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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 9 - Dec 1999
Volume 7, Issue 8 - Nov 1999
Volume 7, Issue 7 - Sep 1999
Volume 7, Issue 6 - Aug 1999
Volume 7, Issue 5 - Jun 1999
Volume 7, Issue 1 - 00 1999
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Development of An Engine Modeling and an Engine Control Module for an LPG Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 1~9
Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) has been widely used for commercial light-duty vehicles worldwide. Since LPG has a higher octane number and a lower maximum combustion temperature than gasoline , it becomes more popular fuel for reducing exhaust emissions. In tihs study, mathematical models of air intake and fuel delivery system are presented, and a PI-controller is designed for air-fuel ratio control. Hardware and software of an engine control module (ECM) are designed for an LPG engine. The ECM is built using a Motorola MC68HC05. In order to control the air-fuel ratio at stoichiometry, the PI-control algorithm is implemented in the ECM. The experiment results show the proto LPG ECM and its control scheme perform well to meet the stoichiometric air-duel ratio requirement.
Measurement Technique of Required Spark Voltage Using Primary Ignition Voltage and Misfire Application in a SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 10~19
In this study , a simple method has been developed to detect the required spark voltage by using the primary spark voltage instead of the secondary spark voltage. Through engine motoring experiments, this method testified to be quite satisfactory. Though the required spark voltage is affected by many in-cylinder conditions, temperature is one of the most important factors. The temperature increases significantly by combustion and the required spark voltage also changes by the temperature during the expansion stroke. On the basis of this fact, misfire can be monitored by comparing the required spark voltage between compression stroke and expansion stroke. So, in this study, two step ignition method is introduced to monitor combustion at expansion stroke. The test result shows that this method can be used to detect complex misfire pattern.
Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy-duty Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 20~27
The proportion of diesel vehicle is very high in this country . PM and NOx emitted from diesel-posered vehicle is severely ;affecting to be air quality . Especially, diesel particulate matters(DPM) including black smoke are hazardous air pollutants to human health and environment. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions from diesel engines, it is necessary to analyze the characteristics of exhaust emissions from diesel engines in various driving conditions. Recently, there are occasion to increase the fuel consumption rate to engine power up. So, in this study we have tested a diesel engine detached from in use -diesel vehicle and analyzed exhaust emission by driving condition and fuel dispersion rate. From this results, we will prepare the comprehensive management plan for exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles and contribute to the improvement of air pollution in urban area.
Measurement and Analysis of Knock for Rapid Throttle Opening in SI Engines
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 28~35
In this study, investigation of transient knock characteristics in a spark-ignition engine has been carried out. The universal knock threshold values were found by a DFDD method and a NSDBP method which is a non-dimensional version of the SDBP method. Also modified NSDBP method could be used for transient knock detection. In a commercial ECU , spark timing was retarded from the steady -state spark timing during rapid throttle opening to avoid uncomfortable feeling and knock. Knock usually occurred just after the start of rapid throttle opening when spark timing was set, as values for the steady state condition. We found that air/fuel ratio deeply involved with the knock during transient condition. Due to the difference of initial heat release rate, knock occurred more easily at rich air/fuel ratio than at lean air/fuel ratio.
A/F Control of an MPI Engine on Transient Conditions with an Intergration type Ultrasonic Flow Meter
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 36~47
Three-way catalyst converter, cleaning up the exhaust gas contamination of SI engine, has the best efficiency when A/F ratio is near the stoichiometry . The feedback control using oxygen sensors in the exhaust manifold has limits caused by the system delays. So the accurate measurement of air flow rate to an engine is essential to control the fuel injection rate especially on transient condition like the rapid throttle opening and closing. To measure the rapid change of flow rates. the air flow meter for the engine requires quick response, flow reversal detection, and linearity . Tjhe proposed integration type air flow meter (IFM), composed of an ultrasonic flow meter with an integration circuit, has significantly improved the measurement accuracy of air mass inducted through the throttle body. The proposed control method estimated the air mass at the cylinder port using the measured air mass at the throttle . For the fuel dynamic model, the two constant fuel model is introduced . The control parameters from air and fuel dynamics are tuned to minimize the excursion of the air fuel ratio. As a result A/F ratio excursion can be reduced within 5% when throttle rapidly opens and closes at the various engine conditions.
A Prediction Study on the SI engine Characteristics using the Variable Valve Timing
;;Wu deyu;Liu Shenghua;;;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 48~55
In this paper, a zero-dimensional two zone model is developed to investigate the effects of variable valve timing on combustion process in SI engine. The simulation results show that the predicted data has good agreement with experimental ones. The useful information of combustion process such like residual gas fraction cylinder pressure, cylinder temperature and NO concentration can be obtained and the effects of engine variables on combustion processes and performances can be evaluated.
