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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 6 - Nov 2000
Volume 8, Issue 5 - Sep 2000
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Jul 2000
Volume 8, Issue 3 - May 2000
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Mar 2000
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Jan 2000
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Knock Detection Using an Ionization Probe Installed Spark Plug
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 1~8
A new method of knock detection in SI engines, using a change of ion concentration in the combustion chamber, was developed. In order to measure in-cylinder ionization current, ionization probes were installed at spark plug and cylinder head of production engine. It was found that the electric current generated by ionized gas in core burned gas region of knocking cycle is between 2 and 10 times larger than that of normal cycle, because the burned gas temperature which is the dominant parameter of a change of ion concentration increases. However, a change of ionization current in boundary region of burned gas is relatively weak. Hence a change of ion concentration in core burned gas region can be used for knock detection.
A Numerical Study on the Spray Characteristics of the Swirl-Type Gasoline Direct Injector
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 9~21
In this study, the characteristics of high-pressure swirl injector have been studied using a commercial CFD code, STAR-CD and experiment to investigate the effect of the length of orifice and swirl port on the spray characteristics. Influences of swirl port angle and initial conditions have also been examined in terms of penetration depth and Sauter`s mean diameter. Computed results of the spray characteristics are compared with experimental results. The results show that the tangential velocity at the nozzle exit decreases, but the axial velocity increases as swirl port angle is increased. Hence, the static flow rate increases, but the initial spray angle decreases with increasing the swirl port angle. It is also shown that the values of the initial SMD used as input data for spray simulation influences the penetration depth and SMD. The spray pattern from the present numerical simulation agrees well with experimental result.
The Influence of Liquid Atomization Models on Diesel Sprays
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 22~30
The present article deals with comparisons of published liquid breakup models for diesel sprays to analyze the influence of breakup models on various spray parameters. The three different models tested in this study are the surface wave instability (Wave) model, the Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) model, and the drop drag model(DDM). The numerical results using these models are compared with several experimental data to assess the prediction capabilities of breakup models. Additional task in this study is to investigate effects of the breakup time constant in the Wave model on the spray parameters because the spray behavior is sensitive to the breakup time constant. It is seen that there is uncertainly about the breakup time constant indicating that the suitable acceptance of the constant is important, and the TAB model generally shows significant under-prediction of Sauter Mean Diameter(SMD). In addition, it may be indicated that differences between the DDM and Wave model are not significant, showing that the DDM may be suitable for air-assisted atomization rather than pressure atomization.
A Study on the Combustion Characteristics and the Control on the Fuel Flow Rate of LPG Intake Port Injection Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 31~39
In this paper, characteristics of a port injection type LPG fuel system were investigated to adopt the system to a spark ignition engine through rig test. Engine combustion characteristics for limited conditions and the precise control method of LPG fuel supply were also studied. As a basic experiment, the effects and the relationships of parameters such as orifice area, fuel delivery pressure, fuel temperature and flow coefficient were established. From this, one dimensional compressible flow equation can be applied to control gaseous fuel flow rate by setting pressure difference between vaporizer and manifold to a certain range, for example about 1.2 bar in a naturally aspirated engine. The combustion analysis results of LPG engine were also compared with those of gasoline engine according to spark timing and load change. At part load and stoichiometric condition, the MBT spark timing of LPG fueled engine is retarded by 2
CA compared to that of gasoline engine. On the contrary, the spark timing of LPG fueled engine can be advanced by 5
CA at WOT, which results from higher Octane Number and burned fraction of LPG fuel compared to gasoline.
An Analytical and Experimental Study on the Improvement of Performances of a Gasoline Engine of the Light Passenger Car (First Paper)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 40~50
In this study, as a means of increasing engine power, turbocharging was applied to the gasoline engine of a light passenger car which was originally naturally aspirated. Also the catalytic convertor was applied to improve the exhaust emission characteristics. The comparison of the performance characteristics between the burbocharged engine with catalytic convertor and the naturally aspirated engine was made over the wide range of operating conditions. The results showed considerable increase of the output performances at full load condition by trubocharging while slight losses were observed at part load conditions.
