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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Nov 2000
Volume 8, Issue 5 - Sep 2000
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Jul 2000
Volume 8, Issue 3 - May 2000
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Mar 2000
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jan 2000
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The Investigations of the Characteristics of Unsteady Piston Temperature Using Radiotracers-The Effect of Piston Ring Gap Position and Blow By Gas
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 1~9
To understand the thermal characteristics around the piston ring gap ring gap positions and piston temperatures are measured simultaneously. The locations of piston ring gap are measured by the radio-tracer method and piston temperature are measured by a K-type thermocouple and scissors type linkage system. From these experiments following facts are clarified. Piston temperatures fluctuate according to the piston ring rotation. And the temperature fluctuation is mainly affected by top ring gap position irrelevant to the second ring fop position. If the top ring gap position increases and the temperature of top ring groove shows maximum value when top rin gap position coincide with temperature measuring point. The maximum amplitude of temperature fluctuation which is proportional to the blow by gas rate is around 12-15
The Fuel Spray Structure of High Pressure Gasoline Injector in a Constant Volume Chamber
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 10~17
This work presents an investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of fuel spray injected from a high pressure hollow cone swirl injector into a constant volume chamber. Laser tomography visualization was used to interrogate the fuel and air mixing characteristics and the effect of chamber pressure and temperature increase was analyzed, Preliminary results on spray development showed that mixing effect tends to increase with the increase of injection pressure and chamber gas pressure yielding a decrease of spray penetration and an attenuation of well-defined vortex structure. Topological analysis of the spray structure has been performed to initiate the understanding of mixing and vaporization process. For the present experimental conditions fuel injection pressure and chamber gas pressure appear as the dominant factors which govern the transient mixing characteristics. Moreover spray atmixation characteristics are improved by increasing chamber gas temperature.
Measurements of Mixture Strength Using Spark Plug
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 18~25
Ion current in an S.I engine cylinder is measured with the spark plug as a probe. The peak values are confirmed to show a fair correlation with local air-fuel ration and engine speed which implies that the ion current measured at the spark plug may provide a signal for the local mixture strength which is the key parameter in precise fuel control for future engines especially of gasoline direct-injected lean burn engines.
Effect of Value Timing on Residual Gas Fraction and Combustion Characteristics at Part Load Condition in an SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 26~33
In-cylinde flow and mixture formation are key contributors to both idle stability and combustion stability at part load condition in SI engine. The real time measurements of air-fuel ration and in- cylinder residual gas fraction are particularly important to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms for combustion and emissions especially during cold start and throttle transient condition. This paper reports the cycle resolved measurements of residual gas fraction and equivalence ration near speak plug with value timing change and their effects on combustion characteristics at part load. The results showed that the effect of intake value opening on the residual gas fraction was smaller than that of exhaust valve closing because of the decreases of exhaust gas reverse flow from exhaust port. The variation of equivalence ratio near spark plug increased with the increase of value overlap and it closely related with heat release rate and combustion stability
Effects of Aftertreatments of Emission Performance in Heavy duty diesel
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 34~41
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) with diesel particulate filter(DPF) on heavy duty diesel engine. The exhaust gas was recirculated to the intake manifold after the smoke was eliminated in the DPF, The major conclusions of this research are i)at each engine speed EGR ratio was able to 60% maximum ii) the amount of NOx emissions was decreased to 90% at high engine load and to more than 60% at low engine load and iii) the amout of NOx emissions was increased to five times according to the increase of engine load but the effect of EGR is more effective at high engine load.
Investigation on the Sauter Mean Diameter of an Air-Assisted Fuel Injector -Operating Parameter Consideration
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 42~50
Drop size distribution of an air-assisted fuel injector(AAFI) was investigated. Influence of parameters such as ambient air density supply pressure and air-liquid mass ratio(ALR) was examined through both measurement and analysis. The Sauter mean diameter
varied from 9 to 25
m throughout all experimental conditions. An empirical correlation for droplet size was obtained. Analytical correlations for predicting
with respect to operating conditions were also derived through energy consideration and introduction of a simplified model of the from the empirical fitting was adapted to the original equation the proposed correlation in this study matched more closely with measured results. The current correlation exhibited a favorable study matched more closely with measured results. The current correlation exhibited a favorable prediction for
compared to that by the empirical correlation at selected experimental conditions so that it may be used to predict atomization performance of the AAFI at operating conditions which was not covered in the measurements. After validation the analytical equation was applied to survey the feasible operating conditions for gasoline direct injection application.
