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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 6 - Nov 1997
Volume 5, Issue 5 - Sep 1997
Volume 5, Issue 4 - Jul 1997
Volume 5, Issue 3 - May 1997
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Mar 1997
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Jan 1997
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An Experimental Study of the Air Flow Rate Characteristics at Steady State in an SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 1~12
In an SI engine, the characteristics of the air flow is important not only for the design of the intake system geometry but also for the accurate measurement of the induction air mass. In this study, an air flow rate measurement using the ultrasonic flow meter and hot wire flow meter was conducted at the upstream of the intake port and the throttle. At the upstream of the intake port, the pulsating flow into the cylinder affected by the pressure wave was detected directly with the flow meters instead of pressure sensors. At the upstream of the throttle, the reverse flow phenomena were showed by comparing the flow pattern measured by the hot wire air flow meter and the ultrasonic air flow meter. The results of this study can be used for the analysis of the tuning effect in the intake manifold and estimation of the error in real time measurement for the air flow rate.
Design of Automobile Exhaust System using a Top-Down Approach Design Methodology
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 13~27
In the modern design technology, a component should be designed to fit into the overall system performance. A design methodology is developed to expedite the mechan- ical design of complex mechanical systems, The relation between the system design and component design is defined by a top-down approach and the results from the system design are utilized in the component design process. As a design example, an automobile exhaust system is selected for the system design and a bellows is chosen for a component design. Design methodology based on the top-down approach consists of five steps; (1) Analysis of service load, (2) Development of a lumped parameter, (3) Completion of the system design, (4) Selection of the component topology, (5) Completion of the component design, A method using a equivalent matrix is developed in order to determine unknown external forces in linear structural analyses. The bellows is also analyzed by the finite element method using a conical frustum shell element. Various experiments are performed to verify the developed theories. The top-down desi- gn approach is demonstrated by a design case using structural and shape optimization technology. Since the method is relatively simple and easy compared to other methods, it can be applied to the general design where system and component designs are involves simultaneously.
Bus Body Rollover Test using Photogrammetry
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 28~35
Occupant injuries are always possible in a rollover accident, one of the major accidents in a bus. Thus the structure of body frame should have sufficient strength to protect passengers under accidental loads,. ECE(Economic Commission for Europe) regulation No.66 prescribes that residual space shall be preserved in the passenger compartment during and after the structure has been subjected to the prescribed rollover test. Rollover test on a bus section was completed according to the regulation. The coordinates of body section before and after rollover were measured, and it was checked that the structure still complied with the requirements of residual space. Direct measurement on a bus is difficult because of its large size. Thus photogrammetry by photographing and 3 dimensional digital modeling was introduced, and the coordinates of each point were measured through this method.
An Experimental Study on the Shift Characteristics of a Metal Belt Type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 36~43
To cope with quest to improve the fuel economy and vehicle performance, Continuously Variable Transmission with Changing the speed ratio between minimum and maximum ratio by infinite step, is more efficient than conventional multi-ratio transmission. In this paper, to investigate a specific CVT shift ratio diagram and CVT shift characteristics, CVT vehicle was tested on the proving ground and chassis dynamometer. The test results are as follows; CVT can obtain the excellent vehicle performance and fuel economy changing the shift ratio by infinite step, without rapid change of engine revolution and driving force. And CVT can set up a special shift range that obtains not only the engine brake effect but also the maximum speed driving.
Forced Vibration Analysis of a Hollow Crankshaft by using Transfer Matrix Method and Finite Element Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 44~52
As part of the effort to reduce the weight of powertrain, a hollow crankshaft has been designed. The mass reduction of the crankshaft changes the dynamic properties of the crankshaft such as moment of inertia, and torsional, bending stiffness. The purpose of this paper is to compare the dynamic behavior of the hollow crankshaft with that of the original, solid crankshaft. Global dynamic behavior of the crankshaft is analyzed bgy the transfer matrix method(TMM). The crankshaft has been modeled by 38 lumped mass and stiffness elements. The dynamic patameters of each lumped element are provided by Finite Element Method(FEM). The responses of the crankshaft from TMM are fed back as loading conditions to the Finite Element model to obtain dynamic stresses for critical areas of the crankshaft.
A Study on the vehicle Shudder Associated with Axial Force of Tripod Joint For Automobile
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 53~63
This study examines the influence of some dimensional errors on the shudder-type disturbance of the tripod joint and vehicle, using an experimental evaluation and related simulation. With the introduction of the concept of influence factor, the sensitivities of shudder-type disturbance can be evaluated as the ratio of the difference between the ideal value without dimensional errors and actual value with them in the tripod joint and vehicle. Futhermore, influence factors calculated in this study can be utilized as a basic design data for the practical application of the tripod joint to an automobile design.
