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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 6 - Nov 2001
Volume 9, Issue 5 - Sep 2001
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Jul 2001
Volume 9, Issue 3 - May 2001
Volume 9, Issue 2 - May 2001
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
Selecting the target year
A Study of Aging of Oxygen Sensor (II)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~7
Oxygen sensor taken from the aftertreatment systems of 4 vehicles which had been aged in domestic field examined for aging effects on emissions using a idel engine bench. also the artificial sensor signal generated by function generator was supplied to ECU, instead of oxygen sensor to simulate aging effects of oxygen sensor. This study shows that reduction of amplitude, deformation and shift of mean value of aged sensors seriously affect on the engine out emissions and the performance of TWC.
Development of Hybrid Model for Simulating of Diesel Spary Dynamics
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 8~19
A number of atomization and droplet breakup models have been developed and used to predict the diesel spray characteristic. Most of these models could not provide reasonable computational result of the diesel spray characteristic because they have only considered the primary breakup. A hybrid model is, therefore, required to develop by considering the primary and secondary breakup of liquid jet. according to this approach, wave breakup(WB) model was used compute the primary breakup of the liquid jet and droplet deformation and breakup(DDB) model was used for the secondary breakup of droplet. Development of hybrid model by using KIVA-II code was performed by comparing with the experimental data of spray tip penetration and SMD from the literature. A hybrid model developed in this study could provide the good agreement with the experimental data of spray tip penetration. The prediction results of SMD were in good agreement between 0.5 and 1.0 ms after the start of injection. Numerical results obtained by the present hybrid model have the good agreement with the experimental data with the breakup time constant in WB model of 30, and DDB model constant Ck of 1.0 when the droplet becomes less than 95% of maximum droplet diameter injected.
Design and Performance Analysis of a Variable Configuration Tracked Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 20~27
A variable configuration tracked vehicle(VCTV) is developed to reduce turning energy and improve climbing ability for stairs. This mechanism has four track T-type frames. By changing the driving direction, each track T-type frame rotates to minimize the contact area with ground. It also has better performance than other VCTV in energy consumption of turning. Futhermore this mechanism is more stable than other VCTV on the rough terrain. When climbing stairs, each track T-type frame rotates to obtain a front attack angle and keep stability on steep stairs. The design parameters of components of track T-type frames are optimized to enhance the performance of climbing stairs. Performance indices include a stable angle, a climbing ability, a height of the vertical obstacle. In case that the overall length of the mechanism is 0.2m, it is required that the radius of the wheels should be 5mm and the length track contacted with he ground should be 0.09m to climb higher and steeper stairs.
A study on the Valve Overlap Period and Valve Lift on the SI Engine Characteristics
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 28~36
In this study, a zero-dimensional two zone model is developed to investigate the effects of valve overlap period and valve lift on combustion and gas exchange process in SI engine. The simulation results show that the predicted data has good agreements with experimental ones. The useful information of combustion and gas exchange process such as residual gas fraction, cylinder pressure, mass flow rate and volumetric efficiency can be obtained and the effects of engine variables on combustion processes and performances can be evaluated.
The Development of Muffler with Controller Sensing Exhaust Gas Pressure in Automobile Exhaust System(1) -The general characteristics of exhaust system and characteristics of control valve-
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 37~44
This study is focused on the development of a new muffler. A control valve installed in the exhaust system is operated by torsion springs, and its open angle is controlled automatically corresponding to the engine operating conditions. The experiments were done using an exhaust system simulator having the same pulsation wave frequency and similar pulsation propagation characteristics of a real exhaust system. The purpose of this study is to develop a new muffler system which has improved noise reduction quality and less power loss than conventional mufflers and electronic-control mufflers.
A Study on the Effects of Ignition Energy and Systems on the Flame Propagation in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 45~56
A constant volume combustion chamber is employed to investigate the initial flame kernel development and flame propagation of gasoline-air mixtures with various ignition systems, ignition energy and spark plug electrodes. To do this research, four ignition systems are designed and manufactured, and the ignition energy is controlled by varying the dwell time. Several kinds of spark plugs are also made to analyze the effects of electrodes on flame kernel development. The velocity of flame propagation is measured by the laser deflection method. The output laser beam from He-Ne laser is divided into three parallel beams by a beam splitter. The splitted beams pass through the combustion chamber. They are deflected when contacted with flame front, and the voltage signals from photodiodes change due to deflection. The results show that higher ignition energy raises the flame propagation speed especially under the fuel lean operation. The wider electrode gap, smaller electrode diameter and sharper electrode tip make the speed of the initial flame propagation faster. The speed of the initial flame propagation is affected by electrode material as well. Electrode material with lower melting temperature help the initial flame propagation.
