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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 5 - Sep 1998
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Jul 1998
Volume 6, Issue 3 - May 1998
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Mar 1998
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Jan 1998
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Collapse Analysis of Simplified Vehicle Structure Models using Finite Element Limit Analysis
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 1~9
The analysis concerns collapse behavior of framed vehicle models with the change of design parameters at the initial stage of conceptual design. Collapse analysis of a vehicle model with framed structures has been carried out using finite element limit analysis. The analysis makes sequential changes of design parameters from an initial model with frames of uniform section so as to stage then weak parts. As a result of those design changes, the collapse load of a model has been increased and the deflection toward a passenger room has been reduced. The results demonstrate the versatility of finite element limit analysis as a tool that confirms the safety of vehicle models.
A Study of Thermoelectric Effect in Resistance Spot Welding of Aluminium Alloy
;K. T. Rie;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 10~19
The erosion of electrode in spot welding of aluminium alloy by direct current is dependent on the electric polarity. The positive electrode is much more eroded than the negative one. To explain this phenomenon, Peltier effect has been generally accepted as a unique theory. In this study Peltier effect was evaluated by calculations on the basis of some references and experiments. The difference of heat generated by Peltier effect on both electrode surfaces was, however, only 4% of total heat generated during wel- ding. Because of insufficient explanation, Kohler theory, which is mainly affected by thin oxide film, was introduced. A theoretical calculation showed 17% of the temperature difference between the positive and negative electrode, in case "surface voltage" resulted from oxide film was 30% of total contact voltage. This revealed that the erosion of electrode could be more affected by Kohler theory than effect.an effect.
Fracture Mechanical Fatigue Strength Evaluation of IB-Type Spot Welded Lap Joint under Tension-Shear Load
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 20~27
According as the member of the automobile body structure have been thinned their thickness and have become high strength, each part of the body structure has been put more severe stress condition. And, because fatigue strength of the spot welded lap joint is influenced by its geometrical and mechanical factors, welding condition and etc., there needs a quantitative and systematic evaluation method for them. In this study, by considering nugget edge of the spot weld part of the IB-type spot welded lap joint under tension-shear load to the ligament crack. fatigue strength of various IB-type spot welded lap joints was estimated with the stress intensity factor(S.I.F.) KIII which is fracture mechanical parameter. We could find that fatigue strength evaluation of the IB-type spot welded lap joints by KIII is more effective than the maximum principal stress (
1max) at edge of the spot weld obtained from FEM analysis.
A Numerical Study on the Automotive Torque Converter(Part I) - Hydraulic Design and Evaluation of Circulation Flow Rate -
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 28~36
In order to establish the hydraulic design process of the torque converter, pump, turbine and stator were designed by reverse design method including one dimensional analysis, angular momentum distribution and forced vortex design. And the significance of evaluation of the circulation flow rate in torus of the torque converter was verified by numerical calculation if the combined blade rows of pump and turbine. It was confirmed that the computational method using interrow mixing model by Park and Cho was reliable to predict the flow-field and performance of the torque converter.
Effects of Mixture Flow and Ignition Characteristics on the Engine Performance
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 37~44
Lean burn combustion is an important concept for improving the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. However, the lean burning is associated with increased cycle-to-cycle combustion variations due to the ignition instabilities and redu- ced flame propagation rates. Engine stability under lean mixture conditions could be improved by increasing flame speed through enhanced flow characteristics and by securing ignitability with improvement of ignition systems. The effects of flow motion and ignition characteristics on the combustion performances were investigated in a 4-valve SI engine. Flow motions of tumble-swirl were varied with a swirl control valve attached at the inlet ports, while ignition energy and its distribution were controlled in a high -frequency ignition system by changing spark duration and spark frequency. The improvement of lean burn performance by the optimum flow motion and ignition characteristics is discussed.
Optimization of Side Airbag Release Algorithm by Genetic Algorithm
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 45~54
For proper release of side airbags, the onset of crash should be detected first. After crash detection, the algorithm has to make a decision whether the side airbag deployment is necessary. If the deployment is necessary, proper timing has to be provided for the maximum protection of driver or passenger. The side airbag release algorithm should be robust against the statistical deviations which are inherent to experimental crash test data. Deterministic optimization algorithms cannot be used for the side aribag release algorithm since the objective function cannot be expressed in a closed form. From this background, genetic algorithm has been used for the optimization. The optimization requires moderate amount of computation and gives satisfactory results.
