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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 6 - Nov 2001
Volume 9, Issue 5 - Sep 2001
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Jul 2001
Volume 9, Issue 3 - May 2001
Volume 9, Issue 2 - May 2001
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
Selecting the target year
Effect of Stroke Changes on the In-Cylinder Flow Field in a Four-Valve SI Engines
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 1~8
The flow field inside a cylinder of four-valve Sl engine was investigated quantitatively using a three-dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry system, to determine how stroke changes affect the flow field. The purpose of this work was to develop quantitative methods which correlate in-cylinder flows to engine performance. For this study, the sane intake manifold, engine head, cylinder, and the piston were used to examine the flow characteristics in different strokes. Quantification of the flow field was done by calculating three major parameters which are believed to adequately characterize in cylinder motion. These quantities were TKE, tumble and swirl ratios. The LDV results reveal that flow patterns are similar, the flow velocities scale with piston speed but another parameters such as TKE, and tumble and swirl numbers are not the same for different stroke systems.
In-Cylinder Fuel Behavior According to Fuel Injection Timing and Port Characteristics in an Sl Engine : Part II-With Low/Medium Swirl
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 9~17
This paper is the second of 3 companion papers which investigate axial stratification process. In-cylinder fuel behavior has been investigated in the port injected Sl engine by visualizing for the purpose of understanding stratification. Planar laser light sheet from an Nd:YAG laser has been illuminated through the transparent quartz cylinder of the single cylinder optical engine and the Mie scattered light has been captured through the quartz window in the piston head with an ICCD camera. Fuel has been replaced with an air-ethanol mixture to utilize atomized fuel spray fur the visualization purposes. This results have been compared with steady flow concentration measurement. For low/medium swirl port, the early injection makes such a fuel distribution state that is upper-rich, middle-lean and lower-rich along the combustion chamber and cylinder by tumbling motion. On the other hand, the late injection induces upper-rich, middle-lean and lower-rich state due to the short fuel penetration.
In-Cylinder Fuel Behavior According to Fuel Injection Timing and Port Characteristics in an SI Engine : Part III-With High Swirl
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 18~26
This paper is the third of 3 companion papers which investigate axial stratification process. In-cylinder fuel behavior has been investigated in the port injected SI engine by visualizing for the purpose of understanding stratification. Planar laser light sheet from an Nd:YAG laser has been illuminated through the transparent quartz cylinder of the single cylinder optical engine and the Mie scattered light has been captured through the quartz window in the piston head with an ICCD camera. Fuel has been replaced with an air-ethanol mixture to utilize atomized fuel spray for the visualization purposes. This results have been compared with steady flow concentration measurement. In high swirl port, the most fuel remains at combustion chamber and upper cylinder region without being affected by injection timing. The macro-distributed state is not changed but the difference of the amount of fuel around the spark plug varies according to injection timing, which determines LML.
An Experimental Study on the Atomization Characteristics in an Intermittent Multi-hole Diesel Spray
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 27~34
This experimental study is to investigate the intermittent spray characteristics of the multi-hole diesel nozzle with a 2-spring nozzle holder. Without changing the total orifice exit area, its hole number varied from 3(
) to 8(
=0.25mm). Through the use of the 2-D PDPA(phase Doppler particle analyzer), the droplet diameter and the velocity of the diesel spray injected intermittently from the multi-hole nozzle into the still ambient were measured. And the calculations of time-resolved diameters, SMD and AMD were made. The results can be summarized as follows. The spray of the multi-hole nozzle consisted of three parts. These are the leading edge, the central part and the trailing edge. And most of droplets produced at the trailing edge of spray. In the spray flow field, the measuring position which represented the intermittent spray characteristics well was near the nozzle tip. But at the downstream of the spray, its characteristics disappeared, and spray behavior showed a quasi steady state regardless of the time evolution of the spray. The overall mean SMD of the spray increased with the spray development, and showed their maximum value near 1.5ms regardless of hole number.
An Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Metal Temperature and Heat Rejection to Coolant of Gasoline Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 35~41
In recent applications, map controlled thermostat has been adapted to optimize engine cooling system and vehicle cooling system. First of all, this strategy is focused on improving fuel consumption rate and reducing emissions, especially unburned hydrocarbon. The object can be obtained through controlling engine metal temperature by varying engine coolant temperature with engine load and speed. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of engine metal temperature and heat rejection rate to coolant. From the results of tested engines, it is obvious that fuel consumption rate has more dominant effect on engine metal temperatures than the corresponding engine power does. Also, Re-Nu relation which shows heat rejection rate to coolant in function of air-fuel mixture and engine specifications has been studied. Also, the empirical Re-Nu relation at full loaded engine was developed.
A Study on Effect of Scale Formation in Water Jacket on Thermal Durability in LPG Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 42~50
In this paper, the effects of scale formation in engine water jacket upon the thermal durability of engine itself and its component parts were studied. To understand the effect of quality of water, a full load engine endurance test for 50 hours was carried out with not-treated underground water. The followings were found through the tested engine inspection after the endurance test; 1-2 mm thick scale formation in the engine water jacket, valve seat wear, piston top land scuffing, piston pin stick, and cylinder bore scuffing in siamese area. In order to understand the causes of above test results, the heat rejection rate to coolant, the metal surface temperature of combustion chamber, and the oil and exhaust gas temperatures were measured and analyzed. The scale formed in the engine water jacket played a role as thermal insulator. The scale formed in the engine reduced the heat rejection rate to coolant and it caused to increase the metal surface temperature. The reduced heat rejection rate to coolant increased the heat rejection rate to oil and exhaust gas and increased the oil and exhaust gas temperature. Also, the reasons of valve seat wear, piston top land scuffing and cylinder bore scuffing, and piston pin stick quantitatively analyzed in this paper.
The Study on Field Test of the New Formulated and Commercial Diesel Engine Oils
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 51~59
A diesel engine oil formulated in KRICT and a commercial diesel engine oil (API CG-4) were tested by car and their Kinematic Viscosity, TAN, TBN, metal content, additive depletion, anti-wear property and IR analysis were analyzed. From the research, both of the tested oils had almost the same properties f3r the change of TAN and TBN, but the change of Kinematic Viscosity of formulated oil was slightly higher than that of commercial oil. The iron content in the commercial oil increased rapidly from 7000 km while that of the formulated oil was still low. These results were confirmed by the anti-wear test with a 4-ball wear test machine for the each samples. Also, for the commercial oil, the depletion factor of the Zn-DTP which was added as an anti-wear property did not change any more after 7000 km. But, that of the formulated oil changed continuously to 8000 km, which means that the ability to prevent wear of the sliding pairs exists for the formulated oil. From the analysis results of oil properties obtained by field test, it was found that the commercial oil could be used only within 7000 km, but the formulated oil could be used more than 8000 km without severe wear of the sliding parts in the diesel engine.
The Analysis and Experiments for the Design of Electro-mechanical Variable Valve Train System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 60~67
As a method of variable valve train(VVT), Electro-Mechanical Valve(EMV) has been studied. Compared with conventional VVT system, the EMV system has a relatively simple structure. The system has two electromagnets, springs and an armature. The system can be operated by reciprocal action between armature and two electromagnets. And, the operating event can be controlled by electrical signal from controller. Therefore, reduction of emission and fuel consumption can be achieved through valve event control at each engine operating condition. In this study, characteristics of EMV system were investigated by simulations and experiments. The results of simulation and experiment show that the core shape and material characteristics are dominant parameters on magnetic force and delay time. In order to apply the system to commercial engine, it has a compact size and high stiffness springs(50N/mm) to increase the valve speed. Because of high valve seating velocity, loud noise and high impact force generated, which can lead to reduction of actuator durability. Therefore, further research is required to reduce valve seating velocity.
An Experimental Study on the Reduction of Nitric Oxides from the Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas with Metal Supported Oxides Catalysts
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 68~75
In this paper, a number of supported metal oxides and perovskite type catalysts were investigated for the NOx reduction from the diesel engine exhaust gas. All catalysts were made into pellets type with diameter of 3-4 mm alumina(Al
) as a supporter. These samples were tested by real diesel exhaust gas which contains CO, hydrocarbons and soot in the temperature range of 150~55
space velocity (SV). Among the results, several promising catalysts showed NOx conversion above 50% in the temperature range of 150-35
. From these results supported metal oxides catalysts and perovskite type could be recommended for the practical application to the automobile exhaust treatments.
