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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 5 - Sep 1998
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Jul 1998
Volume 6, Issue 3 - May 1998
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Mar 1998
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Jan 1998
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Optimal Design of Shock Absorber using High Speed Stability
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 1~8
In order to solve the conflict problem between the ride comfort and the road holding, the optimal design of shock absorber that minimizes the r.m.s. of sprung mass vertical acceleration and pitch rate with the understeer characteristics constraints in the high speed stability is proposed. The design of experiments and the nonlinear optimization algorithm are used together to obtain the optimal design of shock absorber. The second order regression models of the input variables(front and rear damping coefficients) and the output variables (ride comfort index and road holding one) are obtained by the central composite design in the design of experiments. Then the optimal design of shock absorber can be systematically adjusted with applying the nonlinear optimization algorithm to the obtained second order regression model. The frequency response analysis of sprung mass acceleration and pitch rate shows the effectiveness of the proposed optimal design of shock absorber in the sprung mass resonance range with the understeer characteristics constraints.
Application of Condensed Joint Matrix Method to the Joint Structure of Vehicle Body
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 9~16
The joint characteristics are necessary to be determined in the early stage of the vehicle body design. Researches on identification of joints in a vehicle body have been performed until the recent year. In this study, the joint characteristics of vehicle struct- ure were expressed as condensed forms from the full joint stiffness and mass matrix. The condensed joint stiffness and mass matrix were applied to typical T-type and Edge-type joints, and the usefulness was confirmed. In addition, those were applied to center pillar and full vehicle body to validate the practical application.
Analysis of Journal Locus in a Connecting Rod Bearing
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 17~23
This paper presents the motion of dynamically loaded journal in the connecting rod bearing of reciprocation internal combustion engine. Journal motions in engine bearings have been composed of two components, which was rotational and translational motion. Early study of journal locus in engine bearing had been performed on each motion. This paper has been considered two motions simultaneously. Reynolds equation including the squeeze effect has been analyzed using the ADI method, and real engine bearing and crankshaft system has been considered to calculate the cyclic external force. The equations are performed by 4th order Runge-Kutta method. This paper gives various journal orbits in connecting rod bearing depending on cyclic external forces, rotation speeds, and bearing parameters.
Dynamic Analysis of Multibody Tracked Vehicles(II) : Development of the Nonlinear Contact Force Module
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 24~31
In this study, a procedure is presented for the dynamic analysis of a multibody tracked vehicle system. The planar vehicle model used in this investigation is assumed to consist of two kinematically decoupled subsystems. i.e., the chassis subsystem and track subsystem. The chassis subsystem includes the chassis frame, sprocket, idler and rollers, while the track subsystem is represented as a closed kinematic chain consisting of rigid links interconnected by revolute joints. The nonlinear contact force modules describing the interaction between track links, and sprocket, idler, rollers and ground will be developed.
Stiffness Comparison with Design of GFRP Roof Panels Prepared by RTM Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 32~38
In order to investigate the relationship between the stiffness and structure of the automotive roof panels, two kinds of glass fiber reinforced plastic(GFRP) roof panels without and with insert material were fabricated by resin transfer molding(RTM) method. The stiffness test was performed at the same condition as it of actual driving. The structural design and material selection for improving the recyclability of GFRP roof panels were also covered.
Reduction of Electromagnetic Torque Ripple in High-Speed, High-Load Brushless DC Motors used for Automobile Parts
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 39~46
For permanent magnet brushless DC motors used for high speed fuel pumps, torque ripple is an important origin of vibration, acoustic noise and speed fluctuation. In this paper, the output torque profile of a PM motor with one phase energized is decomposed into the commutation torque, the reluctance torque and the armature reaction torque according to their source origins. It verifies that the output torque profile is qualitatively equivalent to the BEMF profile for low reluctance motors. This paper discusses the effect of magnet pole shaping and magnet arc length on the output torque and torque ripple. A magnet edge shaping is proposed to design a trapezoidal BEMF motor without torque ripple, with minimal sacrifice of the maximum output torque.
Effects of Ignition Energy Discharge Characteristics on the Lean Flammability Limit
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 47~55
A new ignition system concept was developed to improve ignition performance, accuracy of control and the reliability of the ignition system. The new ignition system has ho호 frequency discharge characteristics with 1.5-2.0 ms discharge duration, in place of the usual solitary longer duration event. We applied the system to a commercial engine to study its influence on the maximum combustion pressure attained during the cycle, when this peak pressure occurred, imep, variation rate of the engine speed and the flammability limit of a lean mixture. In this study, we clarified that the new ignition system had a beneficial effect of the lean mixture flammability limit. Also for a given mixture strength we found that the mew ignition system gave a higher peak cylinder pressure than in the case of the conventional ignition system.