A Study on the Analysis of Atomization Mechanism for the Air Shrouded Injector
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 57~62
EFI system has severe problems of heavy HC emission generated by large fuel droplets and non-uniform air-fuel mixture. Therefore, various atomization techniques are being developed in order to reduce HC emission. The one among those techniques is ar shrouded injector, which has better atomization ability and demands less power loss than other atomizers. Thus, the development of this air shrouded injector can be major topic to cope with international emission regulation. Nevertheless, there are few domestic and foreign studies which deal with air shrouded injector. In this study, the spray characteristics and atomization mechanism of the representative air shrouded injector were analyzed using PDPA system. From experimental results, the definite standards of air shrouded injector's spray characteristics were established.
Cycle Simulation for the Performance Prediction of a High Pressure Unit Injection System of a Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 63~74
In this study, a cycle simulation program of a Unit-Injection(UI) system was developed to estimate the injection performance of newly designed injection system. A fundamental theory of the simulation program is based on the conservation law of mass. Loss of fuel mass in the system due to leakage, compressibility effect of the liquid fuel and friction loss in the control volume was considered in the algorithm f the program. For the evaluation of the simulation program developed, the experimental result which was offered by the Technical Research Center of Doowon Precision Industry Co. was incorporated. Two main parameters; the maximum pressure in the plunger chamber and total fuel mass(kg) injected into the engine cylinder per cycle, were measured and compared with the simulation results. It was found that the maximum error rate of the simulation result to the experimental output was less than 3% in the rated rotational speed (rpm) range of the plunger cam.
Numerical analysis of Flow Characteristic Around an Automobile with Variation of Slant Angle of Rear End
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 75~83
In this paper, numerical analysis is used to find the effects of inclination of rear end on flow characteristic around an automobile. The reference slant angle of rear end is 28.6
, the slant angle of rear end is decreased to 24
and also increased to 31.6
. The 3-D incompressible Navier-Stockes equations are solved by the iterative time marching scheme. The computed surface pressure coefficients were compared with experimental results and a good agreement has been achieved. The A- and C-pillar vortex and other flow phenomena around the ground vehicle are evidently shown. The variation of aerodynamic coefficients of drag, lift with respect to inclination angle of rear end are systematically studied. The flow characteristic on the automobile surface with respect to change of inclination of rear end have been also studied.
An Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Temperature Separation for the Formal Change of Counterflow Type Vortex Tube
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 84~93
The aim of this study is to provide fundamental informations that make it possible to use a cool stream and a hot stream simultaneously. We changed the pressure of compressed air that flows into a tube, the inner diameter of orifice that a cold stream exits, and the mass flow rate ratio. And in each case, we measured the temperature of a cold stream and a hot stream in each exit of a tube. Also we measured the axial temperature distribution and the radial temperature distribution in internal space of a tube. From the study, following conclusive remarks can be made. Average flow rate that flows into a tube is in proportion to square root of inlet pressure. As inlet pressure increases axial and radial temperature distribution in the inner space of vortex-tube increase. As mass flow rate ratio change, separation point moves.
A Study on Combustion Process of Diesel Engine by Image Analysis -the use of ethanol-diesel oil blend fuel-
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 94~101
In this paper, the combustion improvement effects of alcohol-diesel oil blend fuel were investigated in a visualization engine. As a result of experiment, it was found out that the combustion chamber of deep dish type and re-entrant type at the same operation condition. However, when the con-tent of alcohol exceeded 10% of total fuel delivery, the combustion of alcohol-diesel oil blend fuel was worse than that of diesel oil. The maximum blend quantity of ethanol which is not ignited in the re-entrant type combustion chamber was estimated at approximately 40% of total fuel delivery. So, it is necessary to blend appropriate quantity of a volatility fuel such as alcohol in order to improve combustion.
An Experimental Analysis of the Flow Field in an Air Induction System by Flow Visualization and LDV Measurements
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 102~111
To describe the air flow characteristics within an air cleaner cover and mass air flow sensor (MAFS) entry region installed in a 3.0L engine air induction system, flow visualization, velocity and turbulence intensity measurements were taken in several view planes. A detailed knowledge of the interaction between the design parameters and the flow structures will enhance our understanding of the motions within the flow field and enable engineers to optimize the induction system and reduce the signal-to-noise ratio in the MAFS output. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of coherent motions and the controlling parameters which affect the air flow in the MAFS entrance region over a flow rate of 13-240 kg/hr. The high speed motion pictures illustrated that the air flow generated within the air cleaner cover under steady state condition is quite complex. In both axial and radial planes of the main passage it was found that the flow pattern is remarkably influenced by the air cleaner cover and main passage configuration. A comparison of the flow patterns and measurements in the original and modified air cleaner cover is presented. Measurements from the MAFS indicated an significant reduction in pressure drop and signal noise for the modified cover as compared with the original cover, over an air flow rate of 13-240 kg/hr.
