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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 6 - Nov 1997
Volume 5, Issue 5 - Sep 1997
Volume 5, Issue 4 - Jul 1997
Volume 5, Issue 3 - May 1997
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Mar 1997
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Jan 1997
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Dynamic Simulation using the Driver Model to Evaluate the Handling Performances
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 1~8
The purpose of this study is to suggest the methods to model driver input and evaluate the handling performances of a vehicle by dynamic simulation using ADAMS (Automated Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems) software. The driver input was modeled using the PID controller to follow the desired velocities and paths. The gains of the controller were decided by the trial and error methods aided by Ziegler-Nichols rule. It was successful to apply the rule for the vehicle model to follow the desired values of steady state cornering and lane change maneuver. As the results, handling performances of baseline and two variegated vehicles were evaluated. The theoretical provement was performed to explain the differences.
Analysis of Dynamics Characteristics for Friction Elements in Automatic Transmission
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 9~19
In this paper, the modeling and analysis of dynamic characteristics has been carried out for friction clutches and brakes in an automatic transmission. From the operating oil pressure generated by the valve-body, time delay by check valve and the movement of piston has been examined. Also torque capacity and torque transferred at the clutch is studied. Heat capacity and temperature distribution at the reaction plate of clutch are codeled by time-dependent, nonhomogeneous partial differential equation, and brake torque, brake time, and the amount of heat generated are investigated. It is found that the time delay at the check valve is very short but dominant at the spool.
Implementation of Roll Control System for Passenger Car
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 20~26
A System for reducing vehicle body roll by active control is developed. The stabilizer bar with hydraulic rotary actuator produces anti-roll moment which suppresses roll tendency. This reduction of roll improves the driving safety as well as the ride comfort. Vehicle test data shows considerable reduction of roll angle during steady-state turning. Also improvement of ride comfort is achieved by making the actuator freely rotatable, i.e. by connecting all chambers of actuator in normal driving conditions. A control algorithm using steering wheel angle and vehicle speed signal as input valve is applied. It is compared with signal of the G-sensor.
Development of a Procedure to Calculate Principal Internal Forces for the Strength Design of a Forklift Truck Brake System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 27~36
For the strength design of the brake system of a forklift truck, a procedure to calculate the internal forces acting on the system is presented in this paper. Vehicle dynamics, brake system kinematics, and internal force equilibrium analysis are integrated into the procedure. Design parameters such as stopping distance, maximum decceleration, and maximum torque generated by pedal force are considered in the vehicle dynamics, and geometric parameters of the brake system are considered in the brake system kinematics. With the two analysis results obtained, the internal forces acting in the brake system are finally calculated in the procedure.
A Study on the Idle Speed Control under Load Disturbance
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 37~50
The objective of this paper is to study on the idle speed control using the fuzzy logic controller under load disturbance. The design procedure for fuzzy logic controller depends on the expert's knowledge or trial and error. The inputs of the fuzzy controller are error of rpm and variation of rpm. The output of the fuzzy controller is an ISC motor step and ignition timing. The airflow is controlled by the ISC motor movement and the idle speed is controlled by the airflow control and ignition timing control. During the control, air to fuel was checked by LAMBDA sensor. All experiments were performed in a real vehicle.
Intake Valve Temperature Effect on the Mixture Preparation in a SI Engine During Warm-up
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 51~66
A heat transfer model of the intake valve in a spark ignition engine is presented, which is calibrated with a number of the valve temperature profiles measured during engine warm-up for the gaseous fuel(propane). The valve is divided into four identical elements for which the assumption of lumped thermal mass is applied. The calibration is made so that the difference between the measued and simulated valve temperatures becomes minimal. Then the model is applied to the cases of the liquid fuel(indolene) to estimate the amount of the liquid fuel vaporized from the intake valve by assuming that fuel evaporation accounts for the deficit of the heat balance budget. The results of the model show quantitative contribution of each heat transfer source to the heat balance. The behavior of the calculated mass fraction of the fuel vaporized from the intake valve explains how the liquid fuel evaporate during engine warm-up. The mass fraction at warmed-up condition is closely related with the fraction directly targeted on the valve back by the fuel spray geometry.
Effects of the Amount of Natural Gas in Fuel Blends on the Exhaust Gas of the Diesel Engines
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 67~72
The purpose of this study os to investigate how the natural gas in fuel blend influences the polutant emission of diesel engine. Four stroke cycle single cylinder engine is used for this experiment and four kind of fuel blends were made. Fuel blends show four different torque ratios between diesel oil and natural gas, which are 4 : 0. 3 : 1, 2 : 2 and 1 : 3. The constituents of exhaust gases of engine are analyzed for every fuel blend. The experimental results say that the mixing of natural gas into diesel fuel is an very effective way to reduce the amount of soot in the exhaust gas.
