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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 6 - Dec 1996
Volume 4, Issue 5 - Sep 1996
Volume 4, Issue 4 - Aug 1996
Volume 4, Issue 3 - May 1996
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Mar 1996
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jan 1996
Selecting the target year
A study of the Property Changes of Oil Used in Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 1~15
This study is concerned with the property changes(chemical and mechanical) of the used oil in diesel engine, which were sampled from a test engine with dynamometer and various cars. The properties of oil are TAN, viscosity, oxidation, ZDTP depletion factor and etc. Also the relation between the change of chemical and antiwear property of used oil was strongly related to ZDTP depletion factor as wall as the change of TAN(total acid number), sulfation and pentan unsoluble contents which were reated to the formation of protect film in sliding area. The oil used in pick-up(small) truck engine was deteriorated within the shortest distance than that of other cars. The antiwear property of used oil was decreased sharply as the running distance were over 5,000km. The oil used to mini bus was the least to deteriorate of properities for the funning distance.
Suspension Parameter Design Using a Desingn of Experiments
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 16~27
Using computer in design is a trend in recent years. A good suspension model is depend on the carefully prepared data like joint connection points or spring stiffness, etc. Once a good computer model is obtained, a parametric study for spciffic suspension design factor, like a toe angle, can be done to obtain sensitivity information. Using this information, several important design parameters for a specific design factor can be identified. Once a design of experiments is done using computer models, the results can be used to approximate a function which can best represent the experimentation. An optimum solution of this function can be used to find an optimum design of a suspension system for a specific suspension design factor. Same method is again applied to other design factors iteratively until a good suspension system design is obtained.
Effect of Ignition-Energy Characteristics on the Ignition and the Combustion of a Premixed Gas
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 28~35
In this paper, we study effect of the factors, participating in the combustion as the initial conditions, such as the flow characteristics of the mixture and the initial temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio in the chamber on the ignitability of the mixture, the combustion duration and the maximum combustion-pressure. The experiment was performed in a constant-volume combustion chamber, with turbulent flow inside, equivalent to the actual engine at TDC. The present experiment utilizes three devices which differ from each other in the distribution and the magnitude of discharge energy.
An Investigation of the Mount Design of Engine Power System in Vehicles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 36~54
This paper presents a design procedure of engine power system for vehicle. The implementation and operation environment of engine plant is somewhat diversed through the various kind of vehicles. Regarding this point, we adopt a multi-purposed design objective function which can be easily modified to reflect diverse mount design rules which have been recommended and used generally by relating fields. To search the mount parameters which provide the optimal performance, a direct search method based on an orthogonal array is developed and applied. Through several simulated results, the effectiveness of the developed disign tool is investigated and discussed.
Contact Singular Stress with Relief Notch by Using Dynamic Photoelasticity
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 55~62
The dynamic photoelastic technique has been utilized to investigate the possibility of relieving the large local singular stresses which are induce in the corner of a right angled indenter. The indenter compresses a semi-infinite body dynamically with an impact load applied on the top of the indenter. The effect of geometric changes to the indenter in terms of the diameter (d) and the location (ℓ) of the notch on the relieving of the dynamic contact stresses are investigated. A multi-spark-high speed camera with twelve sparks was used to take dynamic photographs. The contact singular stresses were found to be released by introducing the relief notch along the indenter. The optimal location and geometry of the relief notch need further experimental investigation.
Dynamic Performance Estimation and Optimization for the Power Transmission of a Heavy Duty Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 63~74
Automatic transmission for heavy duty vehicles is a part of the power pack which includes steering and braking systems. This transmission in different from the one for passenger car. Therefore, in order to understand the trend of the important design parameters, maneuverability, acceleration performance and maximum speed, we need to analyze the total performance characteristics of the power transmission systems. In this study, modeling of the automatic transmission in heavy duty vehicle is carried out and the performance analysis method is presented. Results can be used for performance estimation data in the analysis for several combination method which determines the optimal parameters on the basis of penalty functions and weightings. And the estimation method of the important performance parameters such as engine inertia or power loss of engine by experiments is presented.
Development of Pressure Transducer and Measurement of Inter-Ring Gas Pressure in Internal Combustion Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 75~85
The gas pressure acting on the rings in internal combustion engine influences the friction, wear and HC emission. In order to understand their characteristics, it is necessary to measure the interring gas pressure during engine operations. In this study, miniature type pressure transducer was developed to measure inter-ring gas pressure. And measurements of cylinder and inter-ring gas pressure were made on a gasoline engine running at full and part load conditions. Finally the characteristics of inter-ring gas pressure variation during engine operation were obtained form analysis of measured date.
A study on the Pollution Emissions of the Ultrasonic Fuel Feeding System in Gasoline Injection Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 86~95
This study was on the pollution emissions of the Ultrasonic fuel feeding system in gasoline injection vehicle. This work measured th SMD of the fuel, and compared the characteristics through chassis dynamometer and highway road test by the conventional vehicle. And this work measured vacuum degree, turbulence intensity and the rate of fuel consumption according to intake air velocity with swirler. The results are as followed; The effects of the vehicle installed the ultrasonic fuel feeding system are better than those of the conventional vehicle.