A Study on the Springback Characteristics and Bracket Formabilities Enhancement of Aluminum Alloy Sheets for Autobody Application
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 64~76
This paper deals with development of brackets by using aluminum alloy sheets which is indispensable for weight reduction of autobody. The press formability of aluminum alloy sheet is estimated by means of tensile test, V bending test, sample manufacturing test and photograph of microstructure. The results show that the elongation, strength, work hardening exponent, plastic anisotropy coefficient of Al 6***series are better than those of Al 5***series, but for general press formability, Al 5***series are better than Al 6***series due to lower yield strength. Since most of mechanical properties of aluminum sheet are generally inferior to those of cold-rolled steel sheet, shape fixability and press formability of aluminum sheet are very poor. For making components of autobody by use of die for steel sheet application, it is essential that die should be nodified for least bending and stretching. With the modified die for aluminum, it could be possible to make brackets, the component of autobody. Microstructure of Al 5***series has fine grain and small the 2nd phase and that of Al 6***series has relatively coarse grain. Therefore, it seems that fine grain and small the 2nd phase of Al 5***series is one of the factor of lower yield strength, resistance to stamping work, formation of Luder's line.
A Study on the Heat Rejection to Coolant in a Gasoline Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 77~88
The heat rejection to coolant is a dominant factor for building vehicle cooling system such as radiator and cooling fan. Since the vehicle cooling system also has effects on fuel consumption and noise, the study of heat rejection to coolant has been emphasized. However, the study on heat rejection to coolant has been mainly focused on the field that related to the characteristics of combustion and localized heat loss. It is no much of use in design for the entire cooling system because it is focused on such a specific point. In this work, the heat rejection rate to coolant for four different engines are obtained to derive a simple heat transfer empirical formula that can be applied to the engine cooling system design, and it is compared with the other studies. Also, to observe effects of engine operation factors and heat transfer factors on coolant, we measured the metal temperature and the heat rejection rate. The heat rejection to coolant does not depend significantly upon the coolant flowrate, but mainly upon the amount of air fuel mixture and the air fuel ratio as long as the composition of coolant does not change. The reduction of heat rejection to coolant did not effectively improve the fuel consumption, but was mostly converted to raise the exhaust gas temperature and the oil temperature.
A Study on the Steady-State Cornering of a Vehicle Considering Roll Motion
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 89~102
In this study, the steady state cornering behavior of a vehicle is investigated by using a numerical model that has parameters associated with roll motion. The nonlinear characteristics of tire cornering forces and aligning torques are presented in analytical forms using the magic formula. The sets of nonlinear algebraic equations that govern the cornering motion are solved by the Newton-Raphson iteration method. The vehicle design parameters are measured by SPMD(Suspension Parameter Measuring Device), and its results are verified by carrying out a skid pad test. The design parameters that are most affecting the steady state cornering behavior are classified into four factors, and the contributions of the factors to understeer gradient are then calculated.
Performance Prediction of Single(Double) Suction Centrifugal Pumps
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 103~110
A performance prediction method is presented for single(double) suction centrifugal pumps with a review of loss correlations given in the previous open literature. Most of the loss analyses mentioned in the present study are one dimensional and this paper investigates several modeling schemes and shows that a fairly good prediction can be achieved by a proper selection of the most important flow parameters resulting from a mean streamline analysis. Predictions of the trends of total head- capacity and pump efficiency-capacity curves agree well with the experimental data in almost the full range of operating conditions. The prediction method developed through this study can serve as a tool to ensure good matching between parts and it can assist the understanding of the operational characteristics of general purpose centrifugal pumps.
Study on Engine-CVT Consolidated Control(II)-Experimental Study
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 111~119
In this paper, engine-CVT consolidated control performance were investigated experimentally. Engine-CVT consolidated control was composed of engine throttle control based on power difference and CVT ratio control based on CVT ratio map. Experimental results showed that engine optimal operation was obtained while satisfying the driver's desire, i. e., following the given drive mode by engine-CVT consolidated control. Also, it was found that engine performance is subjected to inertia of the powertrain where the magnitude of acceleration changes abruptyly. Comparing with the results of CVT only control, the results of engine-CVT consolidated control showed better performance. Therefore, in order to meet the driver's desire as well as keeping the engine optimal operation, the engine-CVT consolidated control could be suggested as an integral solution.