Dynamically-Correct Automatic Transmission Modeling
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 73~85
An automatic transmission is an important element of automotive power systems that allows a driving convenience. Compared to a manual transmission, however, it has a few problems in efficiency, shift feel, and maintenance. To improve these, it is imperative to understand the dynamics of automatic transmissions. This paper develops a dynamically-correct model of an automatic transmission, using the bond graph method. The bond graph method is ideally suited for modeling power systems, because the method is based on generalized power variables. The bond graph method is capable of providing correct dynamic constraints and kinematic constraints, as well as the governing differential equations of motion. The bond graph method is applied to 1-4 in-gear ranges, as well as various upshifts and downshifts of an automatic transmission, which allows an accurate simulation of an automatic transmission. Conventional automatic transmission models have no dynamic constraint, which do not allow correct simulation studies.
Study on Engine-CVT Consolidated Control(I) -Development of Consolidated Control Algorithm
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 86~96
In this paper, engine-CVT consolidated control algorithm was developed. Engine -CVT control strategy suggested uses throttle control based on power difference and CVT ratio control based in CVT ratio map. Simulation results showed that the larger the rate of CVT ratio, the better the engine performance in the optimal operation line. Also, it was found that the engine performance where the magnitude of the acceleration changes abruptly depends on the magnitude of the rate of CVT ratio. Comparing the results of CVT control only without engine control, the engine-CVT control algorithm suggested in this work showed better performance demonstrating that the consolidated control algorithm should be required for the engine optimal operation.
Effects of Injection Timing on the Lean Misfire Limit in a SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 97~103
Effects of fuel injection timing on the lean misfire limit of a sequential MPI SI engine has been investigated. To investigate the interaction of injection timing and intake flow characteristics, so called axial stratification phenomena, 4 kinds of different intake swirl port of the same combustion chamber geometry have been teated in a single cylinder engine test bench. And 2 kinds of fuel, gasoline and compressed natural gas(CNG), were used to see the effect of liquid fuel vaporization. Result shows that combination of port swirl and injection timing governs the lean misfire limit and lean misfire limit envelopes remain almost the same for a given ratio regardless of engine speed. It is also found that two phase flow has some effects on lean misfire limit.
A Study on the Optimum Design of Intake System for 4 Cylinder Diesel Engines
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 104~113
In this paper, the effects of intake manifold systems on volumetric efficiency were investigated in the 4-cylinder 4-stroke cycle diesel engines. The effects of intake manifold system were analyzed on resonant speed and on volumetric efficiency. Resonant speed was calculated by acoustic theory and volumetric efficiency by the method of characteristics. The calculation results agreed well with rest results. It was assured that between the resonant speed and the volumetric efficiency there exists good correlation in multi-cylinder engines. As the results, the prediction of resonant speed was useful to design the optimum intake system. It was assured that the intake manifold systems for BOX-type and RAM-type have different characteristics on the trend of volumetric efficiency. Also a procedure to design the desirable intake manifold system was proposed.
A Study on the Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Gasoline Direct Injector
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 114~122
Nowadays, gasoline direct injection engines are being commercialized by virtue of improvement in control technology of spray, flow, air fuel ratio. The stratified charge type has the advantage of improving lean limit. The homogeneous type has the advantage of reducing engine-out hydrocabon emissions in the first 30 seconds after a cold start, in addition, improving transient air fuel ratio control. The vaporization and mixing if injected fuel with air has to e completed in a short time and the fuel film in cylinder and on piston has to be minimized. So, the flow and injection should be well controlled. This paper surveyed the spray characteristics of gasoline direct injection by using laser equipment and the combustion characteristics of the single cylinder engine using homogeneousas-mixture type gasoline direct injection.
Analysis of Driver's Field of View using a Shadow Algorithm
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 123~131
To ensure drive's field of view, obstruction area generated by a steering wheel, hub and spoke must be considered at the early stage of automobile design. The current approach to computing obstruction area proposed by SAE is based on 2D drafting procedures so that it is not precise and errorprone. In the paper we discuss the novel approach which models the obstruction area as the shadows of the steering wheel, hub and spoke by assuming the human eye as light sources. The approach is based on ray tracing and space transformations for that it can be applied when free form curves are hired to represent the steering wheel, hub and spoke in CAD environment. As a result, it gives more predise and reliable results than SAE approach.
A Development of the Modular Experimental Vehicle with Variable Suspension Systems
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 132~139
It is difficult for most of passenger cars to attach various types of suspensions. The modular experimental vehicle, which is designed to exchange suspension systems, has been developed to evaluate the effect of design changes of a suspension upon ride and handling characteristics of a vehicle. In order to enable the assemblage between modules, the experimental vehicle design is based on a space frame construction through finite element analysis. Moreover, module frames and brackets are designed using three-dimensional solid modeler to check the interference between each part of a vehicle. Steady-state and transient road tests were performed. Multibody dynamic model and simplified linear vehicle model are made to compare with the tests. The results of simulations and tests show the performance and validity of this experimental vehicle.
Effects of Ar/He Dilution on Combustion Characteristics in DI Diesel Engine using Turbocharging and EGR
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 140~156
The combustion characteristics of DI Diesel engine using turbocharging and EGR are numerically studied. Computations are carried out for the wide range of trubochyarged pressures, EGR ratios, and Ar/He dilution. Numerical results indicate that the Ar/He dilution in the intake gas significantly influence the engine performance, the spray combustion process, and the pollutant formation.
