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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 5 - Sep 1998
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Jul 1998
Volume 6, Issue 3 - May 1998
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Mar 1998
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Jan 1998
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The Modeling and the Optimization of an Electrical Vehicle using Joint Analysis
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~15
Currently, computational analysis is a popular technology in automobile engineering. Finite element analysis is an excellent method for body analysis. For finite element analysis, accurate modeling is very important to obtain precise information. Stick modeling is a convenient way in that it is easy and simple. When a stick model is utilized, the joints are modified in the tuning process. A tuning method for the joint has been developed. The joints are modeled by designated beam elements. An optimization method called "Goal Programming" is employed to impose the target values. With the tuned joints, the entire optimization has been carried out. Using the "Recursive Quadratic Programming" algorithm, the optimization process determines the configuration of the entire structure and sizes of all the sections. For example, the structure of an electrical vehicle is modeled and analyzed by the method. The stick model works well since the structure is made of aluminium frames. Although the example handles an electrical vehicle, this method can be applied to general vehicle structures.
A Study on an Optimal Design of Engine Mount System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 16~26
The major effective factors on the ride quality of a vehicle are the vibration and noise of the engine and drive system. Engine contributes about 80% of the vibration and noise in the vehicle, and exciting forces of the engine are transmitted onto the vehicle frame through the engine mount. This paper studies the vibration reduction of a vehicle through the improvement of the engine mount. A computer program for optimal design is developed and the engine mount conditions are optimized to reduce the WRMS of PSD of acceleration at the driver's seat, which are caused by the exciting forces at the idle speed. Design variables are selected as the stiffness, mount angle and the location of the engine mount rubber. It is shown through computer simulation that the PSD of acceleration at the driver's seat can be improved by redesigning the engine mount system.
Influence of the Cyclic Parameters on the Nitric Oxide Formation in the diesel Engine
Rosli Abu Bakar ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 27~35
This study describes the influence of combustion parameters on the nitric oxide emission, such as injection timing, air flow rate, injected amount of fuel, and compression ratio of engine. In order to determine the influence factors on the nitric oxide emission, the experiment were investigated with various parameters of engine cycle. According to the results of this study, the retardation of injection timing and the increases of airflow rate, and the decreases of fuel injection amount reduce the nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust emissions. Also, the increases of compression ration of engine increase in the concentration of nitric oxide formation in the combustion chamber. The results of this study give a guideline to decrease the nitric oxide formation by using the simulation program.
Exhaust Noise Control with the Active Muffler in Exhaust System of Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 36~42
In this study, active muffler was designed and was manufactured for exhaust noise reduction of commercial vehicle, then experiment of real vehicle was conducted. In a manufactured active muffler, because the flow of exhaust noise in tail pope outlet are become a plane wave, the global reduction if radiation noise from outlet and the placement of error microphone to avoid the exhaust gas of high temperature could be implemented. In control algorithm, reduction of noise of engine driving frequency and harmonic frequency can be archieved using proposed reference signal including a fixed speed state(2,000rpm, 3,000rpm, 4,000rpm) and a run-up speed state(2,000rpm
4,000rpm) is accomplished with the active muffler installed in vehicle.
A Study on Design and Application of High Response Solenoid for Unit Injector
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 43~51
Most of fuel-injection system operated with mechanical methods are difficult to control the injection quantity and injection timing as well as injection rate exactly. Moreover high pressure injection scheme is never be realized with conventional one. On the other hand, serious air pollution can be lessened with injection system equipped with those functions. Therefore, electronically controlled Unit Injuctor(UI) appeared to satify above mentioned desires. However, it is still difficult that the most important part, especially solenoid valve, is analyzed precisely, because of the existence of complex combination of electromagnetics, electrics and dynamic problems. In this study, experimental and theoretical analysis are accomplished for understanding of solenoid valve characteristics and further its design. As the result, the follows are obtained 1) As the increase of wire diameter, the response time became shorter and optimal inductance existed in relative with the response time and wire diameter. 2) According to increasing input voltage, the traction force increased, otherwise the response time was shortened. 3) As the increase of armature stroke, the traction force decreased and the response time became longer.
A Study on the Atomization and Combustion Characteristics of Air-assisted Injector in MPI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 52~58
The spray characteristics of air-assisted fuel injection and its effects on the engine combustion was investigated in this study. The atomization characteristics of a Bosch fuel injector inserted into the air-assist adapter were measured using particle motion analysis system. Droplet size decreased with air supplied and fine spray with below
of SMD was acquired under the conditions of air-assist pressure over 0.5bar. The lean combustion performance of a 1.8L DOHC engine equipped with air-assist adapters was tested on the dynamometer. When the assistant air pressure is 1.0bar, lean limit recorded the highest value, and CO, HC emissions were decreased at the pressure over 1.0bar.