Three-Dimensional Flow Analysis of Catalytic Converter for Reducing Emission
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 55~65
A numerical and experimental study of three-dimensional steady incompressible non-reacting flow inside various dual-monolith catalytic converters has been conducted for achievement of performance improvement, reduction of light-off time and longer service life by improving the flow uniformity within the monolith. In this study, the effects of curvature of inlet exhaust pipe and monolith brick length on the flow uniformity and pressure drop within monolith were numerically investigated. The computations are confirmed by measurements of steady flow. The agreement between computations and experiment was relatively good. The result of this study shows that curvature of inlet exhaust pipe and monolith brick length gave a great effect on the flow uniformity and the shorter the brick length, the lower flow uniformity and the less pressure drop.
Torque Characteristics of Cam/Tappet System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 66~74
The operating torque and tribological characteristics of a cam/tappet system of an I.C. engine have an important effect on the engine efficiency. More power is lost for higher operation torque which is affected by the friction of a cam/tappet system. In this work experimental investigation of the torque behavior of a cam/tappet system was conducted to get tribological characteristics. Specifically, the torque was measured with respect to oil temperature and camshaft speed. The torque decreased with increasing camshaft speed because of decreasing friction coefficient but was hardly affected by the oil temperature. Also, the torque was the largest near the cam nose region.
A Study on the Decision of the Mount for the Newly Developed Diesel Engine using the Existing Engine Room
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 75~85
This paper presents the procedures and technique of the decision on the decision on the mount in a diesel engine development newly. To assess the vibration chara- cteristics of the engine plus transmission, their inertia moments are calculated for three engine versions. i.e., NA(Naturally Aspirated), TC(Turbocharged) and TCI(Turbocharged and Intercooled). These data are used to determine the mount layout and stiffness values affecting the noise quality of an engine as well as a vehicle. The main purpose of this paper is to design the mount rubber having the optimal stiffness characteristics through the investigation of the calculation results and the mount conditions when an engine is installed in a vehicle using the existing engine mount room. Thus, this paper describes the optimal mount positions, rubber stiffnesses, natural frequency, mode shapes and so on using ADAMS program to apply the newly developed engines to three different vehicles.
Prediction of Three Dimensional Turbulent flows around a MIRA Vehicle Model
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 86~96
A numerical study has been carried out of three-dimensional turbulent flows around a MIRA reference vehicle model both with and without wheels in computation. Two convective difference schemes with two k-
turbulence models are evaluated for the performance such as drag coefficient, velocity and pressure fields. Pressure coefficients along the surfaces of the model are compared with experimental data. The drag coefficient, the velocity and pressure fields are found to change considerably with the adopted finite difference schemes. Drag forces computed in the various regions of the model indicate that design change decisions should not rely just on the total drag and that local flow structures are important. The results also indicate that the RNG model with the QUICK scheme predicts fairly well the tendency of velocity and pressure fields and gives more reliable drag coefficient rather than the other cases.
Effects of Particle Size and Injector Geometry on Particle Dynamics
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 97~103
The flow structure of particles for two different injectors has been investigated experimentally by means of a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer(PDPA). Two injectors used in the present study are the pipe and contraction nozzle. Particles of 0.8
, and 100
diameter were injected with a constant mass loading ratio of 0.01 and a Reynolds number of 13200. The initial mean velocity and turbulent intensity of particle are strongly influenced by the particle size and the injector geometry. The flow angles of particle at nozzle exit are sensitive to the particle size rather than the injector geometry.
Study on the Mechanical Properties of Power Metallurgy Spline Hub for Clutch Disc
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 104~110
In automotive industries, various processes for the cost reduction have been investigated lively. As one of them, powder metallurgy becomes influential. Compared to other methods used for he manufacture of steel components the Powder metallurgy process is competitive primarily due to the small number of production steps to reach the final geometry and thereby also the energy-efficiency. In this paper, to alter present forging process into powder metallurgy process by which the automotive clutch disc spline hub is manufactured machining process, the mechanical properties of sintered materials is investigated by specimen test. Selecting the 3 kinds of materials-SMF 4040, SMF 9060 and DHP-1, their properties according to heat treatment such as carburizing -tempering and plasma-nitrodizing are compared. By result of specimen test - tensile test, compression ring test, Impacting test, measurment of hardness, and microstructure analysis - we concluded that SMF 9060 and carburizing-tempering heat treatment is an optimal material and heat treatment method for the spline hub. It will be able to reduce manufacturing cost and weight.
Effective Smoothness of Surge Pressure Generated in the Return Line of Active Suspension Hydraulic System for Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 111~118
Surge pressure problem at the oil return line of the hydraulic circuit of an active suspension system for passenger cars was investigated by experiments and numerical analyses. In the numerical analyses, the method of characteristics was used for simulating unsteady flow in the hydraulic system and gas discrete model was adopted for estimating gas volume variation in separated liquid column. In the experiments and analyses, effects of the physical parameters of the accumlator on smoothing surge pressure was elucidated.