Effect of Opening Pressure and Ambient Pressure on the Characteristics of Atomization in Early Stage of Diesel Spray
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 56~62
The disintegration of transient diesel spray in early was investigated at different opening pressure and chamber pressure by measns of shadowgraph method using nanolite and still camera. Diesel spary was injected into the spray chamber which was charged with high pressure nitrogen gas. Atthe begining of injection, a liquid column that was almost the same diameter as the nozzle hole was observed . Spray tip penetration and spray angle were always increased with an increase in opening pressure.
A Study on the Flow Characteristics of Gasoline Spray across the Suction Air Stream
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 63~74
When a fuel was injected with opening the intake valve of a port fuel injection engine, the spray atomization and flow characteristics in the intake port have a strong influence on the mixture formation of a combustion chamber. Thus , this study was to clarify the spray flow characteristics of the air-assist gasoline spray with fine dropkets across the suction air stream in model intake port. For the simulated opening intake valve in port, suction air stream was varied to 10m/s ∼30m/s. And fuel pressur ewas fixed to 300kPa, but air assist pressure was varied to 0∼25kPa for a vairable spray conditions. Spray flow trajectory was investigated by means of laser sheet visualization and the measurements of droplet sizes and velocities were made by PDPA system. Measured droplets within the spray flow field were subdivided into five size groups and then, the flow characteristics of droplet size groups were investigated to the spray across a suction air stream.
Development of Electronically Controlled CVT for Hybrid Passenger Car
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 75~81
In this paper, the details of electronically controlled CVT is described , which Kia Motor company recently developed in prototype form for hybrid passenger car. This transmission has two input shafts, one for engine and the other for traction motor. The shaft for traction motor is located at rear side which is extended from primary pulley shaft and connected to traction motor through adapter gear box. Adopting two input system, various driving mode is available such as motor alone driving in hybrid vehicle application. As far as electrohydraulic system concerned , this transmission uses two bleed type variable force solenoids for line pressure and ratio control, and one on-off solenoid for clutch control. Another feature for this transmission is that oil pump for transmission is separate from CVT for supplying oil pressure even at vehicle standstill.
In -Cylinder Flow Characteristics Varying Intake Valve Lift
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 82~88
The object of this study is to find new evaluation index for in-cylinder flow chracteristics istead of current swirl, tumble coefficient using steady flow test rig on intake port system. To this end, port flow system. To this end, port flow rig test was conducted on DOHC head varying intake valve lift respectively. Finally combination angular coefficient and inclination angle were introduced as new evaluation index for in-cylinder angularflow characteristics instead of swirl and tumble coefficient.
A Design on the chassis frame of passenger car using beam and spring Elements
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 89~96
This paper presents the optimization design technique on the joint stiffness and section characteristic factors of chassis frame, by using beam and spring elements in a given design package. Two correction methods are used for the optimization design of chassis frame. First is the equivalent inertia of moment method in relation to the section characteristic factors of joint zones, which are thickness , width and height of frame channel section. Second is the rotational spring element with joint stiffness of joint zones. The CAE example shows that the relationship of section characteristic factors and joint stiffness can effectively be used in designing chassis frame. In this point, if static and dynamic targets are given, the joint-zone and section characteristic factors of chassis frame intended may be designed and defined by using beam and rotational spring elements.
A Study on Quantitiative visualization of Vibration Mode Shape of Disk Brake by Using Stroboscopic ESPI
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 97~104
Brake squeal noise has been a problem since the early days of motoring . It is important to obtain vibration mode shape for reduction of brake noise . Stroboscopic Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry is a very powerful measuring method for study of vibrating objects in static state compared with conventional methods because this method can give both resonance frequency and quantitative visualization of vibration mode shape at the same time. In this paper, we performed qualitative visualization and quantitative analysis of vibration mode shpae of disk brake by using stroboscopic ESPI and phase shifting method. The stroboscopic wavefronts are obtained by chopping continuous wave laser beam using acousto-optic modulator .Experiments were performed at the same constraint conditions as disk brake of the practical vehicle as far as possible. The experimental results of this paper show quantitative measurement of vibration mode shape and quantiative visualization of vibration amplitude of disk brake with 3D plotting.