Engine-CVT Integrated Control Algorithm Considering Power train Loss and CVT Response Lag
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 112~121
In this paper, an engine-CVT integrated control algorithm is suggested by considering the powertrain loss, inertia torque and the CVT ratio response lag. The integrated control algorithm consists of (1) the optimal engine power calculation and (2) determining of the optimal throttle valve opening and the optimal CVT ratio. The optimal engine power is obtained by compensating the inertia torque due to the CVT ratio change and the powertrain loss that is calculated iteration procedure. In addition, an algorithm to compensate the effect of the CVT ratio response lag on the drive torque is suggested by the engine speed compensation causing the increased optimal CVT ratio. Simulation results show that the engine-CVT integrated control algorithm developed in this study makes it possible to obtain better engine operation on the optimal operating line, which results in the improved fuel economy while satisfying the driver's demand.
Design Methodology of Automotive Wheel Bearing Unit with Discrete Design Variables
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 122~130
In order to improve the efficiency of the design process and the quality of the resulting design, this study proposes a design method for determining design variables of an automotive wheel-bearing unit of double-row angular-contact ball bearing type by using a genetic algorithm. The desired performance of the wheel-bearing unit is to maximize system life while satisfying geometrical and operational constraints without enlarging mounting spae. The use of gradient-based optimization methods for the design of the unit is restricted because this design problem is characterized by the presence of discrete design variables such as the number of balls and standard ball diameter. Therefore, the design problem of rolling element bearings is a constrained discrete optimization problem. A genetic algorithm using real coding and dynamic mutation rate is used to efficiently find the optimum discrete design values. To effectively deal with the design constraints, a ranking method is suggested for constructing a fitness function in the genetic algorithm. A computer program is developed and applied to the design of a real wheel-bearing unit model to evaluate the proposed design method. Optimum design results demonstrate the effectiveness of the design method suggested in this study by showing that the system life of an optimally designed wheel-bearing unit is enhanced in comparison with that of the current design without any constraint violations.
Design of an Automatic Test System for Electronic Equipments in Vehicles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 131~138
The performance analysis of an electronic equipment test is very complicate due to the variety o vehicles. In this study, automatic design system for the electronic equipment test has been carried out using the standard load patterns. For the test, standard signal patterns for each item are modeled. The test items can be decided by the user by means of these patterns. Also, engineering software modules are developed and proved to be very efficient for analyzing the test results statistically. Experiments are performed for the test system in the vehicle assembly line. By analyzing the test results, it is found that bad samples can be detected without failure. Also, the engineering software modules provide an analytical tool for the automation of the test process.
A Path Control Model to Evaluation Handling Characteristic of Vehicles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 139~147
In this study a path control scheme of simulation models of various vehicles to evaluate their handling characteristic is developed. Based on the forward target method, path deviation error is estimated and the required steering effort to reduce the error is computed by Ziegler-Nichols PID control rule. Velocity control model is also included in the proposed path control scheme to achieve the desired velocity. The path control scheme is implemented on a full vehicle model to perform ISO test procedures, such as steady state cornering, lane change, and sinusoidal input, etc. Through the simulations of ISO test procedures and comparison with actual tests, effectiveness and validity of the path control model is demonstrated.
Disassembility Assessment of Air-cleaner in Passenger-vehicle by fuzzy
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 148~155
A disassembility assessment has mostly depend on the subjective decision making from the qualitative element. The work of disassembly is already classified with given disassemble points from the symbolic chart method. It is not useful in the practical assessment because it is not specified. The new method of design for disassembility assessment(DFDA) is practical to introduce the fuzzy number as the conversion of quantitative element from qualitative. It is appled to air-cleaner of passenger-vehicle for the usefulness.
Study on Forward Kinematics of Stewart Platform Using Neural Network Algorithm together with Newton-Raphson Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 156~162
An effective and practical method is presented for solving the forward kinematics of a 6-DOF Stewart Platform, using neural network algorithm together with Newton-Raphson method. An approximated solution is obtained from trained neural network, then it is used as an initial estimate for Newton-Raphson method. A series of accurate solutions are calculated with reasonable speed for the entire workspace of the platform. The solution procedure can be used for driving a real-time simulation platform.
