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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Nov 2000
Volume 8, Issue 5 - Sep 2000
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Jul 2000
Volume 8, Issue 3 - May 2000
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Mar 2000
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jan 2000
Selecting the target year
Measurement and Analysis of Instantaneous Surface Temperature and Unsteady Heat Flux at Combustion Chamber of DOHC Gasoline Engine ; Cylinder Linder
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 1~11
Instantaneous temperature probes were manufactured by pressing method. By using these probes, the instantaneous surface temperature and unsteady heat flux in the cylinder liner of DOHC engine were measured. The main results are as follows; ⅰ) the instantaneous surface temperature of cylinder liner are affected by the contact of piston ring as well as burning gas. ⅱ) the wall temperature of the siamese portion is much higher than other parts. ⅲ) it was shown that the rising trend of heat flux by burning gas are nearly limited to the 1/2-stroke distance from the top of cylinder liner
A Study on Performance and Characteristic of Exhaust emission in CNG Dedicated Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 12~17
In this study a heavy duty diesel engine was modified into a 11-liter 6-cylinder SPI CNG dedicated engine, which was tested to investigate the performance and exhaust emission under the maximum load condition as the engine speed was increased in the range of 1,000∼2,200 rpm. The exhaust emission was also measured at D-13 mode as well as AVL-8 mode.
A Study on Spray Behaviors with Variation of Nozzle Diameter in the Diesel Combustion Chamber
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 18~27
The spray models incorporated into the GTT code were tested for free spray, spray in swirling flows and the sprays impinging on a flat wall. And the validity of the models has been confirmed by comparing the calculated results with the experimental data. Using this code, the spray behavior in the diesel combustion chamber have been numerically analyzed for variation of nozzle diameter. Also, the effects of nozzle diameter in diesel combustion was investigated experimentally by measuring the performance in a D.I engine. This study provides the information for the spray characteristics and emissions with variation of nozzle diameter. As a result, it has shown that decreasing nozzle diameter resulted in improving smoke and specific fuel consumption in a middle speed range.
Diesel Spray Developement from VCO nozzles for High Pressure Direct-Injection
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 28~36
Spray characteristics of diesel fuel injection is one of the most important factors in diesel combustion and pollutant emissions especially in HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines where the interval between the onset of combustion and the evaporation of atomized fuel is relatively short, An investigation into various spray characteristics from different holes of VCO(Valve Covered Orifice) nozzles was performed and its results were compared to standard sac nozzle. The global characteristics of spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration, and spray pattern were measured from the spray images which were frozen by an instantaneous photography with a spark light source. For better understanding of spray behavior, SMD of the fuel sprays from multi hole nozzles were measured with back light imaging while the sprays from the other holes are covered by a purpose-built nozzle cap. The investigation manifestly reveals the different spray patterns at the beginning of injection produced by VCO nozzles can be identified as three distinct types with their own macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, while macroscopic non-uniformity disappears at 0.9∼1.0ms from the start of injection.
Soot Measurement in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Using Laser Sheet (2nd reprot: The Measurement for diameter and number density of Soot)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 37~45
The technique of laser sheet beam has been applied to optically accessible diesel engine for the quantitative measurement of soot. The results provide the information for us for reduction of soot in diesel engine. We used both LIS nad LII techniques simultaneously in this study. LIS and LII images show the quantitative distribution of the soot concentration in an optically accessible diesel engine. In this study, several results were obtained by the simultaneous measurement of LIS and LII technique. The diameter and number density of soot in combustion chamber of the test engine were obtained from ATDC 20
. The increase rate of soot diameter was about 40
between ATDC 20
. And the number density of soot decreased significantly between ATDC 20
Reengineering of Bus Engine Room Structure for Preventing Thermal Damages
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 46~55
Four types of different flow inlet models were tested to improve the flow uniformity at the inlet of the radiator and to prevent thermal damages of auxiliary units from the hot air in the bus engine room. Measurements and numerical calculations were performed and their results were in a good agreement with each other. Simultaneously temperature measurements were carried out under the conditions of actual bus driving. As designing the new flow inlet at the partition board which seperates the engine space and radiator space, flow circulation can be achieved and fresh air comes into the engine room from the bottom. It was proved that new inlet makes the one air temperature cooling down in the engine room, the other uniformity improvement.