An Experimental Study on the Characteristics of the In-cylinder Eccentricity Swirl Flow with Intake Port Shapes in a 4 Valve Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 59~72
This experimental study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of the in-cylinder eccentricity swirl flow generated by a 4 valve cylinder head with a tangential and a helical intake port. the measurements of the in-cylinder velocity field have been made by a two-channel LDA system. The mean flow coefficient(Cf(meam)), swirl ratio(Rs) and mass flowrate with valve eccentricity ratios and an intake port partition between the two intake ports were measured in the steady flow test fig using the ISM(impulse swirl meter). The experimental results indicated that the mass flowrate through the tangential intake port was 19% and 7.7% more than that of the helical intake port in case of with and without intake port partition respectively. There was a tendency to be a single rotation flow in swirl flow fields formed by a 4 valve cylinder head because of the interaction between the two intake ports. As the intake port partition was not set between flow coefficient(Cf(mean)) was 7.35%.
A Parametric Study for the Construction of Durability Test Track of a Wheel Type Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 73~79
For the design and development of the wheel type excavator, the dynamic effects of travelling on the performance of the equipment should be first analyzed and conside- red in the initial design stage. In order to test the durability of the equipment in a short period, th travelling test should be performed over accelerated durability test tracks. which is more severe than general field roads such as city road, paved road, unpaved road and rough road. In this paper, a parametric study is performed in order to determine important design parameters of durability test track of a wheel type excavator. A rigid body model is developed using DADS and dynamic analysis is performed for the equipment travelling over several test roads with different severity. A comparison of test and analysis results is also presented.
A Study for Measurements of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction using Fast Response FID in an SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 80~89
The residual gas in an spark-ignition engine is one of important factors on emissions and performance such as combustion stability. With high residual gas fractions, flame speed and maximum combustion temperature are decreased and these are deeply related with combustion stability especially at idle and NOx emission at relatively high engine load. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the residual gas fraction as a function of the engine operating load. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the residual gas fraction as a function of the engine operating parameters. In the present study, the quantitative measurement technique of residual gas fraction was studied by using Fast Response Flame Ionization Detector(FRFID). The measuring technique and model for estimation of residual gas fraction were reported in this paper. By the assuming that the raw signal from FRFID saturates with the same slope for firing and misfiring cycle, in-cylinder hydrocarbon(HC) concentration can be estimated. Residual gas fraction can be obtained from the in-cylinder HC concentration measured at firing and motoring condition. The developed measurement and calibration procedure were applied to the limited engine operating and design condition such as intake manifold pressure and valve overlap. The results show relevant trends by comparing those from previous studies.
A Study on Design Parameters of Dual Mass Flywheel System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 90~98
A Dual Mass Flywheel(D.M.F.) system is an evolution to the reduction of torsional vibration and impact noise occurring in powertrain when a vehicle is either moving or idling. The D.M.F. system has two flywh-eels, which is different from the conventional clutch system. One section belongs to the mass moment of in-ertia of the engine-side. The other section increases the mass moment of inertia of the transmission-side. These two masses are connected via a spring/damping system. This reduces the speed at which the dreaded resonance occurs to below idle speed. Since 1984m D.M.F. system has been developed. However, the processes of development of D.M.F. system don't have any difference from the trial and error method of conventional clutch system. This paper present the method for systematical design of D.M.F. system with dimensionless design varia-bles of D.M.F. system, mass ratio between two flywheels, natural frequency rate of two flywheels, and visc-osity coefficient. And expermental results are used to prove these theoretical results.
Stress Analysis of LOWER ARM for Change of Section Shape(I)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 99~107
Stress distribution analysis was implemented by using finite element method for the lower arm connecting Independent front suspension. Results were obtained for the 8 load conditions and for the 3 types of section (I, H and H+I). On the basis of it, the shape and dimensions of lower arm were optimized. Finally it was pointed out that the H type has an most satisfied strength, among 3 section types and highest safety factor and yield strength in each case of load condition.