Development of the Massless Link Model including External Force and Bushing Deformation
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 163~170
In this paper, a massless link model transmitting external forces is developed to achieve the numerical efficiency in simulation of vehicle suspension systems. Forces acting on links are resolved and transmitted to attached points with a quasi-static assumption. Also, a theoretical derivation and computer implementation of a massless link with bushing elements are proposed. In the massless link with bushing elements, one end is connected to the adjacent body with bushings and the other end is connected with a spherical joint. The deformation of a massless link with bushing elements is theoretically determined by minimizing the potential energy function with quasi-static equilibrium assumption at each time step. Several simulations with a full vehicle model are carried out to compare the efficiency of the developed massless link component. From the results, it is concluded that the proposed approach can reduce the computational time considerably.
Collision Configurations Reconstruction Using Deformation Shape and Deformation Severity of Car Body
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 171~180
Collision accident reconstruction algorithm are developed based on the deformation shape and severity of a car body. At first, the body stiffness equation representing the force-deformation relationship is derived using finite element analysis for head on collision of two cars. The database of deformation shapes and energies is constructed for five different collision configurations; each configuration contains three velocity conditions. Deformation shapes are obtained using a curve fitting method and result in cubic polynomials. Deformation energies are calculated using a stiffness equation and deformation data. Three algorithms are developed to reconstruct collision configuration compared with constructed database. The developed algorithms show reasonably good performance to find collisions conditions for some test problems.
Basic Study on the Performance Improvement of HD Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 181~188
The evaluation of the noise for the an existing engine was carried out to improve the current noise level. The applied techniques were 1m air-borne noise, combustion noise analysis, torsional analysis at the front pulley and sound pressure intensity. In addition, the evaluation of the possibility to the noise reduction by means of wrapping the parts was performed to propose the detailed information in engine design. In view of the obtained results, the following countermeasures were recommended to reduce the current noise level through the above methods. Furthermore, in order to assess the influence of combustion noise on the overall engine noise, the noise test was also performed by the change of intake air temperature up to 5
in steps of 1
. Finally, the fixed design specifications to reduce the engine noise will be decided in consideration of the test data for proto type engine.
Hysteresis Model of Damping Forces of MR Damper for a Passenger Car
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 189~197
This paper presents hysteresis models of damping forces of a magneto-rheological (MR) damper which is applicable to a middle-sized passenger vehicle. After manufacturing a cylindrical type of the MR damper, its field-dependant damping force and hysteresis behavior are experimentally evaluated. Three different models ; Bingham model, Bouc-Wen model and Polynomial model are provided to predict the hysteretic damping force. The damping force characteristics predicted from three different models are compared with the measured results under various excitation conditions.
Finite Element Analysis for Prediction of Residual Stresses Induced by Shot Peening
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 198~204
The shot peening is largely used for a surface treatment of metallic components where small spherical pellets called shots are blasted onto the surface with velocities up to 100 m/s. This treatment leads to improvement of fatigue behavior due to the developed compressive residual stresses, and so it has gained widespread acceptance I the automobile and aerospace industries. The residual stress profile on surface layer depends on the parameters of shot peening, which are, shot velocity, shot diameter, coverage, impact angle, material properties etc. and the method to confirm this profile is the measurement by X-ray diffractometer only. Despite the importance to automobile ad aerospace industries, little attention has been devoted to the accurate modelling of the process. In this paper, the simulation technique is applied to predict the magnitude ad distribution of the residual stress and plastic deformation caused by shot peening with the help of the finite element analysis.
Dynamic Anlaysis of High Mobility Tracked Vehicles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 205~215
In this study, modeling and analysis procedure for the dynamic analysis of a high mobility tracked vehicle system were studied. The vehicle model used in this investigation is assumed to be consist of two kinematically decoupled subsystems. The chassis subsystem consists of chassis frame, sprocket, support rollers, road wheels, idler wheel, road wheel arms and idle wheel arm, while the track subsystem is represented as a closed kinematic chain consisting of track links and end connectors interconnected by revolute joints with bushing. Nonlinear contact force module describing the interaction between track link, and sprocket, idler wheel, road wheel, support roller, ground was used. The effects of road wheel arms and idler wheel arm due to tension adjuster are also considered.
A Study on the fatigue Strength of SACM 645 Steel under Various Nitriding Methods and Times
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 1, 2001, Pages 216~221
In this study, the effects of nitriding methods and times on the fatigue strength of SACM 645 steel were investigated. The rotary bending tests were carried out to obtain and compare the fatigue strengths of plasma ion nitrided specimens and gas nitride specimen. The 70 hr. gas nitrided specimen had the highest fatigue strength of 1.05
MPa over the 40 hr., 70 hr. and 90 hr. plasma ion nitrided specimens, which had the fatigue strength of 3.48
respectively. Also, the microhardness tests were conducted to measure the effective case depths. The plasma ion nitrided specimens showed much higher surface hardness values than the gas nitrided specimen overall.