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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Nov 2000
Volume 8, Issue 5 - Sep 2000
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Jul 2000
Volume 8, Issue 3 - May 2000
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Mar 2000
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jan 2000
Selecting the target year
Development of an LPG Engine for Medium-Duty Commercial Vehicles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 1~11
This study is aimed to develop a proto-type LPG engine for medium-duty commercial vehicles in order to substitute for conventional diesel engine. Recently, it is recognized that diesel engines are main cause for smoke pollution in urban site. So, it is expected to reduce this environmental emission by developing and substituting LPG engine which has the advantage of practical use in a short development period in aspects of infrastructures. For that, after analysing the specifications and performance characteristics of a base diesel engine, parts of combustion chamber, intake system, fuel supply and ignition systems suitable for LPG combustion were re-designed and manufactured. And and engine controller for fuel supply and ignition distributions was matched by feedback mapping based on the speed-load conditions. The torque and power of LPG engine were increased by 6∼12% on the overall driving conditions compared to the base diesel engine, and fuel consumption rate marked the similar level based on the fuel price. Exhaust emissions such as THC, CO, NOx recorded the same order with conventional LPG engine for passenger car.
An Experimental Study on the Reduction of Diesel Emission Using Low Temperature Plasma Apparatus
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 12~19
The increasing use of vehicles is causing air-pollution problems. Diesel vehicles are preferred to gasoline vehicles, because the diesel vehicles are superior to gasoline vehicles in terms of fuel consumption, durability, power and efficiency. But the emission reduction technologies for diesel vehicle are not developed well like those for gasoline vehicles. Moreover, the NOx and smoke emitted from diesel vehicle are recognized as a main source of the air-pollution in the urban areas. The emission reduction devices have been installed for each of the emission gas components. Using plasma(i.e. electrical energy)only, the emission gas was found to be reduced. The present paper investigate the effects of a low temperature plasma device in engine performance as well as in emission reduction with the change of the applied voltage and the loading rate of the engine.
Comparison of Overall Characteristics between an Air-Assisited Fuel Injector and a High-Pressure Swirl Injector-Part I: Flow rate and Macroscopic Spray Characteristics
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 20~27
Characteristics of two favorite injection tools for gasoline direct injection application were compared. An air-assisted fuel injector (AAFI) and a high-pressure swirl injector (HPSI) were designed and fabricated for prototype development, and the characterization strategies and processes for both injection tool have been arranged in parallel. Characterization works were carried out mainly through measurements, and in some cases, computational fluid dynamic analysis was utilized. In this paper, overall characteristics defined as flow rate, spray pattern, penetration, internal spray structure and drop size distribution, was discussed. The AAFI was found to be advantageous in flexibility of fuel flow rate, and the HPSI in stability and precision. Spray shape factor was introduced to describe the development of intermittent sprays from both injectors. Axial penetration appeared to be almost linear in the case of the AAFI while its speed continuously decreased with time in the HPSI.
Comparison of Overall Characteristics between an Air-Assisted Fuel Injector and a High-Pressure Swirl Injector- Part II: Microscopic Spray Characteristics
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 28~35
As a second part of the comparison study, microscopic features of an air-assisted fuel injector(AAFI) and a high-pressure swirl injector (HPSI) were characterized. They consist of the internal spray structure in terms of fuel mass and drop diameter, the overall atomization performance with respect to operating parameters and the drop size distribution. Large droplets are concentrated in around the head part of a spray field of the HPSI, while in the case of the AAFI, they were distributed in the tail part. Although the AAFI showed the better atomization performance, the feasible ranges of operating parameters such as injection and ambient pressure were found to be wider in the HPSI. Drop size distribution of the AAFI sprays was more dispersed than that of the HPSI. Drop size distribution of the AAFI sprays was more dispersed than that of the HPSI. However, at the well-atomized condition, it appeared to be very uniform.