In-cylinder Spray Flow Characteristics in Direct-injection Gasoline Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 51~59
In-cylinder spray flow motion plays an important in the adjustment of mixture preparation with a fundamental spray characteristics and in-cylinder flow field well in direct-injection gasoline engine. In this study, the fundamental spray characteristics such as mean drop size, velocity distribution, spray angle were measured and in-cylinder spray flow motion was visualized in order to optimize intake port, piston top land and combustion chamber shapes in the development stage of mass-produced G야 engine. For these experiments, the PDPA measurements and Mie scattering technique were used for detailed spray characteristics and in-cylinder spray motions were obtained by use of ICCD camera through the single-cylinder optical engine. From the experimental results, the test injector shows a good low-end linearity between the dynamic flow and fuel injection pulse width and the fuel spray of 20mm or less in SMD with good spray symmetry. In addition, the in-cylinder tumble flow has more effect on the homogeneous mixture formation than that of in-cylinder swirl flow at early injection mode and the in-cylinder swirl flow plays a better role of stratified mixture preparation than tumble flow at late injection mode.
An Investigation on Combustion Characteristics of The Closed Cycle Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 60~69
In order to obtain underwater or underground power sources, the closed cycle diesel engine is operated in the non air-breathing circuit system where the major species of the working fluid include oxygen, argon, and recycled exhaust gas. In the present study, the closed cycle diesel engine is designed to operate at the intake pressure between 2 and 3 bar. For operating in the open-cycle and closed-cycle situations, experimental apparatus using this diesel engine is made with ACAP as data acquisition system. In open, semi-open, and closed cycle modes, the predicted p-
and P-V are compared with load bank power. Computation have been performed for wide range of major experimental parameters such as the specific fuel and oxygen concentrations, fuel conversion efficiency and polytropic exponent, IMEP and maximum cylinder pressure.
Measurement of Flow Ripple Generated by Balanced Vane Pumps in Automotive Power Steering Systems
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 70~78
A balanced vane pump for the use of automotive power steering systems generates a flow ripple which is imposed upon the mean flow rate. The flow ripple interacts with the characteristics of the connected pipes, valves and steering gear in a complex manner to produce a pressure ripple, also known as fluid-borne noise. In order to reduce vibration level and produce quieter and more reliable power steering systems, it is important to measure the flow ripple produced by a pump with high accuracy and fast response. In this paper, the flow ripple generated by a vane pump in automotive power steering systems is measured by the remote instantaneous flow rate measurement method (RIFM) using hydraulic pipeline dynamics. In experiment, flow and pressure ripple wave forms are measured under various operating conditions. Also, the parameters affected upon the flow and pressure ripple are investigated by the frequency analysis.
A Study on Effect of Recirculated Exhaust Gas upon Wears of Piston and Piston Rings in Diesel Engines with Scrubber EGR System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 79~86
The effects of recirculated exhaust gas on the wears of piston and piston rings were investigated by the experiment with a two-cylinder, four cycle, indirect injection diesel engine operating at an engine load of 75% and an engine speed of 1600 rpm. For the purpose of comparison between the wear rates of two cylinders with and without EGR, the recirculated exhaust gas was sucked into one of two cylinders after the soot contenets in exhaust emissions were removed by an intentionally designed cylinder-type scrubber equipped with 6 water injectors(A water injector has 144 nozzles of 1.0 mm diameter), while only the fresh air was inhaled into the other cylinder. These experiments were carried out on the fuel injection timing fixed at 15.3
BTDC. It was found that the wear rate of piston skirt with EGR increased a little bit, but the piston head diameter increased, rather than decreased, owing to soot adhesion and erosion wear, and especially larger with EGR, and that the wear rates of the top and second piston ring(compression ring)thickness with EGR were more than twice the wear rate of top ring in case of no EGR, but the wear rate of oil rings thickness without EGR increased greater than that with EGR.
Numerical Study on the Effect of Volume Change of Light-Off Catalyst on Light-Off Performance
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 87~100
HC and CO emissions during the cold start contribute the majority of the total emissions in the legislated driving cycles. Therefore, in order to minimize the cold-start emissions, the fast light-off techniques have been developed and presented in the literature. One of the most encouraging strategies for reducing start-up emissions is to place the light-off catalyst, in addition to the main under-body catalyst, near the engine exhaust manifold. This study numerically consider three-dimensional, unsteady compressible reacting flow in the light-off and under body catalyst to examine the impact of a light-off catalyst on thermal response of the under body catalyst and tail pipe emission. The effect of flow distribution on the temperature distribution and emission performance have also been examined. The present results show that flow distribution has a great influence on the temperature distribution in the monolith at the early stage of warm-up process and the ultimate conversion efficiency of light-off catalyst is severly deteriorated when the space velocity is above
Effect of Lobe Shape Variations on the Performance of Roots-type Supercharger
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 101~110
A Computer program is developed for creation of a new lobe shaper for Roots-type supercharger. Numerical analyses are preformed for the flowfields in the pocket volumes formed by various lobe shapes. The governing equations for the two-dimensional, turbulent, operational processes in the housing are discretized by the control volume approach that insures the conservative characteristics to be satisfied in the calculation domain, and they are solved by a modified SIMPLE algorithm. Numerical results show that the effects of secondary flow on the leakage flow rate with the Cassini(B) lobe shape is smaller than that of Cassini(A) rotor. But the pocket volume of Cassine(B) lobe is larger than the other lobe shapes.