A New Airbag Modeling Using a Sphere and a Torus and the Occupant Analysis in the Out-of-position
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 96~109
The airbag system is known to be extremely efficient for the protection in an automobile crash. The performance of the airbag system is evaluated by real tests. However, the test is very difficult and expensive. Therefore, the computational simulations are carried out with low cost. The airbag analysis is included in the anlysis of the full-car crashworthiness. The behavior of the airbag can be predicted by a thermodynamic analysis. The contact force between the occupant and the airbag is calculated from the contact volume and the pressure in the airbag. The injury rate is evaluated from the contact force and the acceleration of dummies. So far, the contact is defined after the airgag is fully inflated. In many cases, the occupant is seated in the out-of-position and the contact can happen during the inflation process. A new algorithm has been developed for the out-of-position. To describe the inflation process precisely, the airbag is defined by a sphere and a torus. The injury is evaluated for the contact happened at any time. The developed algorithm is coded and interfaced with an existing software in the public domain. The full-car modeling is adopted from the previous study which is tuned for the regular position and real tests. Numerical experimentation have been carried out with a couple of dummies in the out-of-position and the injury processes are analyzed.
A Study on Dynamic Simulation and Cam Profile Optimization for OHV Type Valve Trains
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 110~122
The objective of this study is to understand the dynamic characterictics of OHV type valve trains and to design and optimal cam profile which will improve engine performance. A numerical model for valve train dynamics is presented, which aims at both accuracy and computational efficiency. The lumped mass model and distributed parameter model were used to describe the valve train dynamics. Nonlinear characterictics in the valve spring behavior were included in the model. Comprehensive experiments were carried out concerning the valve train dynamics, and the model was tuned based on the test results. The dynamic model was used in designing an optimal cam profile. Because the objective function has many local minima, a conventional local optimizer cannot be used to find an optimal solution. A modified adaptive random search method is successfully employed to solve the problem. Cam lobe area could be increased up to 7.3% without any penalties in kinematic and dynamic behaviors of the valve train.
A Study on the Characteristics of Wire-Cut Electric Discharge Machining of Alloyed Tool Steel and Tungsten Carbide
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 123~133
From the experimental study of wire-cut Electric Discharge Machining of alloyed tool steel and tungsten carbide, the characteristics such as cutting speed, surface roughness has been observed and evaluated for various conditions. Cutting speed is improved as peak discharge current and wire tension become increased, and gap voltage and spark cycle decreased. Surface roughness can be better when peak discharge current and gap voltage become smaller, or spark cycle and wire tension become larger. Secondary cut is recommended to obtain high precision and good quality.
Effect of the Underbody Shape of Road Vehicles on Drag and Lift
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 134~146
Numerical and experimental studies are performed to investigate the effect of the underbody shape of the simplified road vehicle on drag and life. Four different vehicle models with front and rear slanted variations at the lower surface are used in this study. Cases with a slanted underbody surface at front have smaller drag than those without a slanted surface. Also, cases with a slanted underbody surface at rear have smaller lift than those without a slanted surface. Pressure distributions along the model surfaces and velocity fields at the wake region are examined in detail. In general, numerical solutions are in agreement with experimental results.
An One-zone Heat Release Analysis of a 6 Cylinder Compression-Ignition Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 147~154
An one-zone heat release analysis was studied for a 6 cylinder direct injetction compressionignition engine. The heat transfer constants in this anlysis were calibrated to match the measured fuel energy at 1,000 rpm full load, which was the fuel mass multiplied by the fuel's heating value. The integrated gross heat release values were close to the measured fuel energy at various full load operating conditions. The combustion inefficiency from this calculation was proportional to the smoke of exhaust gas.
Modeling the Dual-Fuel Combustion of Natural Gas and Pilot Distillate Injected Directly into a Diesel Combustion Bomb
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 155~164
Dual-fuel engines are being researched with emphasis on the possible types of natural gas supply systems. Hence, a three-dimensional combustion model by using finite volume method was developed to provide a fundamental understanding of the auto-ignition of pilot distillate and subsequent burning of natural gas, when the natural gas as well as the distillate was directly injected into a quiescent diesel engine like combustion bomb tests and the numerical results were investigated for the mixed combustion phenomena. With high-pressure natural gas injection, it was found that the gaseous fuel injection characteristics had to be well harmonised with that of the pilot distillate. For better combustion efficiency, however, further researches are required for the optimisation of injection system in the existence of air motion.