An Experimental Study on the Performance Improvement and Emission Reduction in a Turbocharged D.I. Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 36~46
The performance improvement and emission reduction in a turbocharged D.I. diesel engine was studied experimentally in this paper. The system of intake port, fuel injection and turbochager are very important factors which have influence on the engine performance and exhaust emission because the properties in the injected fuel depend on the combustion characteristics. Through these experiments it can be expected to meet performance and emission by optimizing the main parameters; the swirl ratio of intake port, fuel injection system and turbocharger. The swirl ratio of intake port was modified by hand-working and measured by impulse swirl meter. Through this steady flow test, we knew that the increase of swirl ratio is decreasing the mean flow coefficient, whereas the gulf factor is increasing. And the optimum results of engine performance and emission are as follows; the swirl ratio is 2.43, injection timing is BTDC 13。 CA, compression ratio is 16, combustion bowl is re-entrant 5
, nozzle hole diameter is
0.28＊6, turbocharger is GT40 model which are compressor A/R 0.58 AND turbine A/R 1.19.
A Study of Hydrocarbon Reduction with Photocatalysts
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 47~53
To overcome the shortage of conventional TWC that is activated at high temperature, higher than 25
, photocatalyst is considered as an new technology. Because the photocatalytic reaction of photocatalyst is not a thermo mechanical reaction, it is necessary to heat the system to start the reaction. It can be activated just by ultra violet light that includes wavelengths shorter than 400 nanometers even at ambient temperature. In this study photocatalytic reduction of hydrocarbon was investigated with a model gas test. To understand the effects of co-existence gases on the hydrocarbon reduction by photoreaction, CO and NO,
gases those are components of exhaust gases of gasoline engine are supplied with C3H8/N2 to a photoreactor. The photoreactor contains
photocatalyst powders and a UV bulb. The results show that oxygen is the most important factor to reduce HC emission with photocatalyst. Photocatalyst seems to have a good probability for automotive application to reduce cold start HC emissions.
Engine Operation Characteristics of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 54~66
A gasoline direct injection single cylinder engine has been developed to study operational characteristics for highly stratified conditions. Parameters related to design and experiment were also studied to understand the characteristics of combustion and emissions at some part load conditions. It was found that optimal timings between the end of fuel injection and spark ignition were existed for stable combustion under the stratified modes, In a low engine speed, fuel spray behavior around piston bowl was important for stable combustion. The in-cylinder air motion affecting fuel spray behavior was found to be a dominant factor at higher engine speed as fuel injection timing had to be advanced to secure enough time for fuel evaporation and mixing with surrounding air. As swirl ratio increased, spark timing could be advanced for stable combustion and a higher compression ratio could be used for improved fuel consumption and stable combustion at the stratified mode. It was also observed that electrode geometry and piston bowl shape played an important role for combustion and emission characteristics and some results were shown for comparison.
Effect of Propene(
) ON NO-
Conversion Process in a Pulsed Corona Discharge
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 67~77
Investigated was the effect of propene(C3H6) on the NO-NO2 conversion in dry exhaust gases from lean burn engine using a pulsed corona discharge. A kinetic model was developed to characterize the plasma chemistry in simulated exhausts containing propene. The model uses ELENDIF program to solve Boltzmann equation for electron energy distribution function, and CHEMKIN-II program to solve stiff ODE(ordinary differential equation) problems for species concentrations. The corona discharge energy per pulse and the time-space averaged E/N were obtained by fitting the model to experimental data. The model calculation shows good agreement for NO and NO2 concentrations with the experimental data, and predicts the formation of byproducts such as CH2O, CH3HCO, CO AND CH3NO2 Propene enhances the NOx conversion enormously at lower energy density and the NOx conversion increases with the increase of initial propene and oxygen concentration, and temperature.