Strength Evaluation of Adhesive Bonded Joint for Light Weight Structure by T-Peel Joint Test
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 56~65
The bonding strength evaluation of the light weight materials for an electrical vehicle has been performed through the T-peel joint test in which the design paramete- rs such as joint style, adherend type, adherend thickness, adhesive thickness, and adhesive type are considered. It is experimentally observed that the peel strength of joint increases with the increase of the adherend thickness. With the increase of the adhesive thickness, however, the peel strength of joint increases a little. Aluminum-FRP adherend combination shows such higher peel strength than that of Aluminum-Aluminum adherend combination. For the adhesive bonded joint, the results of FEM analysis agree with those of experiment. The adhesive bonded joint reinfored with a rivet gives higher peel strength than that of the joint without rivet.
A Study on the Induction Method of Transfer Function of Bond Graph using Mason's Rule
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 66~75
In many case of optimal design and sensitivity analysis, obtaining of transfer function between input and output variables is a difficult and time-consuming problem. The bond graph modeling is a method that is used for making it easy to analyze complex systems composed of mechanical and electrical parts. It gives us a simple and systematic tool to get state-space equations easily. And we can obtain the transfer function graphically using bond graph and Mason's rule. This paper shows how bond graphs are converted to block diagram and how Mason's rule is applied. And the simple direct method to obtain transfer function from bond graph is introduced. As a example, induction of transfer function of electric power steering composed of mechanical and electrical parts will be done.
A Study on the Improvement of Vehicle Ride Comfort by Genetic Algorithms
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 76~85
Recently, Genetic Algorithm(GA) is widely adopted into a search procedure for structural optimization, which is a stochastic direct search strategy that mimics the process of genetic evolution. This methods consist of three genetics operations maned selection, crossover and mutation. Contrast to traditional optimal design techniques which use design sensitivity analysis results, GA, being zero-order method, is very simple. So, they can be easily applicable to wide area of design optimization problems. Also, owing to multi-point search procedure, they have higher probability of converge to global optimum compared to traditional techniques which take one-point search method. In this study, a method of finding the optimum values of suspension parameters is proposed by using the GA. And vehicle is modelled as planar vehicle having 5 degree-of-freedom. The generalized coordinates are vertical motion of passenger seat, sprung mass and front and rear unsprung mass and rotate(pitch) motion of sprung mass. For rapid converge and precluding local optimum, share function which distribute chromosomes over design bound is introduced. Elitist survival model, remainder stochastic sampling without replacement method, multi-point crossover method are adopted. In the sight of the improvement of ride comfort, good result can be obtained in 5-D.O.F. vehicle model by using GA.
Study of Spray Droplet/Wall Interaction
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 86~100
The impingement of the fuel spray on the wall within the combustion chamber in compact high-pressure injection engines and on the intake port wall in port-fuel-inje- ction type engines is unavoidable. It is important to understand the characteristics of impinging spray because it influences on the rate of fuel evaporation and droplet distrib- ution etc. In this study, the numerical study for the characteristics of spray/wall interaction is performed to test the applicability and reliability of spray/wall impingement models. The impingement models used are stick model, reflect model, jet model and Watkins and Park's model. The head of wall-jet eminating radilly outward from the spray impingement site contains a vortex. Small droplets are deflected away from the wall by the stagnation flow field and the gas wall-jet flow. While the larger droplets with correspondingly higher momentum are impinged on the wall surface and them are moved along the wall and are rolled up by wall-jet vortex. Using the Watkins and Park's model the predicted results show the most reasonable trend. The rate of increase of spread and the height of the developing wall-spray is predicted to decrease with increased ambient pressure(gas density).
A Numerical Simulation of a Multi-phase Flow mixed with Air and Water around an Automobile Tire
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 101~107
A three-dimensional multi-phase flow is simulated around a smooth tire. This simulation is conducted by solving Navier-Stokes equation with a k-
turbulent model. The numerical calculations are carried out by modeling a multi-phase free surface flow mixed with air and water at the inlet. The numerical solutions show an intuitively resonable behavior of water around a moving tire. The calculated pressure around the tire surface along the moving direction is presented. The moving velocities of the tire are chosen to be 30, 40, 60, and 70 km/h. The numerically simulated pressures around the tire are compared with existing experimental data. The comparison shows a new possible tool of analyzing a hydroplaning phenomenon for an automobile tire by means of a computational fluid dynamics.