A Study on Spray Distribution of Diesel Nozzles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 120~127
A diesel engine is one of the major prime movers owing to its high thermal efficiency. But due to the recent attention for the environmental pollution, the emissions of diesel engine became a important problem. So it is needed to understand the characteristics of diesel spray injected into a combustion chamber. Because the diesel combustion is strongly controlled by a fuel spray injected into a combustion chamber. This study provides the informations for the diesel spray with the atmospere condition in combustion chamber by PMAS. As the result, the spray tip penetration and angle is increased with the increase of spray pressure and nozzle diameter. And the comparisions between the measured outline of the free-spray and the calculated model have been conducted and obtained the resonable results.
Effects of Baffle Location on the Performance of a Super Compact Condenser in an Automotive Air Conditioning System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 128~140
A new super compact condenser(SCC), which has been developed recently is especially suitable for an alternative refrigerant HFC-134a due to its high performance and compactness. The SCC is composed of two pipe headers, baffles, narrow multi-rectangular channels, and louvered fin arrays. Alternating inlet and outlet by the inserted baffles in pipe headers guide refrigerant to and from the narrow multi-rectangular channels. Since the flow rate and its lengh are changed depending on the number and location of baffles, the corresponding pressure drop and heat transfer rate are changed. The present study aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the effects of baffle location and its number on the pressure drop and thermal performance of the SCC with 40 multi-rectangular channels. The results show that the present method provides an acceptable prediction of pressure drop and heat transfer rate for a 4 pass SCC. However, the model significantly under predicts the performance of a 3 pass SCC, which may be attributed to the phase separation of refrigerant flowing through header pipes. Pressure drop is more signifi- cantly influenced than heat transfer rate by the baffle location.
Formulation of an Interface Element and Stiffness Evaluation of an Leaf Spring
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 141~147
For the effective finite element analysis of the structures including material interfaces or contact surfaces, interface elements are proposed. Most of early works in this problem require not only iterative computation but also complex formulation because of the kinematic nonlinearities caused from the discontinuous behavior and the stress concentration phenomena. The proposed elements, however, are consistently formulated using relative displacements and tractions between top and bottom regular finite elements. The effectiveness of these elements are shown by solving various numerical sample problems including an leaf spring and comparing with results of general finite element analysis. As a result, more stable solutions are conveniently obtaines using interface elements than regular finite elements.
Rollover Analysis and Measurement of a Large-sized Bus
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 148~154
The safety problems of buses have been arisen due to the increasing of road traffic. Occupant injuries are always possible in the rollover accident and the frontal impact. Thus the structure of bus should have sufficient strength to protect passengers under accidental loads. ECE(Economic Commission for Europe) regulation No.66 prescribes that the superstructure of the vehicle shall be sufficient strength for passengers' surviving and the residual space shall be preserved in the passenger compartment during and after the standard rollover accident situation. Rollover test and simulation on a large-sized bus was completed according to the regulation. The coordinates of the points on the bus were measured by photogrammetry system. The rollover situation was revived by structural crashes simulation software, PAM-CRASH, and it was checked that the structure still complied with the requirements of residual space during rollover situation. The residual space was preserved during rollover, so it was proved that the structure of the investigated bus had much probability of survival in rollover accidents.
Dynamic Performance Analysis for 6WD/6WS Armored Vehicles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 155~166
In this study, a simulation tool is developed in order to investigate non steady-state cornering performance of 6WD/6WS special-purpose vehicles. 6WD vehicles are believed to have good performance on off-the-road maneuvering and to have fail-safe capabilities. But the cornering performances of 6WS vehicles are not well understood in the related literature. In this paper, 6WD/6WS vehicles are modeled as a 18 DOF system which includes non-linear vehicle dynamics, tire models, and kinematic effects. Then the vehicle model is constructed into a simulation tool using the MATLAB /SIMULINK so that input/output and vehicle parameters can be changed easily with the modulated approach. Cornering performance of the 6WS vehicle is analyzed for brake steering and pivoting, respectively. Simulation results show that cornering performance depends on the middle-wheel steering as well as front/rear wheel steering. In addition, a new 6WS control law is proposed in order to minimize the sideslip angle. Lane change simulation results demonstrate the advantage of 6WS vehicles with the proposed control law.