An Optimization of the Combustion Parameters for Reducing Exhaust Emissions in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 78~85
This study is to develop the diesel engine which has 6 cylinder natural aspiration direct injection type of 7.4
with high performance, low emissions and low fuel consumption Finally the developed engine meets Korean `98 exhaust emission regulation for the city bus of heavy duty diesel engine by optimizing the various combustion parameters affecting performance and exhaust emissions. Combustion parameters are the swirl ratio of intake ports, the profile of injection pump`s cam affecting injection pressure, the design features of piston bowl of injection pump`s cam affecting injection pressure, the design features of piston bowl of combustion chamber and injector`s hole size. Through experimental analysis, various combustion parameters are optimized and the results are as follows; the swirl ratio is 2.20, the profile of injection pump`s cam is concave and re-entrant ratio, inner diameter of piston bowl and hole diameter of injector is 0.88,
A Experimental/Numerical Study of Behaviors of Spray Impinging on the Diesel Combustion Chamber Wall
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 86~95
A modified spray impingement model has been developed, which is assessed against experiments for the impinging sprays on the small combustion chamber at various gas pressures. To investigate spray behaviors in the diesel combustion chamber, a transparent constant-volume chamber is made which is similar to the combustion chamber of the real diesel engine. The chamber is pressurized by N2 gas from 0 bar to 20 bar to find the effects of ambient pressures. The behaviors of spray injected into this chamber and dispersed after impingement on the cylinder wall is measured two-dimensionally using laser sheet Mie scattering method. The physical submodels have been properly modified to improve the prediction capability of original KIVA code to describe the spray behaviors after impingement on the curved cylinder wall. In terms of spray dynamics and evolution. numerical results give qualitatively good agreements with experimental data.
In-cylinder Flame Visualization and Flame Propagation Characteristics of SI Engine by using Optimal Threshold Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 96~104
It is well known that combustion stability under idle and part-load conditions directly affect fuel economy and exhaust emission. In practice, there have been a lot of studies so that a significant improvement in combustion stability has been achieved in this research field. However, applying published results to the development process of mass production engine, there are still many problems which are solved previously. In this study, initial flame behavior and flame propagation characteristic were investigated statistically in order to optimize combustion chamber shapes in the development stage of mass production S.I. engine. To the purpose, the authors applied the flame image capturing system to single cylinder optical engine. The captured flame images were effectively analyzed by using the image processing program which was developed by the authors and adopted new threshold algorithm instead of conventional histogram analysis. In addition, the cylinder pressure was also measured simultaneously to compare evaluated flame results with cylinder pressure data in terms of the combustion characteristics, combustion stability, and cycle-to-cycle combustion variability.
Visualization of Oil Behavior in Piston Land Region
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 105~113
In order to clarify the final process of oil consumption, the distribution and flow of oil through each ring were visualized by induced fluorescence method. Motoring and firing test were performed in a single cylinder research engine with transparent cylinder liner. The appropriate calibration techniques were used to solve the unstability of induced light intensity as well as to know the relation of the oil film thickness and output signal. Oil behavior was also observed at dynamic state by high speed CCD camera. By analyzing the oil film thickness converted from the photographed image, it was observed that the main route of oil transport through each ring is the end gap under the usual operating condition, low engine speed and low load condition. Oil film thickness is observed to be irregular and tend to move in a body horizontally at a given piston land. And it is also found that oil flows through oil ring gap so quickly that it can be observed in a single cycle, but it flows so slowly through top and 2nd compression rings that it takes quite a long time to detect the flow.
The Frictional Modes of Piston Rings for an SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 114~120
Friction forces of piston rings for a typical SI engine were independently measured while excluding the effects of cylinder pressure, oil starvation and piston secondary motion using a floating liner system. Friction patterns, represented by the measured friction forces, were classified into five frictional modes with regard to the combination of predominant lubrication regimes(boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication) and stroke regions(mid-stroke and dead centers). The modes were identified on the Stribeck diagram of the dimensionless bearing parameter and friction coefficients which were evaluated at the mid-stroke and at the dead centers. And the frictional modes were estimated to the full operation range. The compression rings behave in the mode where hydrodynamic lubrication is dominant at the mid-stroke and mixed lubrication is dominant at the dead centers under steady operating conditions. However, the oil control ring behave in the mode where mixed lubrication is dominant throughout the entire stroke.