Three Dimensional Unsteady Flow Characteristics inside the Catalytic Converter of 6 Cylinder Gasoline Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 108~120
A theoretical study of three-dimensional unsteady compressible non-reacting flow inside double flow of monolith catalytic converter system attached to 6-cylinder engine was performed for the achievement of performance improvement, reduction of light-off time, and longer service life by improving the flow distribution of pulsating exhaust gases. The differences between unsteady and steady-state flow were evaluated through the numerical computations. To obtains the boundary conditions to a numerical analysis, one dimensional non-steady gas dynamic calculation was also performed by using the method of characteristics in intake and exhaust system. Studies indicate that unsteady representation is necessary because pulsation of gas velocity may affect gas flow uniformity within the monolith. The simulation results also show that the level of flow maldistribution in the monolith heavily depends on curvature and angles of separation streamline of mixing pipe that homogenizes the exhaust gas from individual cylinders. It is also found that on dual flow converter systems, there is severe interactions of each pulsating exhaust gas flow and the length of mixing pipe and junction geometry influence greatly on the degree of flow distribution.
Analysis of Surface Crack under Tension and Bending Stress in Plate
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 121~128
In this study, when tension and bending stress act on plate simultaneously, stress intensity factor is analyzed at crack tip with using BEM(Boundary Element Method). In this analysis, stress intensity factors(S.I.F) are defined for variable ligament, aspect and stress ratio(
B). Consequently, predicted that crack grow to depth direction at low aspect and ligament ratio in tension stress and to surface direction in bending stress. Tension and bending stress act on plate same time, effect of tension stress in the first stage and effect of bending stress in the after stage was to observed. The outbreak of secondary crack in backside is under the control of stress amplitude and predict that the point of outbreak is mear backside.
A Study on the Optimal Design of Automotive Cam Profiles using Hermite Curve
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 129~140
A numerical method is proposed to optimize automotive cam profiles. An acceleration curve of a cam follower motion is described by Hermite spline curves. Because of the intrinsic characteristics of the Hermite curve, it is possible to design an acceleration curve with arbitrary shape. Design variables in the optimization problem are location of control points which define the acceleration curve. Objective function includes dynamic performances as well as kinematic properties of a valve train. Similar optimization procedure was also performed using Polydyne cam profile synthesis method. Optimized profiles using the Hermite curve are proved to be superior to those using the Polydyne method.
An Improvement of Strain Measuring Technique by using the B-spline Surface Interpolation Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 141~150
The measurement of strains in stamped sheet metal is essential to the design and manufacture of sound sheet metal products. The measured strains can also be used in verifying the reliability of the computer analysis such as finite element analysis. In most engineering applications, strains are measured from the deformed square grids or deformed circular grids in comparison with the initial undeformed grids. In such a case, however, strains are averaged in each grid and the localized strain in a region smaller than a grid size can not be measured. In the present study, the B-spline surface interpolation technique is introduced in order to measure the strains more exactly and effectively. The strains calculated by using the surface interpolation technique are compared with the strains calculated from the three-noded grids as well as with the finite element analysis.
Analysis and Improvement for Performance of the Muffler of a Tracter
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 151~159
The heavy equipment such as tracter has been studied to improve rather the performance of engine than comfort. The mufflers of tracters have various specifications according to their uses. The exact analysis of various mufflers is needed to reduce the level of exhaust moise, a major noise source of engine, to improve the ride quality of tracter. In this study, a software based on Green's function is developed to predict the performance of sound transmission loss for a muffler according to the locations of inlet/outlet pipes. The locations of inlet and outlet pipes can be fixed at different position individually. The conventional muffler has the locations of inlet/outlet pipes on the direction of longitudinal axes. On other hand, the inlet and outlet pipes may be located at the circumferential surface of a test muffler such as one of tracter. The software is verified by analysis and experiment on current muffler of tracter and the improvement technique is proposed to reduce the level of exhaust noise.