SI Engine Hydrocarbon Emissions Reduction with Secondary Air Injection and Coolant Control
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 51~58
It is well known that the majority of the emissions measured from vehicle exhaust in the US Federal Test Procedure(FTP-75) are emitted during the first 60 seconds. This paper describes an experimental study on SI engine emissions reduction after cold start with interval secondary air injection and coolant control. Secondary air injection after cold start to reduce exhaust emissions causes an exothermic reaction at the exhaust port and gives sufficient air to the catalyst. For that reason engine-out emissions oxidized in the exhaust port and the rapid heating of a catalytic converter after cold start with CSAI and ISAI are estimated. The influence of the coolant temperature on SI engine emissions has been estimated. In the present studycoolant control of the cylinder head tempeature is used to investigate the effect of coolant temperature on SI engine emissions. The results show that engine-out hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are considerably reduced with interval secondary air injection and coolant control.
The Effect of Oxygen in Fuel on the Exhaust Gas Emissions in Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 59~67
Recently the world is faced with the very serious problems related to the increasing use of the conventional petroleum fuels. THe air pollutions in big cities were also occurred by the exhaust emissions from automobiles. many researchers have been attracted various oxygenated fuels as an alternative fuel and a renewable fuel for the measure of these problems. In this study the effect of oxygen in fuel on the exhaust gas emissions has been investigated with oxygenated fuels as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The exhaust gas emission were investigated by comparing with that of the diesel fuel. The vegetable fuel oil such as soybean oil gives lower smoke level than that with diesel fuel. Furthermore the smoke emission is more affected by the oxygen content in fuel than by the fuel viscosity. This study concluded that the fuels including oxygen might be a good measure to reduce smoke in diesel engine because the oxygen strongly influenced the combustion process.
the Shifting Control in Automatic Transmission by Independent-Acting Clutches
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 68~84
A study to reduce the transient torque in shifting in automatic transmission has been very important issue. Recently it is really dominant to decrease the torque by using independent-acting hydraulic circuit because we can control the clutch pressure actively and elaborately. So we design the new hydraulic circuit to control the clutches in automatic transmission and make the module library of computer simulations, We apply the results to GM model automatic transmission and carry out 1longrightarrow4 shifting simulations. By this work we recognize the capability of active and elaborate clutch pressure control using new hydraulic circuit. In addition We develop the tool to simulate the powertrain system. It is easier to update and exchange the subsystem model or parameters than conventional simulation tools.
Higher Order Spectra and Their Application to Mechanical Systems(II) -Analysis on the Interactions of Harmonics in Exhaust Pipe of Engines-
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 85~92
The pulsating pressure waves are composed of fundamental frequency and higher order harmonics in exhaust pipe of engines. The nonlinearity in exhaust pipe is caused by their interactions. The error which is between prediction and measurement is induced by the nonlinearity. We can not explain this phenomenon using linear acoustic theory which is existing theory. So power spectrum which was used in linear theory is not useful. Bispectrum and bicoherence functions which are a higher order spectrum are applicable to explain this phenomenon. This paper proposes a nonlinear effect of pulsating pressure waves. The phenomenon proposed here is identified by using of higher order spectrum density functions.
A Study on the Flow Characteristics and Pressure Loss of a Muffler for the Variation of Volumetric Rate and Offset
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 93~99
It is well known that an automotive muffle strongly influences engine efficiency and noise reduction. The performance of a muffler system is determined by the geometrical parameters such as the relative location of an inlet and outlet pipe size and cross sectional geometry of a chamber. In this study numerical analysis was performed to examine the flow characteristics in the simple automotive muffler for the variation of volumetric rate and offset. The computational grid generation was carried out. The RNG k-
turbulence model was applied. To provide the boundary condition for numerical analysis the experimental measurement wes carried out. As a result of this study we could understand that there was a recirculation flow inside muffler and pressure loss depends on the variation of volumetric rate and offset.