Numerical Optimization of the Coolant Flow Rates through Cylinder Head Gasket Holes by applying CFD Techniques
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 121~128
Simple design methods were developed to control the coolant flow rates through cylinder head gasket holes. Applying the concept of flow through an obstruction the ratio of intake to exhaust side flow rates could be easily controlled while maintaining the flow rates per cylinder of the original model. Flow distribution in the coolant passage of the original model was calculated by CFD and the flow rates at the gasket holes were modified based on the calculation results. The calculated flow rated of the modified gasket holes were reasonably close to target values. For more accurate control of the flow rate distribution, a design method with iterative CFD calculations was also suggested. The final size of gasket holes for the target flow rates were obtained just after a few optimization iterations. These methods can be very useful for the optimization of heat transfer characteristics in engine cylinder head and block.
The Analysis of NVH Characteristics of 4-Cylinerder Diesel Engine Block by Adapting Balancing Shaft
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 129~137
The powertrain is an important factor for the interior and exterior noise behavior of the vehicle Thus, the noise vibration and harshness(NVH) behavior of an engine is becoming a major target of the powertrain development. This paper describes the analyses with the aim to reduce the vibration and noise of an advanced inline 4-cylinder diesel engine block by use of CAE methods. The characteristics of an engine block as a main excitation source of car interior noise is studied. Particularly, The effect of balance shaft to reduce the 2nd order engine excitation force is calculated by forced vibration and radiated noise analysis. The engine exitation forces are obtained under real operating conditions. It is shown that the reduction of vibration and noise level by adapting blancing shaft is well predicted and rediated noise is directly related to the surface velocity of engine block.
Optimum Design of Suspension Systems Using a Genetic Algorithm
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 138~147
Vehicle suspension systems are parts which effect performances of a vehicle such as ride quality, handing characteristics, straight performance and steering effort etc. Kinematic design is a decision of joints` position for straight performance and steering effort. But, when vehicle is rebounding and bumping, chang of joints` displacement is nonlinear and a surmise of straight performance and steering effort at that joints` position is difficult. So design of suspension systems is done through a inefficient method of tried-and-error depending on designer`s experience. In this paper, kinematic design of suspension systems was done through the optimal design using a genetic algorithm. For this optimal design, the function for quantification of straight performance and steering effort was made, and the kinematic design method of suspension systems having this function as the objective function was suggested.
Contact Characteristic and Stress Analysis of Wheel-Rail for Rolling Stock
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 148~156
In this paper, we investigate contact characteristic of wheel-rail interface for rolling stock using the finite element method. Contact stress distribution due to the rail mounting slope is obtained in order to reduce the contact stress. Stress analysis of the rail, firstly, is performed one subjected to elliptical pressure based on Hertz theory. Secondly, we perform stress analysis of the rail subjected to contact stress obtained by this study. Results for the maximum shear stress, its location and the principal shear stress distribution are compared.
Tire and Vehicle Pull II- Basic Theory, Simulation, and Verification
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 157~164
It is known that residual aligning torque of tires causes vehicle pull. There is, however, only a little literature available which shows how the residual aligning torque of tires causes vehicle pull. In this paper, a vehicle model in two degrees of freedom was adopted for the analysis of a vehicle under the straight-ahead motion. The analysis with this vehicle model clearly shows the effect of residual aligning torque of tires on vehicle pull. In order to show the validity of the analysis, a vehicle commercially available was selected. This vehicle was modeled in 137 degrees of freedom system with multibody dynamics software. Vehicle pull simulation results show that vehicle model drifts in lateral direction due to the residual aligning torque of tires. Vehicle test results with the car were also included.
Design of Control Logics for Improving Vehicle Dynamic Stability
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 165~172
The VDC(Vehicle Dynamic Control) is a control system whose target is to improve stability of a vehicle under lateral motion. A lateral vehicle motion, especially on a slippery road, can lead to a hazardous situation, and the situation can even worsen by the driver`s inappropriate response. In this paper, two VDC systems, a fuzzy-based controller and an LQR-based controller have been developed. The controllers take as input the yaw rate and the sideslip angle of either body or rear wheel, and they yield the direct yaw moment signal by which the vehicle can gain stability during cornering. Simulations have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the control system. The results indicated that the controllers can successfully improve vehicle stability under potentially dangerous driving conditions.