The Frictional Modes of Barrel Shaped Piston Ring under Flooded Lubrication
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 56~64
A friction force measurement system using the floating liner method was developed to study the frictional behavior of piston rings. The measurement system was carefully designed to control the effect of the piston secondary motion and the temperature of cylinder wall and oil. The friction force between the barrel shaped piston ring and the cylinder liner, was measured under the condition of flooded oil supply. The measured friction forces were classified into five frictional modes with regard to the combination of predominant lubrication regimes(boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication) and stroke regions(midstroke and dead centers). The modes could be identified on the Stribeck diagram of the friction coefficients and the dimensionless number of ㎼/p, where the friction coefficients are evaluated at near the midstroke and dead centers.
Estimation of Real Driving Fuel Consumption Rate of a Vehicle When Driving on Road Including Grade
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 65~76
To measure the fuel consumption rate of a vehicle, a car is tested on chassis dynamometer following given driving mode. But the fuel consumption rate measured by this method may be somewhat different from that measured in on-road driving conditions. It may be due to not considering road grade in driving modes. In this study, new driving modes which include road grade are proposed, and the simulation program to estimate the real driving fuel consumption rate of a vehicle is developed. On-road car tests to verify the simulation program are carried out and the results of the simulation are analysed and compared with those of the experiments.
Thermal Stress Analysis of Brake Drum by Using Finite Element Analysis
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 77~84
Nonlinear transient analysis is executed to obtain the temperature distribution, and to evaluate the thermal stress of brake drum by using FEA(finite element analysis). The result induces the reason why hair crack and the cause of drum failure occurs and the way how stress of drum decreases. The temperature of drum is in proportion to the drum thickness and it processes nonlinear changes at every points of drum. The higher bulk temperature raises, the more stress difference between inner surface and outer surface makes and the highest bulk temperature is at the corner section. It is necessary for the diminishment of the drum stress to make air flow, between drum and rim, move lively and use the materials of higher conductivity. The hair crack and the cause of drum failure seem to be started at the near corner section.
Shift Control Strategy for Electric Controlled CVT Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 85~97
In this paper, static and dynamic shift control stategies of CVT speed ratio are suggested. For the static shift control, in order to operate engine on the optimal operating region, a fuzzy control logic is used. In the fuzzy logic, S- factor that is defined as a degree of sportiness is introduced. Simulation results show that the static shift control strategy based on the fuzzy logic selects the optimal operating point automatically between the economy and the sporty mode corresponding to the driver's desire and the driving condition. For the dynamic shift control strategy, a shift speed map is suggested which determines the shift sped as fast or slow based on Δi, the difference between the desired speed ratio id and the actual speed ratio i, and throttle opening. It is seen from the simulation results that the CVT shift speed is determined by the dynamic shift control strategy to provide appropriate performance and comfort for the driver's demand and driving condition. Additionally, experiments are performed to investigate the dynamic performance of the shift speed for the lift foot up. From the experimental results, it is found that improved shift feeling can be obtained by the dynamic shift control strategy when lift foot up occurs.