A Study on the Analysis and Development of Proportional Pressure Control Valve for Vehicle Active Suspension System via Hydraulics Actuator
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 111~121
Generally, the hydraulic pressures are used for transmitting the force. Therefore, a highly reliable and inexpensive control system has been required for a passenger car. The control-ability of active suspension system is strongly affected by the performance of pressure control valve in the view of dynamic response and energy consumption. In this study, we suggested main design parameters for the optimum design of proportional pressure control valve. The mathematical simulation model was derived from the quarter type model which consisted a valve and hydraulic damper for the purpose of analyzing the valve characteristics. Experiments were performed to confirm the performance of the valve and computations were carried out to ascertain the usefulness of the developed program. The results from computations fairly coincide with those from experiments. This has been achieved by developing the servomechanism valve which comprises the simple combination of a solenoid, a spool valve and a poppet valve. The results from experiments and computations show the development process of optimum proportional pressure control valve in the hydraulics system.
Modeling of Hybride Electric Vehicle Drivetrain and Development of Simulation Program
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 122~129
This paper describes a hybrid dynamic system(HDS) modeling method and result for the drivertrain of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle(PHEV) which consists of a gasoline engine, an electric machine, and a continuous variable transmission (CVT) and proposes a drivetrain control system. The control system has an engine controller, a motor controller, a CVT controller and a supervisory controller for the coordination of all system. The controller keep the speed of engine wheel and the output torque within the optimal operation range based on the experimental data. We also developed a MATLAB/SIMULINK program for the performance simulation of PHEV drivetrain model and controllers and compared the simulation result with the experiment result in the recent literatures.
Virbration Characteristics of a passenger Car Steering Column
Lee, Young-Shin ; Song, Sun-Young ; Park, Myoung-Hwan ; Ryu, Chung-Hyun ; Kim, Young-Wann ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 130~141
The virbration characteristics of a passenger car steering column are studied by using a modal test and a finite element (FE) analysis. To verify the FE model and the results, an experiment using the impact exciting method is performed. Two types of the steering column in this study are considered as follows; (ⅰ) the non-tilt type steering column and (ⅱ) the upper-tilt type steering column. The experimental results are compared with those o the FE analysis, and it ti shown that the results agree with each other. The effects of various design parameters such as the bracket thickness, the column diameter on the natural frequencies are also investigated by FE analysis.
A Model Reference Variable Structure Control based on a Neural Network System Identification for an Active Four Wheel Steering System
Kim, Hoyong ; Park, Yong-Kuk ; Lee, Jae-Kon ; Lee, Dong-Ryul ; Kim, Gi-Dae ;
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 142~155
A MIMO model reference control scheme incorporating the variable structure theory for a vehicle four wheel steering system(4WS) is proposed and evaluated for a class of continuous-time nonlinear dynamics with known or unknown uncertainties. The scheme employs an neural network to identify the plant systems, where the neural network estimates the nonlinear dynamics of the plant. By the Lyapunov direct method, the algorithm is proven to be globally stable, with tracking errors converging to the neighborhood of zero. The merits of this scheme is that the global system stability is guaranteed and it is not necessary to know the exact structure of the system. With the resulting identification model which contains the neural networks, it does not need higher degrees of freedom vehicle model than 3 degree of freedom model. Th proposed scheme is applied to the active four wheel system and shows the validity is used to investigate vehicle handing performances. In simulation of the J-turn maneuver, the reduction of yaw rate overshoot of a typical mid-size car improved by 30% compared to a two wheel steering system(2WS) case, resulting that the proposed scheme gives faster yaw rate response and smaller side angle than the 2WS case.
Discrete Time Modeling of the Front Suspension System with Nonlinearity
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 156~164
In this study, a discrete time model for a simplified front wheel suspension system which has nonlinear dampling and stiffness property is introduced. The model is estimated from the discrete data which are generated based on the real car parameter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated through numerical simulation, and the simulation results show that the proposed method can estimate the nonlinear behavior of the suspension system very well.
Design of Door Seal Section with Optimal Reaction Force
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 165~175
In order to improve the function of a door seal, its section design technique is discussed in this study, Its roles are prevention of an inflow of dusts, noise interception, insulation, wateproof, and the vibroisolating action which reduces vibration between the body and the door of a car while running, and the buffer action which sustain the proper reacting force as the door is closed. In this study, the optimal cross section of a door seal is designed using nonlinear finite element analysis (commercial finete element analysis program EASi-SEAL) and tables of orthogonal arralys with respect to relations between door and door seal to secure the satisfactory airtight property with the minimum force to shut the door.