Effects of Operation Conditions on Hydrocarbon Components Emitted from SI Engine with Gaseous Fuels
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 108~121
Using gas chromatography, the light hydrocarbon emissions were analyzed from SI engine fueled with methane and liquified petroleum gas(LPG), and the effects of fuel and engine operating condition were discussed. For this purpose, 14 species of light hydrocarbon including 1, 3-butadiene were separated, calibrated with standard gas, and measured from undiluted emissions. The brake specific hydrocarbon emission(BSHC) and ozone forming potential(BSO)3 were calculated and discussed with the changes of fuel, engine speed, load, fuel/air equivalence ratio, coolant temperature, and spark timing. As a result, exhaust emission was composed of mainly fuel composed of mainly fuel comp- onent and other olefin components of similar carbon number. The olefin components such as ethylene and propylene determine most of the ozone forming potential. The fraction of fuel component in total hydrocarbon emission was bigger with methane fuel than with LPG fuel. Also fuel fraction increased at high speed or high speed or high temperature of exhaust gas, and to lesser extent with high coolant temperature and retarded spark. However, the effect of equivalence ratio had different tendency according to fuels.
An Engine Structure-Borne Noise Analysis by Finite Element Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 122~133
This paper presents the static analysis, the modal analysis and the forced vibration analysis on engine structures to find out the structure-borne noise sources by finite element method. The deformation of engine structures under the maximum combu- stion gas force was calculated through the static analysis, and the resonance possibilities were predicted by the modal analysis which ascertains mode shapes and the corresponding frequencies of engine global and its major noise sources in engine surfaces were investigated with the forced vibration analysis by means of finding the transfer mobilities on engine surfaces due to the piston impact and the velocity levels due to the combustion in consideration of oil film stiffness and damping coefficients. Finally, the direction of engine structure-borne noise reduction can be estabilished by the above-mentioned analysis procedure and the reduction effect of cost on proto-type engine build-up is expected.
The Study on Estimation Fatigue Limit in Induction Surface Hardened S45C Steel
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 134~142
The effects of small hole defect size and effective case depth(ECD) on the four point bending fatigue limit of induction surface hardened S45C steel were investigated the fatigue limit evaluation of hardened materials is very difficult because of relations of the hardness gradient and residual stress. In this study, it was possible to characterize fatigue limit and fatigue life of induction surface hardened S45C steel in terms of the hole defect size and effective case depth(ECD) and quantitative evaluation of the fatigue limit with hole defects use Murakami's evaluation method and the range of evaluated values is a good accuracy compared with results.
Strength Evaluation of Adhesive Bonded Joint for Car Body
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 143~150
The evaluation of joint fatigue strength of light weight materials for electrical vehicle body has been performed through single lap joint tests with the design parameters such as joint style, adherend, bonding overlap length and bonding thickness. Fatigue strength was evaluated through 5-Hz, tension-tension, load controlled test with the stress ratio zero value. It is experimentally observed that fatigue strength of joint increases for the increase of overlap length. The combinations of Al-Al and Al-FRP adherends show that fatigue strength of joint is hardly changed for the increase of bonding thickness, but FRP-FRP adherend specimen shows that fatigue strength of joint increases after decreases for the increase of bonding thickness. Al-Al adherend specimen has much higher fatigue length than Al-FRP and FRP-FRP adherend specimens. Riveting at adgesive bonded joint gives little effect on fatigue strength.
A Study for the Prediction of a Tire Cornering Characteristics using a Finite Element Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 151~162
During a straight driving and cornering maneuver by a vehicle various forces and moments are exerted on the tire's footprint. A cornering properties, handling and stability performances of vehicle can be predicted by these forces and moments values. Therefore, on this study, a lateral force and a aligning torque are predicted by these forces and moments values. Therefore, on this study, a lateral force and a aligning torque are predicted using a finite element method. Contact area of the tire between bead and wheel are fixed to simplify of a finite element model. Lateral force is exerted on the rigid surface as a real load with Coulum friction after inflate and load vertically. Then, rotate the tire's axle to simulate a free rolling untill taken the equilibrium of a aligning torque. Also, experimental observations are made to test a reliability of a FE analysis conducted in this study. The finite element analysis said that good agreement was obtained with experimental results of these cornering properties, giving confidence within about one percent. So it os recommended that a finite element analysis can be used as a good tool to predicted the tire cornering properties.