Effects of Injection Pressure and Injection Angle on Spray Characteristics in Loop Scavenged Type 2-stroke Engines
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 165~176
The flow field and spray characteristics for loop scavenged type 2stroke engine having pancake shape was numerically computed using KIVA-Ⅱ code. The cylinder has 1intake port, 2side intake ports and 1exhaust port with induced flow angle 25 deg. In engine calculation, the chop techniques is used to strip or add planes of cells across the mesh adjacent to the TDC and the BDC(ports parts) for preventing the demand of exceed time during the computation, providing a control on cell height in the squish region. The modified turbulent model including the consideration of the compressibility effect due to the compression and expansion of piston was also used. The case of 25 deg.(injection angle) which is opposite to scavenging flow direction shows better the distribution of droplets and the evaporation rate of droplets compared to other cases(0 deg., - 25 deg.). When injection pressure was increased, the spray tip penetration became longer. When injection pressure was increased, the interaction between the upward gas velocity and spray droplets strongly cause. Thus the breakup of droplets is strongly occurred and the evaporation rate of droplets was found to be better.
Tomographic Reconstruction of Asymmertic Liquid Spray from Multi-angular Scanning
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 177~186
A convolution alogorithm combined with Fourier transformation is applied to the tomographic reconstruction of the asymmetric spray structure to identify the local drop size and volume concentration. The line of sight intergrated data from Malvern particle analyzer with multiangular scanning form a basic information for the deconvolution. Linear interpolation is tested to obtain the effect of increasing number of scanning angles. This transformation method predicts well the structure of asymmetric spray. The tehnique can be extended to other line of sight combustion diagnostics.
The study on the Two-Phase Swirl Flow Characteristics in Cylindrical Pipe
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 187~197
Many investigations have been made to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for single phase flow in tape generated swirl flow. But few studies have been carried out to investigate the heat transfer in two component, two phase swirl flow with non-boiling. An experimental study has been conducted to determine the effects of tape twist ratios on two phase convective heat transfer coefficients, pressure drop, and void fraction distribution in a non-boiling, air-water, two phase flow. The flow conditions were both swirl and non swirl flows. The internal diameter of the test section is 42.5mm. The tape twist ratios of pitch to diameter ratio varied from 4.0 to 10.6. The heating conditions were isothermal and nonisothermal. The flow patterns identified with experiments were bubbly, bubbly-slug, slug, and slug-annular flow in up-flow. This study has concluded that no significant difference in void fraction distribution were observed both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, the pressure drop for two phase flow with twisted tape swirler increase as the tape twist ratio decrease, and that values of two phase heat transfer coefficient increase when the tape twist ratio decreases.
The Effect of Temperature, Frequency and Microstructure on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Ti-6A1-4V Alloy
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 198~207
The effect of temperature, frequency and microstructure on fatigue crack propagation property of Ti-6A1-4V alloy has been investigated. The temperatures employed were room temperature, 20
. The frequencies were 20Hz and 8 Hz. The microstructures tested were equiaxed and bimodal microstructures. Mechanical properties and fatigue crack growth rates were measured in different test conditions. From the experimental results, following conclusions were obtained. Bimodal microstructure showed superior fatigue crack growth resistance to equiaxed microstructure. Under all test conditions, fatigue crack growth rate increased with test temperature. Wine the frequency decreasing from 20Hz to 8Hz, fatigue crack growth rate increased.
Characteristics of Heat Flux in Intake and Exhaust Valve of Methanol Fueled Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 208~217
Instantaneous surface temperature and unsteady heat flux of intake and exhaust valve in methanol fueled engine were investigate as a function of compression ratio and engine speed. To accomplish this purpose, the instantaneous temperature sensor was designed and it was installed into three point of intake and exhaust valve head to measure unsteady temperature. The unsteady heat flux at valves was evaluated using one dimensional heat conduction equation with the valve head temperature and temperature gradient. And also mean heat flux of intake and exhaust valve for each stroke were evaluated as a function of engine speed.
A Study on the Flow Characteristics of the Mixture in an Intake Manifold
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 218~228
The behaviors of the mixture at the downstream of throttle valve in a TBI type gasoline engine plays a greater role in design of intake system. A good mixture has been influencing directly not only on the engine power but also on the pollutant emission. The mixture flow in an intake manifold is very complex, and the flow characteristics are varied with the valve type, valve angle, inlet air flow rate, and the other flow factors. Three kinds of valve are chosen in this study, and the informations of the mixture flow are observed experimentally using a PIV apparatus. Perforate valve has a smaller recirculation zone than the case of solid valve with a lower valve loss coefficient, and iti is verified that the perforated valve is also suitable to control the flow rate in a mixture flow system.
A Study on the Control of a Constant Pressure Fuel Injection System Using Solenoid
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 4, issue 1, 1996, Pages 229~237
For the practical use of a fuel injection system using solenoid, some mechanical and electrical problems should be explicitly analyzed. In our study, we have investigated these problems experimentally and have improved such that a solenoid driving circuit is liable to establish a fast reponse and a precise control of injection quantity. This proposed fuel injecton system is capable to control equivalence ratio from low level to high level. Therefore, we expect that this proposed system should be applicable to an actual engine.