HILS(Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation) Development of a Steering HILS System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 105~111
The paper presents development of a Hardware-In-the-Loop simulation (HILS) system for the purpose of testing performance, stability, and reliability of an electronic power steering system(EPS). In order to realistically test an EPS by the proposed HILS apparatus, a simulated uniaxial dynamic rack force is applied physically to the EPS hardware by a pnumatic actuator. An EPS hardware is composed of steering wheel &column, a rack & pinion mechanism, andas motor-driven power steering system. A command signal for a pneumatic rack-force actuator is generated from the vehicle handling lumped parameter dynamic model 9software) that is simulated in real time by using a very fast digital signal processor. The inputs to the real-time vehicle dynamic simulation model are a constant vehicle forward speed and from wheel steering angles driven through a steering system by a driver. The output from a real-time simulation model is an electric signal that is proportional to the uniaxial rack force. The vehicle handling lumped parameter dynamic model is validated by a fully nonlinear constrained multibody vehicle dynamic model. The HILS system simulation results sow that the proposed HILS system may be used to realistically test the performance stability , and reliability of an electronic power steering system is a repeated way.
A Study of Shrinkage Phenomena on Injection modeled Pa Metal Insert
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 112~118
Shrinkage behavior was investigated to obtain more accurate dimensions of injected molding parts for free and restricted shrinkage conditions. various parameters for metal inserted injection process, such as thickness of resin, holding pressure and time, mo이 temperature and restriction condition of mold, were considered for the analysis of shrinkage phenomena. For numerical analysis, MOLDFLOW software was used to find the deterministic parameters of filling time, temperature, pressure and holding time. Also , experimental shrinkage effects were measured through actual injection molding process and the resin thickness was under controlled as 3 mm , 5 mm, and 7mm for the shapes of plastic gear made of Polymide(PA) and Polyxymethlene(POM). The main parameters of these injection processes were found to be holding pressure, holding time and mold temperature in the case of metal inserted molding.
Buckling Analysis of Laminated Composite Cylindrical Shell under Combined Load State
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 119~130
This paper deals buckling behavior of laminated composite cylindrical shells subjected to combination of axial compression and torison. Linear and nonlinear finite element analysis are carried out . the influence of load type, load ratio, fiber orientation angle, stacking sequence, and intial imperfect on buckling behavior is discussed.
An experimental study on resonance reduction of system with one degree of freedom by magneticfluid
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 131~137
Under magnetism , as the magneticfluid is being itself magnetized, increase the apparent viscosity because of its body force and has the magnetic characteristics in response ot magnetism, the magnetic fluid is getting attention in various field. The magnetic fluid has the fluidity, which is a special characteristics of fluid and the magneticism , which is a special one of solid. Using this characteristics, this study has been proceeded to show the basic data for developing of a viscous damper with magnetism fluid as hydraulic fluid. Experimental study shows that the application of magnetic field is effective reducing the resonance characteristics of the spring-mass system.
A Study on the Preparation and Wear Characteristics of TiC Hardfaced Layers on Aluminium alloy by PTA Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 138~145
Surface hardening of AC4C aluminium alloy with TiC powders was obtained by plasma transferred are (PTA) method, Bead appearance, microstrucutre and wear behavior were characterized in relation to the torch current, powder feed rate and wear condition. The width and the depth of bead were mainly increased with increasing torch current. The comparison of wear behavior between AC4C alloy and PTA treated AC4C alloy showed the remarkable enhancement of wear resistance.
A Study on the Performance Characteristics of the VDC Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 146~157
Safety systems for road vehicles have been rapidly developed in recent years. Especially, the VDC(Vehicle dynamics Control) system is a new active safety system for road vehicles which controls its dynamic vehicle motion in emergency situations . In the case of configuring the VDC system by utilizing the ABS(Anti-lock Brake System), the role of a control logic which directly influences the vehicle motion is very important. In this study the performance of the VDC vehicle was compared to the performances of the CBS (Conventional Brake system )and ABS vehicle. For various driving conditions , the simulation of vehicle dynamics with known VDC control logics was performed. Analysis results showed the VDC vehicle could stably perform even on the road of low coefficient of friction. In addition it was shown that the basic control logic for the VDC system could outstandingly improve driving stability in the case of braking as well as constant speed cruising.
Measurement of Mechanical-acoustic Transfer Functions of Vehicles by Combination of Mechanical and Acoustic Excitations
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 158~164
In this paper a simple measurement technique for mechanical-acoustic transfer functions is proposed . The mechanical-acoustic transfer functions, generally , are measured through mechanical excitations ; impact hammers or shakers. Recently , by virtue of vibro-acoustical reciprocity principle, they are measured through acoustic excitations : loudspeakers. This kind of test needs to measure the volume velocity , the radiation characteristics of a sound source. Because the volume velocity of the sound source is changed by driving signal , it is difficult to measure it. However , the new method in this paper needs not to measure the volume velocity of a sound source by combination of mechanical and acoustic excitations. Moreover, this method has the methodological advantages, such as usage of a general loudspeaker for the reciprocal excitation, no sptatial limitations for measurements of mechanical-acoustic transfer functions.