The Dynamic Mean Crush Load of Thin-walled Square Tubes
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 119~127
Assuming that the static loaded square tube and the dynamic loaded one have no difference in their characteristics of the crush distance, the theoretical mean dynamic crush load was calculated with respect to the impact speed considering the strain rate sensitivity of the material. The ratio of dynamic to static mean crush load was predicted with previous results. The theoretical analysis was compared with the experimental results of aluminum square tubes axially loaded dynamically.
Kinematic Design Sensitivity Analysis of Vehicle Suspension Systems using a Numerical Differentiation Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 128~137
A numerical approach for performing kinematic design sensitivity analysis of vehicle suspension systems is presented. Compared with the conventional analytical methods, which require explicit derivation of sensitivity equations, the proposed numerical method can be applied to any type of suspension systems without obtaining sensitivity equations, once any kinematic analysis procedure is established. To obtain sensitivity equations, a numerical differentiation algorithm that uses the third order Lagrange polynomial is developed. The algorithm efficiently and accurately computes the sensitivity of various vehicle static design factors with respect to kinematic design variables. Through a suspension design problem, the validity and usefulness of the method is demonstrated.
Vehicle Traction Control System using Fuzzy Logic Theory
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 138~145
Recently, TCS(Traction Control System) is attracting attention, because it maintains traction ability and steerability of vehicles on low-
surface roads by controlling the slip rate between tire and road surface. The development of TCS control law is difficult due to the highly nonlinearity and uncertainty involved in TCS. A fuzzy logic approach is appealing for TCS. In this paper, fuzzy logic controller for TCS is introduced and evaluated by the computer simulation with 8 DOF vehicle model. The result indicate that the fuzzy logic TCS improves vehicle's stability and steerability.
Fatigue Life Prediction of a Multi-Purpose Vehicle Frame
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 146~152
Recently, for the development of vehicle structures and components there is a tendency to increase using numerical simulation methods compared with practical tests for the estimation of the fatigue strength. In this study, an integrated powerful methodology is suggested for fatigue strength evaluation through development of the interface program to integrate dynamic analysis quasi-static stress analysis and fatigue analysis, which were so far used independently. To verify the presented evaluation method, a single and zigzag bump run test, 4-post road load simulation and driving durability test have been performed. The prediction results show a good agreement between analysis and test. This research indicates that the integrated life prediction methodology can be used as a reliable design tool in the pre-prototype and prototype development stage, to reduce the expense and time of design iteration.
Knock Characteristics and Measurement of Knock Location in a 4-Valve SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 153~161
The knock in a spark ignition engine has been investigated to avoid the damage to the engine and unpleasant feeling caused by the pressure waves propagating across the combustion chamber. Knock intensity and knock onset angle were used as physical parameters to quantify the knock characteristics. The knock intensity is defined as a peak to peak value of the bank pass filtered combustion pressure signal and the knock onset angle is determined as the crank angle at which this signal exceeded the threshold level on each cycle. The cyclic variation of knock in four valve single cylinder engine was investigated with these two parameters. The location of autoignition was also examined by ion probes in the cylinder head gasket and squish region in the combustion chamber. For this measurement, a single cylinder engine was modified to accept the pressure transducer, 18 ion probes in the squish region and 8 ion probes in the specially designed PCB (Printed \ulcornerCircuit Board) cylinder head gasket.
Simulation of High Pressure Common-rail Fuel Injection System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 162~173
The high pressure common rail injection system offers a high potential for improving emmisions and performance characteristics in large direct diesel engines. High pressures in the common rail with electronic control allows the fuel quantity and injection timing to be optimized and controlled throughout a wide range of engine rpm and load conditions. In this study, high pressure supply pump, common rail, pipes, solenoid and control chamber, and nozzle were modeled in order to predict needle lift, rate of injection, and total injected fuel quantity. When the common rail pressure is raised up to 13.0 ㎫ and the targer injection duration is 1.0ms, the pressure drop in common rail is about 5.0㎫. The angle of effective pressurization is necessary to be optimized for the minimum pump drive torque and high pressure in common rail depending on the operating conditions. The characteristics of injection were also greatly influenced by the pressures in common rail, the areas of the inlet and exit orifice of the control chamber.
Impinging Atomization of Intermittent Gasoline Sprays
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 174~181
Experimental and analytical studies are presented to characterize the break-up mechanism and atomization processes of the intermittent- impinging-type nozzle. Gasoline jets passing through the circular nozzle with the outlet diameter of 0.4mm and the injection duration of 10ms are impinged on each other. The impingement of fuel jets forms a thin liquid sheet, and the break-up of the liquid sheet produces liquid ligaments and droplets subsequently. The shape of liquid sheets was visualized at various impinging velocities and angles using the planer laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. Based on the Kelvin-Helmholtz wave instability theory, the break-up length of liquid sheets and the droplet diameter are obtained by the theoretical analysis of the sheet disintegration. The mean diameter of droplet is also estimated analytically using the liquid sheet thickness at the edge and the wavelength of the fastest growing wave. The present results indicate that the theoretical results are favorably agreed with the experimental results. The size of droplets decreases after the impingement as the impinging angle or the injection pressure increase. The increment of the injection pressure is more effective than the increment of the impinging angle to reduce the size of droplets.