Visualization of Gasoline Sprays Via a Simultaneous Inaging of Fluorescence and Scattering Lights
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 167~174
The penetration depth and the size distribution of the droplets of fuel sprays are important in the operation of spark-ignition MPI engines. A fluorescence/scattering image technique for droplet sizing was applied to measure th edroplet size distribution in non-evaporating gasoline sprays. The fluorescence and scattering lights were imaged simultaneously by the two-dimensional visualization system composed of a laser sheet, a doubling prism, optical filters, and a CCD camera. Quantitative droplet size distributions were extracted from evaluating the ratio of the two light densities. The mean droplet size measured by the fluorescence/scattering technique was compared with the result obtained by the enlarged photographs of droplets. The fluorescence/scattering image technique also gives the useful information of the characteristics of droplet impingement in a inclined wall.
An Experimental Study on the Effects of Intake Manifold Shapes on the Torque Characteristics in a 3-Cylinder LPG Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 175~182
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of intake manifold shapes to improve the engine performance in a 3-cylinder LPG engine with a closed loop fuel supply system. To know the flow resistance of intake manifolds with shape, the intake negative pressure of each runner in intake manifolds were measured by using the digital pressure meter at each driving condition. And, the engine torque and power have been measured with an engine dynamometer while adjusting the optimal fuel consumption ratio with a solenoid driver. As 속 results form this experiment, the torque characteris- tics were more improved with the plenum chamber(B type intake manifold) than with the banana type(A type intake manifold). The torque characteristics were improved at mid-engine speed(rpm) range as the inner diameter of the intake manifold became smaller. And also the optimum volume among the examined plenum chamber volume was 0.74 times(590cc) the displacement of the test engine.
Effect of Ignition Energy Characteristics on the Ignition and the Combustion of a Premixed Gas(2)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 183~191
For the improvement of ignitability we need ignition energy and its discharge characteristics which are suitable for a part distribution of the mixture density around the ignition spark plug and the flow characteristics of the mixture in the combustion. Especially, for the solving of the instability of initial ignition and lean ignitability limit in the case of lean-burn combustion, the more powerful ignition energy is required. The conclusions from the observation can be summarized as follows: 1) The ignitability limit for HIS expands wider and the combustion is more stable than for CDI. 2) The combustion duration and ignition timing depend upon the distribution of local mixture density in the vicinity of ignition spark plug.
A Study on the Improvement of the Response Characteristic of the Electro-Hydraulic Rear Wheel Steering Gear
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 192~201
The feedback control scheme of the pressure control system of the rear wheel steering gear which has relatively large volume and sprung load was built up in order to improve th response characteristic of the system. The control algorithm chosen was a feedback compensator joined by a feedfoward compensator and the model matching method was used in the process of control system design. The structures and properties of the reference models were inspected and the parameters of the controller were decided. The improvement of the response characteristic of the pressure control valve by means of the feedback control is affirmed. Particularly, when the order of the system model is higher than the 2nd order, the effectiveness of the feedback control on the improvement of the response characteristic of the valve is distinct. And the convenience of the model matching method is the process of control system design is confirmed as well.
An Algorithm for Self-determing Degrees-of-freedom of Shifting Systems
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 202~214
In automotive industries, one of major issues is the shifting shock, which is brought out when two clutches are engaged in an automatic transmission. The engagement and disengagement if two clutches means the variation of the D.O.F(degree of freedom) of system. Therefore to analyze the shifting performance, the variation of D.O.F should be considered in detail. Generally, the programs for analyzing the shifting transients have been developed as the problem-dependent codes because the artificial maris were usually used to indicate the change of shifting phase. To develop a software applicable to a general mechanism of transmissions, a self-determining algorithm of D.O.F must be applied. Through the experiences for the last several years, a generalized analysis software of shifting mechanism(so called by POTAS-MSM Version 2.0) has been developed. In this study, some major ideas of the software and the concept for the analysis of shifting characteristics are presented. In addition to that, this paper shows how to self -determine D.O.F of he multi-slipping systems using the stick-slip criterion on a single slipping mechanism. By using this software, the shifting characteristics of a vehicle are analyzed and compared with the experimental results.
A Study on the Improvement of Engine Starting Performance for Gasoline Engine Ignition System using Electronic Control
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 5, issue 6, 1997, Pages 215~221
The ability of the engine starting performance of conventional ignition system being currently used in automobile gasoline engine is investigated, and the method of improving is discussed and experimented. The conventional ignition system cannot obtain high ignited voltage because its current is limited by decreasing of terminal voltage of battery at starting the engine also causes irregularity in the starting engine. This paper shows that problem can be improved practically by control of ignition energy properly according to the engine speed, consequently this experimental ignition system can eliminate to remarkable extent the function of the engine starting, and also enhance the performance of the engine at high speed.