Optimal Design of the 4-cylinder Engine Rubber Mounts with Elastic Vibrations of Vehicle Body
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 163~181
In this study, the objective is determine the optimal design variable of engine mount system using the rubber mount of bush-type which is usually utilized in passive control to minimize vibrations of vehicle body or transmission from engine into body. The engine model adopted in this study is 4-cylinder, 4-stroke gasoline engine support- ed by 4-points. The system is modelled in 10 d.o.f.-rigid body motion of the engine & transmission in 6 d.o.f., elastic motion of vehicle body in 4 d.o.f.(1st torsional, 1st vertical and 1st & 2nd lateral bending vibration mode). To consider the elastic motion of vehicle body, find the eigenvalues and mode shapes of vehicle body by nodal testing and then determine the modal masses and stiffnesses of the body. The design variables of the engine mount system are locations, stiffness and damping coefficients of the rubber mounts(28 design variables). In case of considering the torque-roll axis for the engine, the design variables of the mount system are reduced to 22 design variables. The objective functions in optimal design process are considered by three cases, that is, 1) transmitted forces through engine mounts, 2) acceleration components of generalized coordinates for the vibration of vehicle body, 3) acceleration of specified location(where gear box) of body. three case are analyzed and compared with each other.
Indentification of Noise Source of a Diesel Engine using Complex Acoustic Intensity Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 182~195
The relation between the vibration induced from machinery and the radiated sound is complicated. Acoustic intensity method is widely used to obtain the accuracy of noise identification. In this study, as groundwork, the complex acoustic intensity method is performed to identify noise source and transmission path on different free space point source fields. From the numerical analysis for these simple fields, it is possible to predict the sound field characteristics which noise sources are related with each other, and certificate the validity of complex acoustic intensity. As an industrial application, the complex acoustic intensity method is applied a diesel engine to identify sound radiation characteristics in the near field.
An Experimental Study on the Measurement of the Instantaneous Surface Temperature of the Piston of the DI Mono Cylinder Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 196~204
For the experimental measurement of instantaneous surface temperature of the piston of the DI mono cylinder diesel engine, the instantaneous temperature proves, data acquisition system, and grass-hopper type linkage system were developed. The instantaneous temperatures on the piston bowl, crown, lands and skirt were measured and analyzed, and the following conclusions were derived ; (i) The crank angle for the maximum instantaneous temperature during one cycle varies and moves back and forth by the measuring positions and engine speeds. (ii) The engine speeds, the positions of the measuring points and the cooling water temperature had an effect on the instantaneous temperature amplitude. (iii) The instantaneous temperature suing phenomena appeared on the temperature profiles of the piston crown, top and second land of ring, but on the temperature profiles of the parts of the third land of the fing and skirt, they didn't appear, (iv) The isothermal lines in the piston were acquired through the operation of the finite elements method using the measured temperatures as the boundary conditions.
An Experimental Study of the Effects of Water Vapor in Intake Air on Comvustion and knock Characteristics in a Spark Ignition Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 205~212
In this study, the effects of water vapor in inlet air on combustion efficiency, general performance, knock characteristics and emission gas concentration were investig- ated through the experiments of combustion and vibration analyses, emission gas analysis by changing water vapor quantity in inlet air with temperature and humidity auto control unit. With partial vapor pressure increase, the brake torque at wide open throttle status decreased and the average ignition delay angle increased, IMEP (indicated mean effective pressured using the integral and 3rd derivatives of filtered cylinder pressure as knock intensity, which matched well with the method of frequency power spectrum of block vibration signal. Water vapor in intake air had influence on the spark knock sensitivity. With the increase of water vapor content in intake air NOx emission was decreased and HC emission was increased.
A Development of Plasma Jet to Realize Ultra Lean Burn
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 213~221
The investigation regarding the ignition system of a plasma jet explored by using a constant volume vessel. The purpose of this study is to elucidate relation between the characteristics of the configuration and jet ejection of plasma jet plug, when the sub energy were supplied at plasma jet ignition system. From the results of a visualization by the schlieren system, the jut ejection for plasma jet ignition are depended on the jet plug configuration and sub energy, but the configuration of plasma jet plug is more influenced than the sub energy on the plasma jet ejection. And the plasma jet ignition strongly influences upon the combustion enhancement than the conventional spark ignition.
Development of a Pure Bending Test Machine and Bending Collapse Characteristics of Rectangular Tubes
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 1, 1998, Pages 222~233
A 4-point pure bending res machine is developed the evaluate the pure vending moment-rotation properties of the thin-walled tubes without imposing shear and tensile forces. The moment-rotation properties of the thin-walled tubes are measured up to and beyond collapse with the pure bending test machine. The test results are compared with those of finite element analyses and existing analytical solution.