Finite Element Analysis of the Shear Buckling Load with Respect to the Aspect Ratio and Number of Spots of two Rectangular Plates Spot-welded
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 173~181
The stability of a structural plate is a crucial problem which causes wrinkling and buckling. In this paper, the effect of the pattern of spot-welding points in the two rectangular plate on the shear buckling load is studied with respect to the thickness, the aspect ratio of plates, the number of welding spots. Buckling coefficient of the simple plate was compared with that of two plates with various conditions to extract the effect of buckling strength. The effect of the number of welding spots are studied in two directions, longitudinal and transverse directions. The concluded that the reinforcement effect was maximized when the aspect ratio was close to 1.5 and that the effect of number of welding spots in longitudinal direction was larger than that in transverse direction
New Crash Discrimination Algorithm and Accelerometer Locations
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 182~193
Several metrics have been used in crash discrimination algorithms in order to have timely air bag deployment during all frontal crash modes. However, it is still challengine to have timely air bag deployment especially during the oblique, the pole and the underride crash mode. Therefore, in this paper a new crash discrimination algorithm was proposed, using the absolute value of the deceleration change multiplied by the velocity change as a metric, and processing the metric as a function of the velocity change. The new algorithm was applied for all frontal crash modes of a minivan and a sports utility vehicle, and it resulted in timely air bag deployment for all frontal crash modes including the oblique, the pole and the underride crash mode. Moreover, it was proposed that an accelerometer be installed at each side of the rails, rockers or pillars to assess the crash severity of each side and to deploy the frontal air bags at different time especially during an asymmetric crash such as an oblique and an offset crash. As an example, the deceleration pulses measured at the left and right B-pillar·rocker locations were processed through the new algorithm, and faster time-to-fires were obtained for the air bag at the struck side for the air bag at the other side.
Vision-Based Lane Change Maneuver using Sliding Mode Control for a Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 194~207
In this paper, we suggest a vision-based lane change control system, which can be applied on the straight road, without additional sensors such as a yaw rate sensor and a lateral accelerometer. In order to reduce the image processing time, we predict a reference line position during lane change using the lateral dynamics and the inverse perspective mapping. The sliding mode control algorithm with a boundary layer is adopted to overcome variations of parameters that significantly affects a vehicle`s lateral dynamics and to reduce chattering phenomenon. However, applying the sliding mode control to the system with a long sampling interval, the stability of a control system may seriously be affected by the sampling interval. Therefore, in this paper, a look ahead offset has been used instead of a lateral offset to reduce the effect of the long sampling interval due to the image processing time. The control algorithm is developed to follow the desired trajectory designed in advance. In the design of the desired trajectory, we take account of the constraints of lateral acceleration and lateral jerk for ride comfort. The performance of the suggested control system is evaluated in simulations as well as field tests.
Axial Crush and Energy Absorption Characteristics of Aluminum/GFRP Hybird Square Tubes
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 208~219
In this study, static axial crush tests were performed with the new aluminum/GFRP hybrid tube. Glass/Epoxy prepregs were wrapped around an aluminum tube and co-cured. The failure of the hybrid tube was stable and progressive without trigger mechanism, and specific energy absorption was increased to the maximum of 33% in comparison with the aluminum tube. Effective energy absorption is possible for an inner aluminum tube because a wrapped composite tube constrains the deflection of an aluminum tube. The failure of a hybrid composite tube was stable without trigger mechanism because the inner aluminum tube could play the role of the crack initiator and controller. Mean crushing load could be calculated by modifying the plastic hinge collapse model for hybrid materials. The predicted results by this analytical model showed good agreement with the experimental results. It can be said that Aluminum/Glass-Epoxy hybrid tube is suitable for the vehicle front structure because this hybrid tube shows effective energy absorption, easy production, and simple application capability for RTM process.
A Study on a Fuzzy Controller for the Electronic Braking Force Distribution System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 220~229
In the brake systems a proportioning valve which reduces the brake pressure at each wheel cylinder for anti-locking of rear wheels is closely related with the safety of vehicles. But, it is impossible for a present proportioning valve to exactly control brake pressure because mechanically it is an open loop control system. So, in this paper we describe a electronic brake pressure distribution system using a fuzzy controller in order to exactly control brake pressure using a close loop control system. The object of electronic brake pressure distribution system is to change an cut-in pressure and an valve slop of proportioning valve in order to obtain better good performance of brake system than with mechanical system.
