improvement
Cho, Hyogeun ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 145~151
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.145
Modern vehicle has a lot of ECU(Electronic Control Unit) products to control many parts such as engine, transmission, brake, body and so on. ECU quality is one of important factors related to vehicle quality and driver`s safety. Based on Bath-tub curve which presents failure rate during product lifetime, we designed and applied Accelerated Run-in Test into manufacturing line by simulating stress amount to ECU and developing the required software and efficient test equipment for mass production. This test makes ECU products stressed through electrical and thermal stresses under excessive driving condition, which induce potential initial failure of components in the ECU during production. The outcome until these days proved that Acceleration Run-in Test have reduced initial failure rates and increased quality of ECU products in the field outstandingly.
Analytical Study on Re-solidification Materials(Ammonium Carbonate Intermediates) for NOx Reduction of Exhaust Emissions in Diesel Engine with Solid SCR
Shin, Jong Kook ; Lee, Hoyeol ; Yoon, Cheon Seog ; Kim, Hongsuk ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 152~159
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.152
Urea solution as a reductant of SCR has been widely used to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engine. But it has lots of problems which are freezing at low temperature due to liquid state, deposition of solid formation in the exhaust, dosing device, and complex package such as mixers for uniform concentration of ammonia. In order to overcome these obstacle, ammonium carbonate which is one of solid ammonium materials to produce ammonia gas directly by sublimation process is considered. Simple reactor with visible widow was designed to predict equilibrium temperature and pressure of ammonium carbonate. To simulate real operation conditions under automobile environment, several cycles of heating and cooling condition were settled, two different re-solidification materials were extracted from the reactor and visible window. Analytical study is performed to characterize these unknown materials by XRD(X-Ray Diffraction), FT-IR(Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), and EA(Elemental Analyzer). From analytical results, re-solidification materials from heating and cooling cycles are very similar to original material of ammonium carbonate.
A Study on Friction Force Reduction of Moving Parts of Engine Generator for Range Extended Electric Vehicle
Rha, Wan Yong ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 22, issue 4, 2014, Pages 160~164
DOI : 10.7467/KSAE.2014.22.4.160
Recently, there has been an active study about friction force of moving parts for automotive. This study is development and evaluation of oil pockets for journal bearing and tappet valve for range extended electric vehicle. Specially, oil pockets are effect on friction force depend on pitch, size, depth. In this study, fine oil pocket was formed using by etched texturing on the journal bearing and tappet valve. And oil pocket analyzed by SEM and friction force test was carried out by tensile tester. Finally, in this study, it was suggested by round and plane part which journal besring and tappet valve.