A Study on the Effect of the Toe Geometry on the Directional Stability of Mini-bus Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 160~165
In this paper, We discuss the directional stability of a Mini-bus with varying suspension design parameters. We analyzed the vehicle behavior during the cornering in a transient steering condition. We made a vehicle model by use of DADS, which is dynamic analysis software, in order to carry out many cases of simulation with varying design parameters. The effect of toe-geometry change to vehicle stability is evaluated by computer simulation and the actual test. In order to reduce the under steer characteristics of a mini-bus, the amount of toe geometry change should be less than current value.
Studies on Combustion Characteristics and Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms of Natural Gas Premixed Flames
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 166~177
Combustion characteristics of natural gas premixed flames is studied experimently and numerically by adopting a counterflow as a flamelet model in turbulent flames. Flame speeds are measured by employing LDV, and the results show that flame speed increases linearly with strain rate, which agrees well with numerical results. Parametric dependences of extinction strain rates are studied numerically with detailed kinetic mechanism to show that the addition of ethand to a methane premixed flame makes the flame more resistant to strain rate. The effect of pressure on the extinction strain rate is that the extinction strain rate increases up to 10 atm and them decreases, which is explained by competition of chain branching H+O2=OH+O and recombination reaction H+O2+M=HO2+M. Detailed mechanism having seventy-four step is systematically reduced to a nine-step and a five-step thermal NOx chemistry is reduced to two-step. Comparison between the results of the detailed and the reduced mechanisms demonstrates that the reduced mechanism successfully describes the essential features of natural gas premixed flames including extinction strain rate and NOx production.
A Study on Performance and Exhaust Gas Prediction in dedicated CNG Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 178~185
To reduce the particulate matter and nitrogen oxides from diesel engine, many studies are proceeding and being accomplished practically. In this situation CNG engine has important meaning both as a clean fuel and an alternative energy. In order to present the direction and application of CNG, we simulated various operating conditions, that is, spark timing, compression ratio and fuel composition etc. Thus we try to understand how those affect performance and exhaust characteristics. The simulation program results found that the optimum combustion start angle was 21
at 1800rpm and fuel composition affects performance and emissions, also we could understand the formation of emission as crank angle is changed.
A Study on the Effects of the Flexibilities of Suspension System of a Vehicle for Handling Performance
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 186~197
An analysis of handling performance including the compliance effects is performed. Using the primitive design data of suspension systems, a kinematic model and the three kinds of compliance models are developed. The wheel alignments curves are obtained with the multibody dynamic analysis program ADAMS. The compliance effects of each model are discussed. Since the proposed analysis only requires the raw design data, the better prediction of wheel behaviors is possible in suspension design stage.
A Study on Design and Development of an Engine Control System Based on Crank Angle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 198~210
A crank angle-based engine control system has been developed for use as an engine research tool to provide precise control of the fuel injection(timing and duration) and ignition(timing and dwell) in real-time. The engine event information is provided by the engine shaft encoder, and the engine control system uses this information to generate spark and injector control signals for relevant cylinders. Eight different engine types and four different rotary encoder resolutions can be accommodated by this system. Also this system allows a user to individually control the ignition and fuel injection for each cylinder in a simple manner such as through a keyboard or in a real-time operation from a closed-loop control program.
An Experimental Study on Effect of Adding
for Reduction of NOX using Low Temperature Plasma Apparatus
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 211~218
The purpose of this study is to investigate the reduction rate of NOX according to several parameters(NOX concentration, the flow rate of gas, the additional amount of C2H4, input voltage, input frequency and so in) when NOX is reduced by using PPCP(Pulse-induced Plasma Chemical Process). PPCP is based on the plasma-chemical technology, which induces narrow voltage pulses to binary electrode structure.
A Study on the Flow Characteristics of Gasoline Spray using Digital Image Processing
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 4, 1998, Pages 219~227
This paper describes the fuel spray characteristics of gasoline port injectors such as the breakup procedures of liquid fuel, breakup and extinction behaviors of fuel spray at nozzle tip, time history of SMD and velocity distribution of fuel spray in the direction of fuel stream. Pintle-type gasoline fuel injector was used to analyze mentioned spray characteristics. In order to visualize the fuel spray behaviors and to measure the droplet mean diameter and velocities of spray droplets, the Schlieren method, digital image processing and auto-correlation PIV were applied in this study. In addition, the spray characteristics according to the variation of time were considered. The results of fuel spray show that the liquid sheet breakup starts at 10mm downstream actively. The flying time is approximately 4msec between 50mm and 80mm down the nozzle tip. Also, SMD of fuel spray, the number of droplets and fuel velocity distribution at each point of downstream are discussed.