A Study on an Engine Control System using an Object Oriented Programming Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 98~109
A new PC-based Engine Control system (ECS) is developed using an object oriented programming method. This system provides more convenient environment for engine tests, easier user interface and extended functions. A Windows-based ECS software is developed with class, and the class structure is built on encapsulation and abstraction. The closed-loop engine control scheme can be easily constructed by using dynamic link library and multitasking. This means that a user can perform desired experiments without clear knowledge of the hardware structure of the ECS. Also this system allows a user to individually control the ignition and fuel injection for each cylinder in a simple manner such as through a keyboard/mouse or in a real-time operation from a closed-loop control program
A study on the Fatigue Life Prediction Method of the Spot-welded Lap Joint
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 110~118
For reasonable fatigue design and estimation of fatigue durability considered fatigue strength and stiffness of the automotive body structure, many fatigue data must be insured according to the shapes, materials, and welding conditions of the spot welded lap joints. However, because it is actually difficult problem, there is need to establish a new method to be able to predict its fatigue life without any additional fatigue tests. Therefore, In order to improve such problems, in this study, the maximum stress function presenting the
relation was defined form the relation between
. By using the fatigue data on the IB type spot-welded lap joints previously obtained from the fatigue test results, fatigue life of the spot-welded lap joint previously obtained from the fatigue test results, fatigue life of the spot-welded lap joint having a certain dimension was tried to predict without any additional fatigue tests. And, its result was verified by
curves. Obtained conclusion are as follows, 1) a maximum stress function considered the relation of the maximum principal stress, fatigue load, and the effects of geometrical factors of the IB type spot-welded lap joint was suggested. 2) the fatigue life predicted by the maximum principal stress function and the relation of
was well agreed with the fatigue life obtained through the actual fatigue test result. 3) the fatigue life of the IB type spot-welded lap joint having a certain dimension is able to be predicted without any additional fatigue tests from the fatigue life prediction method by the maximum principal stress function.
Application of Drawbead Expert Model to Finite Element Analysis of Forming Process for Auto-Body Panel
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 119~129
In order to show the efficiency and accuracy of an expert drawbead model, finite element simulations of auto-body panel stampings are carried out. For numerical modeling of the drawbead of a panel die, the drawbead restraining force and bead-exit thinning calculated by the expert model are imposed to a node nearest to the drawbead position as a boundary condition, Finite element simulations show that the expert model provides the accurate solution, guarantees the stable convergence, and has the merit in the computation time.
A Study on Occupant Neck Injury in Rear End Collisions
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 130~138
The position of the automobile seat back is very important for the neck injury in the rear-end collisions. The effects of the position have been evaluated experimentally. A sled simulator is utilized with a velocity of 33 km/h. The position is varied by the angle of seat back from 25 to 65 degrees. All the configurations of the seat are fixed except the angle. The neck injuries are calculated by the equations accepted in the industries. Also, the sled tests with other velocities are carried out for the comparison study. Using the results of the test, the effects of seat back strength are discussed to minimize the occupant neck injury in rear end collisions.
Development of a Model for the Analysis of Occupant Response subjects in Low-Speed Rear-End Collision
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 139~150
Although a number of neck injuries are generated, the data which quantify the kinematic response of the human head and cervical spine in low-speed rear-end automobile collisions is very limited. On this problem, just few in vitro experimental research or some experimental research using dummy on neck injury by rear-end collision was conducted, thus systematic research is requested on full scale injury mechanism. An occupant model for the response of the occupant subject to rear-end collision using commercial dynamics package DADS was developed. Developed model shows more close agreement with the experimental data compared with the MADYMO simulation results for the cases of
kph in sled test. For the case of
kph and 33.5 kph with production seat, model also shows its reliable response compared with experimental results using Hybrid III and Hybird III with RID.
Finite Element Stress Analysis of Coil Springs using a Multi-level Substructuring Method II : Validation and Analysis
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 151~162
This study is concerned with computerized multi-level substructuring methods and stress analysis of coil springs. The purpose of substructuring methods is to reduce computing time and capacity of computer memory by multiple level reduction of the degrees of freedom in large size problems that are modeled by three dimensional continuum finite elements. In this paper, the spring super element developed is investigated with tension, torsion, and bending of a cylindrical bar in order to verify its accuracy and efficiency for the multi-level substructuring method. And then the algorithm is applied to finite element analysis of coil springs. The result demonstrates the validity of the multi-level substructuring method and the efficiency in computing time and memory by providing good computational results in coil spring analysis.