A Study on the Behaviour of Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Spray by Electronic Hydraulic Fuel Injection System(II)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 182~190
Behaviour of ultra-high pressure diesel spray in a constant-volume pressure chamber was studied with injection pressure ranging from 20 to 160㎫. Sprays were observed by the right angle scattering method. As a result, the spray tip penetration is first proportional to a time, and after that, it is proportional to 0.52 of the time during at the time of injection pressure and back pressure increase. An empirical correlation was made for the parameters of injection pressure, air-fuel density ratio, spray tip distance, spray angle, jet angle of spray and max. spray width.
An Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Water Vapor Partial Pressure in Inlet Air, Spark Advance and Fuel Type on the Flame Propagation in a Spark Ingnition Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 191~198
In this study, the effects of water vapor in inlet air, spark advance and fuel type in the spark ignition engine were investigated through the experiments of combustion and flame arriving pattern analysis using ionization probe. The results of flame propagation experiment using ionization probe show that the flame which ignited from spark plug located at the center of the combustion chamber propagated faster in exhaust side than in intake side due to the mixture flow motion inducted into combustion chamber from intake tumble port at all conditions. And as the partial vapor pressure increased, the flame propagation became slower in all direction. Especially effects were greater for intake side than the exhaust side.
A Study of Spray Characteristics for the Shape of Nozzle by Phase Doppler Analyzer
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 199~210
The skill that utilizes atomization of the liquid has been widely used in the field of industry and engineering. Though there are dozens of methods to make atomization, the pressure type injection nozzle is frequently used in washing of parts, pastourization and painting because it has relatively simple system. This study is to reveal the characteristics of atomizing formed by three different types of the pressure type injection nozzle. We measured velocity and diameter of droplet to compare and analyze characteristic of each nozzle. In case of velocity, atomization of hollow-cone nozzle is irregular than others and change of radial direction is especially large. Atomization of flat nozzle is nearly uniform. In case of diameter, atomization of hollow-cone nozzle is increased rapidly, as measurement point become more distant from the center of nozzle. Atomization of flat nozzle has the most fixed magnitude. Accordingly, full-cone nozzle can be used irrespective of the form of subject and hollow-cone nozzle is proper to the occasion to spray large and smooth subject. Also, flat nozzle is proper to the occasion to spray a part of subject and long groove.
Thermal Behavior Analysis on the Cylinder Block of an Automotive Gasoline Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 211~221
Thermal behavior on the cylinder block of a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke 2.0L SOHC gasoline engine was numerically and experimentally analyzed. The numerical calculation was performed using the finite element method. The cylinder block was modelled as a three dimensional finite element by considering its geometry. The physical domain was devided into hexahedron elements. 16 thermocouples were installed at points of 2mm inside from cylinder wall near top ring of piston in cylinder block, which points have suffered major thermal loads and suggested as proper measurement points for engine design by industrial engineers. Under full load and 9
coolant temperature condition, temperature behavior of cylinder block according to engine speed were analyzed. The results showed that temperature rose gradually to conform to a function of 2nd~4th order of engine speed at intake side, exhaust and siamese side, respectively. As engine load was changed from 100 to 50% by 25% step, temperature curve also conformed to 2nd~7th order function of engine speed. Temperature differences by load condition were similar among 100, 75% and 50%. Under full load and coolant temperature of 11
, temperature behavior were also analyzed and the result also showed conformance to 2n d~7th order function of engine speed. Temperature curve was transferred in parallel upwards corresponding coolant temperature rise.
An Experimental Investigation of a Collision Warning System for Automobiles using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 6, issue 5, 1998, Pages 222~227
Collision warning systems have been an active research and development area as the interests and demands for ASV's (Advanced Safety Vehicles) have increased. This paper presents an experimental investigation of a collision warning system for automobiles. A collision warning HiLS(Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation) system has been designed and used to test the collision warning algorithm, radar sensors, and warning displays under realistic operating conditions in the laboratory. the collision warning algorithm is operated by a warning index, which is a function of the warning distance and the braking distance. The computer calculates velocities of the preceding vehicle and following vehicle, relative distance and relative velocity of the vehicles using vehicle simulation models. The relative distance and the relative velocity are applied to the vehicle simulator controlled by a DC motor