A Study on the Effects of Intake Port Eccentricity on the In-cylinder Swirl Ratio Characteristics in a 4 Valve Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 157~169
The effects of intake port eccentricity on the characteristics of in-cylinder swirl ratio in a 4-valve diesel engine having the two intake ports; one is a helical intake port and the other is a tangential intake port were investigated by using the ISM(impulse swirl meter) in steady flow test rig. Swirl ratio(
) and mean flow coefficient(
) with valve eccentricity ratio(
) and axial distance(Z/B) were measured. As the results from this experiment, the characteristics of in-cylinder swirl ratio formed by a 4-valve cylinder head were largely affected by intake port eccentricity. There is a difference in the mass flowrate through the two intake ports, and the mass flowrate through the tangential intake port is 19% more than that of the helical intake port. Therefore, we could know that the effects of the mass flowrate ratio through each intake port besides intake port shape should be conidered.
A Study on Side Impact Simulation Technique using Simple Beam Model
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 170~177
In this study, an analysis technique using simple beam model for predicting structure crashworthiness of the passenger car side impacted with an angle by another passenger car was investigated. The simple model was composed of major beam-like side structure which carry almost all side impact load. A procedure of component collapse test, calculation of load carrying capability and dynamic simulation was carryed out sequentially. Transient dynamic algorithms and a computer program to simulate deformations and motions of the impacted car was developed. The developed procedure was applied to a 3 door passenger car side impacted with an angle of 75 degree and the analysis results show good agreements with the actual test results.
An Experimental Study on the Measurement of Instantaneous Surface Temperature and Heat Flux on the Cylinder Head Surface of DI Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 178~187
For the experimental measurement of heat flux of DI diesel engine combustion chamber, the instantaneous temperature probes and data acquisition system were developed. By the analysis of measured temperatures at the cylinder head, the temperature at the point 3 which is located between intake and exhaust valve was higher than that of the other points. Temperatures at the point located mear the exhaust valve were higher than those of intake valve. The instantaneous and mean temperature at the cylinder head increases proportionally to the increase of the engine speed, while the temperature swing varies inversely. Temperature swings have influence on the maximum heat flux values from gas into head surface. It has been verified that these probes and data acquisition system perform well by the comparison of the trend of instantaneous temperature variation with that of measured combustion chamber pressure variation with respect to crank angle. It is presumed that these probes could be used in the measurement of other parts of combustion chamber as piston, cylinder wall etc. for the future study.
Characteristics of In-cylinder Steady Flow using PIV for Different Intake Port Geometries in a 4-valve Gasoline Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 188~196
Many researchers have developed the measurement technique of in-cylinder flow characteristics and found the effect of intake port geometries on engine performance. The flow characteristics of four-valve cylinder head were examined in a steady flow rig for different intake ports. Tumble intensity of intake configurations with different entry angles were quantified with a tumble meter. The velocity and angular momentum distributions in the tumble adaptor were measured under steady conditions with PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry). We have obtained the results that flow structure becomes complicated by valve interference at low valve lift. As the valve interferences were reducing and the flow pattern changed to large vortex structure with tumble direction, intake ports with different entry angles have different tumble centers. Tumble eccentricity of intake port with low entry angle was large, so that the port had relatively much angular momentum compared to others which was expected to improve combustion performance.
Geometrical Analysis of a Torque Converter
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 197~212
The performance of a torque converter can be expressed by the performance parameters such as flow radius and flow angle, on the mean flow path. The geometric analysis of the torque converter is required to determine these parameters for the modeling of the torque converter. In general, the blade shape is depicted by three dimensional data at the mid-surface of blade or those of the pressure and suction side. To generate three dimensional model of the blade using the data mentioned above, a consistent data format and a shape generation algorithm are required. This paper presents a useful consistent data format of the blades and an algorithm for the geometrical shape generation. By the geometric analysis program to which the shape generation algorithm is embedded, the variation of blade angles in rotating element analyzed. Then finally, the analyzed results of geometric profile of a blade are compared with those of the blade design principle, so called forced vortex theorem.
An Experimental Study on the Emission Reduction of Duel-Fuel Engine by CNG
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 5, 1997, Pages 213~218
CNG dual fuel engine for heavy duty diesel engine has been equipped to a Korean bus engine and tested to compare th engine performance and the emission characteristics with the existing diesel fueled engine. The results are summarized as follows. Diesel fueled engine has the fuel injection timing of BTDC17°. The injection timing of CNG modified engine is retarded to BTDC14° for reduction of NOx. Performance optimization has been carried out to have engine power equivalent to or better than the diesel fueled engine. Smoke is decreased by 85% by Korean smoke 3 mode test. By 6 mode test CO is increased by 313% and THC is increased by 1407%. NOx is decreased by 27%. Even though THC is increased very much, it's not too serious problem since CO and THC emission of diesel engine are very little compared to gasoline engine and THC don't give bad effect on human health. But the reduction technologies of CO and THC need to be considered.