A Basic Study of the European Side Impact Characteristics of Electric Vehicle(I)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 173~180
European side impact analysis of an electric vehicle was done using robust design. Locations and section properties of some of the vehicle structure components which influence the european side impact characteristics were chosen as the main factors for the robust design. Eight factors were considered for the analysis: one with two level and seven with three level combinations comprising the L18(21
37) orthogonal array. It is shown that the sensitivities of the factors and the best combination of the factors can be obtained, and that the location of the main components were as much sensitive as the section properties of those. Also it is shown that the interactions were existed between some factors.
Effects of Acid Fog Environment on the Corrosion Fatigue Strength of Structural Steel SM55C
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 181~187
Fatigue tests under acid fog environment were carried out to investigate the effect of acid fog on the corrosion fatigue strength of SM55C in comparison with distilled water. Main results obtained are as follows. The fatigue strength of SM55C under acid fog environment are remarkably decreased as compared with that of distilled water specimen. The corrosive effect of acid fog on fatigue strength are more serious under low stress amplitude level than under high stress amplitude level, and this leads to continuous reduction of fatigue strength. Under acid fog environment in early stage of crack growth. because the corrosive components dissolve the crack face offensively. the unstable fracture surface appears. But, the stable corrosion precipitation and products layer are formed on the fracture surface in accordance with the time pass.
Prediction of Tractive Performance of Off-Road Wheeled Vehicles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 188~195
This study was conducted to develop the mathematical model and the computer simulation program(TPPMWV) for predicting the tractive performance of off-road wheeled vehicles operated on various soil conditions. The model takes into account main design parameters of a wheeled vehicle, including the radius and width of front and rear tires, the weight of vehicle, wheelbase and driving type(4WD, 2WD). Soil characteristics, such as the peressure-sinkage and shearing characteristics and the response to repetitive loading, are also taken into consideration. The effectiveness of the developed model was verified by comparing the predicted drawbar pulls using TPPMWV with measured ones obtained by field tests for two different driving types of wheeled vehicle. As a results, the drawbar pulls predicted by the TPPMWV were well matched to the measured ones within the absolute errors of 5.25%(4WD) AND 9.42%(2WD)for two different driving types, respectively.
A Study on the Development of Automotive Climate Controller Using Fuzzy Logic
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 196~206
These days, the fuzzy logic or the fuzzy set theory has received attention from a number of researchers in the area of industrial application. Moreover, the fuzzy logic control has been successfully applied to a large numbers of control problems where the conventional control methods had failed. Using this control theory we designed a climate controller for an automotive climate control system whose mathematical model is difficult. This paper describes an automotive climate control where the fuzzy control has been used to stabilize parameter uncertainties and disturbance effects. To show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control method, the fuzzy logic controller was implemented with a philips 80C552 microcomputer chip and tested in an actual vehicle. From the experimental results, it could be conduced that the proposed controller is superior to conventional controllers in both control performance and thermal comfort. The climate control system in cars is difficult to model mathematically so we tested a fuzzy logic control system which promised better results.
A Theoretical Investigation of Roll-Off Cleanliness for Hydraulic System and Application to a Tractor
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 5, 2000, Pages 207~215
This study theoretically investigated the roll-off cleanliness operation to eliminate the built-in contaminants which are primarily the result of manufacturing and assembly procedures first. A rigorous analytical examination of the cleaning process associated with hydraulic systems was performed by developing the general filtration process equations. The sloughing process by which built-in contaminant is entrained in the system fluid was examined during the development of a general analytical expression for sloughing rate. This sloughing rate expression in conjunction with the filtration process equations have lead to a relationship rate expression in conjunction with the filtration process equations have lead to a relationship which describes the flushing and clean-up operation for the hydraulic systems. The effects of the primary roll-off cleanliness factors was discussed and illustrated on the figures. Then, the analytical results was shown to be usefully applied into the design of roll-off flushing equipment for the hydraulic system of a tractor.