Modeling of Absorption/Desorption of Fuel in Oil film on the Cylinder Liner in SI Engines
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 165~171
An oil layer fuel absorption /desorption modeling was developed. Multi-component fuel model has showed more reasonable condition than single component model. Henry's constant which is related to solubility is the most important variable in the oil layer absorption/desorption mechanism. The oil segments close to the top of the cylinder liner have more significant contribution to the fuel absorption and desorption process than other oil segments. At the warmed-up condition, the effect of the engine speed on the precent fuel absorbed/desorbed is minimal. But at low il film temperature, percent of fuel abosrbed/desorbed is decreased with increasing the engine speed because of low value of molecular diffusion coefficient of fuel. The amount of fuel trapped in the piston crevice is from 2 to 2.3 times larger than that of fuel in the oil fim. However, fuel form oil film slowly desorbs into the combustion chamber compared with fuel from the piston crevices when the engines is cold.
Unsteady State Heat Transfer Analysis of Drum Brake System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 172~181
The brakes employed on commercial vehicles must be able to withstand three types of demanding services which are use-emergency stops from high speed, many repeated stops as in a delivery or bus route, and speed control in mountain descents. Two type of friction brakes are in use ; drum breaks and disc brakes. Drum brakes are of the internally expanding type in which two shoes fitted externally with friction material are forced outward against the inside of a rotating drum on the wheel unit. In this case, the Braking power is produced by the friction force between a drum and a lining, and is converted into heat. In this research an unsteady state heat transfer analysis for drum brake system of heavy truck has been performed by ABAQUS/standard code in the case of single-braking and the repeated braking condition. The temperature histories obtained by the finite Element analysis have been compared with the result calculated by the simplified formulation and the result obtained by the experiment of real vehicle conditions.
Occupant Analysis and Seat Design to Reduce the Neck Injury for Rear End Impact
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 182~194
Occupant injury in rear end impact is rapidly becoming one of the most aggravating traffic safety problems with high human suffering and societal costs. Although rear end impact occurs at relatively low speed , it may cause permanent disability due to neck injuries resulting from an abrupt moment, shear force , and tension/compression force at the occipital condyles. The analysis is performed for a combined occupant-eat model response, using the SAFE(Safety Analysis for occupant crash Environment) computer program. The computational results are verified by those from sled tests. A parameter study is conducted for many physical and mechanical properties. Seat design has been performed based on the design of experiment process with respect to five parameters; seat-back upholstery stiffness, torsional stiffness of the seat-back. An orthogonal array is selected from the parameter study. A good design has been found from the analysis results based on the orthogonal array. The results show that reductions of stiffness in seat-back upholstery and joint are the most effective for preventing neck injuries.
A study on the structural characteristics and roll behavior of suspension for the section profile of torsion beam
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 195~202
The kinematic and complicance characteristics of torsion beam axle is structurally related to the location and section profile of torsion beam and the span from body mounting point to wheel center. This paper presents the effect of section properties in torsion beam on the structural characteristics and roll behavior of suspension. The structural characteristics is on the maximum stress on the welding area of torsion beam and the roll behavior is on roll steer and roll-camber of suspension which are important for controllability and stability in cornering. Four factors are used for the section design of torsion beam, which are thickness , midline length, are inner radius, and sector half angle . Through the structural and quasi-static analysis made for six torsion beam axle models, it can be noticed that roll steer and the structural durability of suspension are closely related to warping constant and shear center in section properties of torsion beam.
Damageability , Repairability and Safety of Vehicles at Low Speed 40% Offset Crash Test
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 203~211
The research committee for automobile repairs (RCAR), an international body of insurance research centers, has adopted the typical low speed crash test based on an average damage level in crash accidents to estimate the damageability , repairability and safety. The characteristics of body acceleration and the probability of injury are investigated based on damaged components, accelerations of body and injured dummy to analyze damageability and the driver's safety under low speed crash environment. It is found from the experimental results that the probability of head and thorax injuries are very low comparing to the injury criteria of FMVSS No.208. Furthermore, it is suggested that the deployment of airbag may not be necessary at RCAR low speed frontal crash test.
Development of Vehicle Dynamics Control System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 7, issue 9, 1999, Pages 212~219
This paper describes the NANDO VDC (Vehicle Dynamics Control) system for the vehicle stability enhancement and consists of the control strategies , computer simulation and tests on the various road surface. This VDC system controls the dynamic vehicle motion in the emergency situation such as the final oversteer/understeer andallows the vehicle to follow the course as desired by the driver. The system is based on an active yaw control and its performance verified by the test is shown. Also the comparison between the MANDO VDC System and a competitor is carried out.