Electronic Ratio Control of Metal Belt CVT
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 100~109
In this paper a stepping motor drive electronic ratio control system for a metal belt CVT is suggested. The electronic ratio control system developed in this study is designed to control flow rate which is required to obtain the shift speed and to control the primary actuator pressure to maintain the desired ratio. Considering these control characterstics a fuzzy logic is used for the CVT ratio control. Using the fuzzy logic dynamic models of the ratio control system is investigated and compared with the experimental results. The experimental and simulation results show that the electronic ratio control system developed in this study can be used in CVT system for the active control of the speed ratio.
Investigations on Improvement of Vehicle Design Feature on Idle Shake with Automatic Transmission
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 110~120
In order to improve the vibration characteristics of mid sized passenger car automatic transmission at idle experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out. Idle shake in "D" range occurs by various reasons such as characteristics of body bending resonance between subsystems and engine mounts etc. Using full vehicle finite element analyses and modal tests we introduce the way to reduce the idle shake in the early design stage. It shows that the exciting forces are the 2nd order torque and force of engine. A powertrain system modes in "D" range are entirely effected by the additional boundary conditions of drive line. As a result the frequencies of subsystems are arranged to be lined up at the idle frequency range in order to avoid the resonances with subsystems To reduce the idle shake mounts of radiator are tuned to act as a dynamic damper to 1st bending frequency of the body. In addition a hydraulic mount which is optimized by Phase Shift Method is applied to the rear engine mount.e rear engine mount.
Development of a Computer Model for the Turning Maneuver Analysis of a Heavy Truck
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 121~129
this paper develops a computational model for the turning maneuver analysis of a cabover type heavy truck. The model having 42 degree-of-freedom is developed using ADAMS. Leaf springs used in the front and rear suspension systems are modeled by dividing it three links and joining them with joints. Force and displacement relationship showing nonlinear hysteric characteristics of the leaf spring is measured and modeled with an exponential function. A velocity and force relationship of a shock absorber is measured and modeled with a spline function. And a stabilizer bar is modeled using ADAMS beam element to consider a twisting and bending effect. To verify the developed model an actual vehicle test is performed in the double lane change course with 50kph and 60kph vehicle velocity. In the actual vehicle test lateral acceleration roll angle and yaw rate are measured, The tendency and peak-to-peak values of the actual vehicle test and simultion results are compared each other.
The Handling Characteristics of The Independent Rear Wheel Steering Vehicle Using the Reference Model Following Control
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 130~140
In this paper the reference model following control(RMFC) scheme through the optimal control theory is investigated for the independent rear wheel steering(IRWS) vehicle. RMFC vehicle follows the dynamic performance of a virtual vehicle as a reference model deisgned in the controller. Linear vehicle model of two degres-of-freedom is used to derive control scheme which is applied to full vehicle for evaluating handling performances. And 4WS vehicle through RMFC is compared to the conventional 2WS vehicle and 4WS vehicle in the J-turn test. The RMFC logic is also extended to IRWS vehicle, IRWS with RMFC shows not only the excellent handling performance but salso some advantages in terms of the directional stability and responsiveness from the simulation results.
The Mechanical Properties and Characteristics of TRIP-assisted Multiphase Steels in High Toughness for Autombile Safety
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 141~148
As the steel plates used for automobile safety the TRIP-assisted multiphase steels are being introduced to automobile industry with respect to their remarkable mechanical properties for the combination of high strength and large elongation. This multiphase structure is generated by two stage heat treatment (intercritical annealing & isothermal treatment) The metastable retained austenite can be transformed to martensite when plastically deformed which results in TRIP effect. Actually the microstructure of TRIP-assisted steels consist of a fine dispersite. There present discussion deals with bainite reaction kinetics of austenite in the process o f two stage heat treatment. In relation to bainite transformation the characteristics of bainite reaction is found to be influenced by the bainite tempering temperature and also by the relative rate in which carbides precipitate within residual austenite.
An Investigation about Dynamic Behavior of Three Point Bending Specimen
Cho, Jae-Ung ; Han, Moon-Sik ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 149~157
Computer simulations of the mechanical behavior of a three point bend specimen with a quarter notch under impact load are performed. The case with a load application point at the side is considered. An elastic-plastic von Mises material model is chosen. Three phases such as impact bouncing and bending phases are found to be identified during the period from the moment of impact to the estimated time for crack initiation. It is clearly shown that no plastic deformation near the crack tip is appeared at the impact phase. However it is confirmed that the plastic zone near the crack tip emerges in the second phase and the plastic hinge has been formed in the third phase. Gap opening displacement crack tip opening displacement and strain rate are compared with rate dependent material(visco-plastic material). The stability during various dynamic load can be seen by using the simulation of this study.