Evaluation of Boundary Conditions for Structural Analysis of Wheel Bearing Units
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 230~237
The wheel bearing in vehicles has been improved to unit module by joining a bearing to a hub in order to achieve weight reduction and easy assembly. Currently, the contact force between a raceway and balls of a bearing is applied as the external force in order to analyse the structure of the unit type bearings. In this paper, simplified boundary conditions are discussed for structure analysis of wheel bearing unit. From the procedure, the contact conditions of balls and race in wheel bearing unit are considered as equivalent non-linear spring elements. The end node of a spring element is constrained in displacement. And the external force of boundary conditions is applied at the contact point between tire and road. For the evaluation of this analysis, its results for the force of spring elements are compared with contact forces of calculated results. and also maximum equivalent stresses of analysis are compared with results of test at the flange of inner ring. The analysis results with proposed boundary conditions are more accurate than results from analysis which is generally used.
A Study on Design Optimization System for Thin Walled Beam Structures
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 238~246
In this paper, an optimization method of thin walled beam structures is proposed, Stiffnesses of a thin walled beam are characterized by the thickness of thin plates and the shape of the typical section of the beam. Explicit formula for section properties such as area, area moment of inertia, and torsional constants are derived using the response surface method. The explicit formula can be used for the optimal design of a structural system which consists of complicated thin walled beams. A vehicle structural system is optimized to demonstrate the proposed method.
A Study on Effects to Residual Fatigue Bending Strength or Orthotropy CFRP Composite Laminates under High Temperature and Moisture
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 247~258
It is thought that impact damages and hygrothermals can affect to CFRP (Carbon-fiber reinforced plastic) composite laminated due to the sensitivity on the composite laminated Therefore, this paper focuses on the fracture mechanisms experimentally based on a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) when subjected to impact damages, i.e., foreign object damages(FOD), and also the influence of impact damages and hygrothermals on residual fatigue bending strength of CFRP laminates. Composite laminates used in the experiment are CF/EPOXY orthotropy laminated plates, which constist of two-interfaces [04/904]s. A steel ball launched by an air gun collides against CFRP laminates to generate impact damages. Bending fatigue tests are periodically interrupted for a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement of the progrossive damages to built the fracture mechanism by impact damages, and three-point fatigue bending tests are carried out to investigate the influence of hygrothermals on the effect on the residual bending fatigue strength of CFRP laminates.
A Study on the Airbag Crash Recognition Algorithm for Vechcle Impact Modes and Speeds
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 259~266
Crash test data from different impact modes and threshold speeds were used to assess the effects of impact conditions on air bag electronic single point sensing (ESPS) activation requirements. The requirements are expressed in terms of the desired sensor activation time based on unbelted driver dummy kinematics. A crash discriminator pre-displacement is introduced to crash recognition algorithm to the ESPS. The new crash recognition algorithm named Velocity Energy Pre-displacement(VEPD) method is developed and the ESPS algorithm based on the VEPD technique is used to assess the ESPS system performance. It is shown that VEPD method correlates very well with desired sensor activation time and meets the activation requirement.
An Effect of the Complexity in Vehicle Dynamic Models on the Analysis of Vehicle Dynamic Behaviors: Model Comparison and Validation
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 267~278
Vehicle dynamic models in handing and stability analysis are divided into three groups: bicycle model, roll axis model and full vehicle model. Bicycle model is a simple linear model, which hag two wheels with load transfer being ignored. Roll axis model treats left and right wheels independently. In this model, load transfer has a great effect on nonlinearity of tire model. Effects of suspension system can be analyzed by using full vehicle model, which is included suspension stroke motions. In this paper, these models are validated and compared through comparison with road test, and the effects of suspension kinematics and compliance characteristics on vehicle motion are analyzed. In handling and stability analysis, roll axis model can simulate the real vehicle motion more accurately than full vehicle model. Compliance steer has a significant effect, but the effect of suspension kinematics is negligible.
Establishment of Replacement Criteria for Stud Bolts using on High Temperature in the Power Plants
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 8, issue 6, 2000, Pages 279~286
The stud bolts tend to degrade faster by high temperature(over 45
). Therefore, replacement cycle inspection of stud bolts were carried out various method such as ultrasonic test(UT), magnetic test(MT), wobble test, visual test and hardness test. Especially, wobble test method has been applied to determine replacement evaluation criteria of stud bolt after long time operation. We applied three different methods on the three site and the obtained data are compared with the results from the evaluation methods. From the results, the replacement criteria for stud bolts under high temperature in power plants are proposed.