Development of Fast Side-impact Sensing Algorithm
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 163~170
Accident statistics shows that the portion of fatal occupant injuries due to side impacts is considerably high. The side impact usually leads to a severe intrusion of side structure into the passenger compartment. Furthermore, the safety zone for the side impact is relatively small compared to the front impact. Those kinds of physics for side impact frequently result in a fatal injury for the occupant. Therefore, NHTSA and EEVC are trying to intensify the regulation for the occupant protection against side impact. Both the regulation and recent market trends are asking for an installation of side airbag. There are several types of system configuration for side impact sensing. In this paper, we adopt the acceleration-based remote sensing method for the side airbag control system. We mainly focus on the development of hardware and crash discrimination algorithm of remote sensing unit. The crash discrimination algorithm needs fast decision of airbag firing especially for high-speed side impact such as FMVSS 214 and EEVC tests. It is also required to distinguish between low-speed fire and no-fire events. The algorithm should have a sufficient safety margin against any misuse situation such as hammer blow, door slam, etc. This paper introduces several firing criteria such as acceleration. velocity and energy criteria that use physical value proportional to crash severity. We have made a simulation program by using Matlab/Simulink to implement the proposed algorithm. We have conducted an algorithm calibration by using real crash data for 2,500cc vehicle. The crash performance obtained by the simulation was verified through a pulse injection method. It turned out that the results satisfied the system requirements well.
Human Response Measurement and Ride Quality Evaluation for Seats having various Material Porperties
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 171~180
This paper deals with the whole-body vibration and ride quality evaluation in the vertical direction. The responses of the floor, hip, back, and head in four subjects were measured for various seats when the floor was excited by random vibration with r.m.s of 1.2m/s2 in the vertical direction. In the transmissibility between the hip and floor, the fundamental mode is observed at 4.4 Hz. In the transmissibility between the head and floor, the fundamental mode at 4.4Hz and the second mode at 7.6Hz are observed. It is shown that the head motion is 41% larger than the hip motion and the response of female subject is larger than that of male subject. The response without backrest also was compared with that with backrest. From these human responses ride quality of five seats were evaluated by the ride value such as transfer ration having frequency weighting function is the statistical sense. It is observed that the seat having high damping property can reduce the most acceleration exposed to hip in the statistical sense for all ride valves, while the seat having different seat spring doesn't show statistical difference.
Three-Dimensional Numerical Study on the Aerodynamic Characteristics around Corner Vane in Heavy-Duty Truck
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 181~189
The aerodynamic characteristics of large transport vehicle has become more and more important in recent vehicle design to improve driving performance in high speed cruising and raise the product valve with regard to a comfortable driving condition. Hence, detailed knowledge of the flow field around truck coner vane is essential to improve fuel efficiency and reduce the dirt contamination on vehicle body surface. In this study, three-dimensional flow characteristics around corner vane attached to truck cabin were computed for the steady, incompressible, and high speed viscous flow, adopting the RNG k-
turbulence model. In order to investigate the influence of configuration and structure of corner vane, computations were carried out for four cases at a high Reynolds number, Re=4.1
106 (based on the cabin height). The global flow patterns, drag coefficient and the distributions such as velocity magnitude, turbulent kinetic energy around the corner vane, were examined. As a result of this study, we could identify the flow characteristics around corner vane for the variation of corner vane length and width. Also, suggest the improved structure to reduce the dirt contamination in cabin side.
Developemtn of Vehicle Dynamics Program AutoDyn7(II) - Pre-Processor and Post-Processor
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 3, 2000, Pages 190~197
A graphic vehicle modeling pre-processing program and a visualization post-processing program have been developed for AutoDyn7, which is a special program for vehicle dynamics. The Rapid-App for GUI(Graphic User Interface) builder and the Open Inventor for 3D graphic library have been employed to develop these programs in Silicon Graphics workstation. A Graphic User Interface program integrates vehicle modeling pre-processor, AutoDyn7 analysis processor, and visualization post-processor. In vehicle modeling pre-processor, vehicle hard point data for a suspension model are automatically converted into multibody vehicle system data. An interactive graphics capabilities provides suspension modeling aides to verify user input data interactively. In visualization post-processor, vehicle virtual test simulation results are animated with virtual testing environments.