Construction of Virtual Environment for a Vehicle Simulator
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 158~168
Vehicle driving simulators can provide engineers with benefits on the development and modification of vehicle models. One of the most important factors to realistic simulations is the fidelity given by a motion system and a real-time visual image generation system. Virtual reality technology has been widely used to achieve high fidelity. In this paper the virtual environment including a visual system like a head-mounted display is developed for a vehicle driving simulator system by employing the virtual reality technique. virtual vehicle and environment models are constructed using the object-oriented analysis and design approach. Accordint to the object model a three dimensional graphic model is developed with CAD tools such as Rhino and Pro/E. For the real-time image generation the optimized IRIS Performer 3D graphics library is embedded with the multi-thread methodology. Compared with the single loop apprach the proposed methodology yields an acceptable image generation speed 20 frames/sec for the simulator
Development of Tire Lateral Force Monitoring Systems Using Nonlinear Observers
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 169~176
Longitudinal and lateral forces acting on tires are known to be closely related to the tract-ability braking characteristics handling stability and maneuverability of ground vehicles. In thie paper in order to develop tire force monitoring systems a monitoring model is proposed utilizing not only the vehicle dynamics but also the roll motion. Based on the monitoring model three monitoring systems are developed to estimate the tire force acting on each tire. Two monitoring systems are designed utilizing the conventional estimation techniques such as SMO(Sliding Mode Observer) and EKF(Extended Kalman Filter). An additional monitoring system is designed based on a new SKFMEC(Scaled Kalman Filter with Model Error Compensator) technique which is developed to improve the performance of EKF method. Tire force estimation performance of the three monitoring systems is compared in the Matlab simulations where true tire force data is generated from a 14 DOF vehicle model with the combined-slip Magic Formula tire model. The built in our Lab. simulation results show that the SKFMEC method gives the best performance when the driving and road conditions are perturbed.
The Derivation of Simplified Vehicle Body Stiffness Equation Using Collision Analysis
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 177~185
The deformation characteristics is one of the major factors to resume the crash configuration in collision accident reconstruction. Crash analysis are carried out using finite element method and body stiffness equations representing force-deformation relationship are derived, Two different crash conditions : 1) frontal barrier impact 2) frontal impact between cars are given for the derivation of the equations. The stiffness coefficient of equation by method 2) is larger than that by method. 1). Crash analysis between two vehicles is accomplished with three crash angles and three velocities for each angle condition. The deformations are measured for six selected points and deformation energies are calculated using the derived equations. Equation by method 2) results in better estimation of deformation energy than that by method 1) for all crush configurations. The estimated energies can be utilized as one of indices to identify the type of the collision accident result.
Control Logic Using Torque Map for a Column-Type Electric Power Steering System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 186~193
EPS(Electric Power Steering) systems have many advantages over traditional hydraulic power steering systems in space efficiency engine efficiency and environmental compatibility. In this paper an EPS system control logic using a torque map is proposed. The main function of the EPS system is to reduce the steering torque exerted by a driver by assist of an electric motor. Vehcile speed steering torque and steering wheel angle are measured and fed back to the EPS control system where appropriate assist torque is generated to assist the operator's steering effort. Another capability of the EPS system for easy adaptation to different steering feels via simple tuning is demonstrated by the experiments. It will be also verified that the EPS system can also improve damping and return performance of the steering wheel by control of the assist motor.
Tire and Vehicle Pull I-Experimental Results
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 4, 2000, Pages 194~201
It is called vehicle pull when a vehicle drifts in the lateral direction under the straight-ahead motion with no steering or external input. Recently vehicle pull draws attention as one of the critical evaluation items from the customers on the vehicle quality. It is generally recognized that the vehicle pull is complex phenomena due to internal and external factors. In this paper the relations between vehicle pull and ire were investigated through close survey on the road test results from the final inspection of car manufactures. Through this investigation the factors are identified which play an important role in causing vehicle pull problem.