An Effect of Cone Type Circular Ring on the Flow Distribution in Catalytic Converter
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 76~83
An experimental investigation has been performed on the steady flow in exhaust system. When individual flow coming from exhaust manifold entered UCC, the inlet conditions at entry to the diffuser in UCC were affected by the upstream pipe and manifold works. But those effects of the inlet condition on flow through monolith are negligible because the flows are concentrated on the center of monolith regardless of inlet flow distribution. To improve the flow distribution, we installed the cone type circular ring in diffuser of UCC. This led to increasement of flow uniformity, but there was minor increment of pressure drop.
Analysis of a Modified Plate Fin for Enhanced Performance of a Plate Fin Heat Exchanger
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 84~91
Comparison between performance of a plate fin and that of a modified plate fin is investigated as a function of the position, the non-dimensional width and height of wings as well as the non-dimensional fin length using a two-dimensional separation of variables method. The ratio of the incremental rate of heat loss to that of the area of a modified plate fin is also presented as a function of the height of wings. The modified plate fin is made by attaching the wings to upper and lower sides of a plate fin. One of the results shows that performance of a modified plate fin is more improved as the wings approach left (higher) thermal reservoir.
Improving the Roll Stability of a Vehicle by H
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 92~99
This paper presents a simulation study using a robust controller to improve the roll stability of a vehicle. The controller is designed in the framework of an output feedback H
control scheme based on the 3DOF linear vehicle model, solving the mixed-sensitivity problem to guarantee the robust stability and disturbance rejection with respect to parameter variations due to laden and running vehicle conditions. In order to investigate the feasibility of the active roll control system in a real car, its performance is evaluated by simulation in a 10DOF full vehicle model with actuator dynamics and tire characteristics.
A Study on the Automotive Suspension System for Energy Efficiency
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 100~107
The main goals of the automotive suspension systems are to isolate roadway unevenness from the tire and to improve vehicle stability. To overcome the performance limitation of the passive systems the active systems which completely replace the passive spring and damper elements with a force generating actuator has been studied. However, application of the system has been limited because it has required a significant amount of power. Recently, alternative systems which retain passive elements but include active elements have been developed to reduce the power required. Those systems are mostly focused on the control system which compresses the spring-damper directly. In this study, a new type of power efficient control system which makes the spring-damper unit slide in side way is studied. After constructing the control system including dynamic modeling and motion control, two types of alternative control systems are compared in view of power consumption and dynamic attitudes such as roll responses as well as heave responses. Also, a half car bond graph model is developed to show clearly the significant differences in performances between two control systems.
Development of the Design Program of the Brake System for the Tractor-Semitrailer Vehicle
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 108~120
In this paper, the braking performance considering the dynamic weight is analyzed about the tractor-semitrailer vehicle. The basic brake performance, the parking brake performance, the emergency brake performance and the locking point deceleration etc. are to be calculated for the brake system design of the tractor-semitrailer vehicle. This braking performance is related to traffic regulations and braking characteristics according to the vehicle deceleration, the tire-road friction coefficient and specifications of the air brake system. The design program for the braking performance based on various design variables of the vehicle and the air brake system is developed integrating the analysis functions. This design program is developed by an object oriented programming method that is windows based. GUI (Graphic User Interface) function and the convenience of operating are greatly considered.
Factors Related to Velocity Perception in a Graphic Simulator
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 121~130
This paper addresses a method for evaluating perceived velocities of the graphic module in a driving simulator. The major two graphic factors associated with perceived velocities are analyzed: they are the lateral distance between a virtual driver and an array of environmental objects and the textural density of these objects. A graphical representation of a vehicle and its surrounding environment are constructed by employing a three-dimensional tool, Pro/ENGINEER and a virtual environment, dVISE. Using the developed virtual driving environment, experiments have been carried out to formulate the relationship between velocity perception and each factor. Based on the experimental results, nonlinear regression equations are derived to show how the perceived velocities are dependent upon distance/density.
Study on the Wrinkling Prediction in Sheet Metal Stamping Processes
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 131~142
A wrinkling is the instability phenomenon influenced by material properties, shape geometry, forming conditions, stress state, etc. The wrinkling is considered as a critical defect in appearance of product. Many wrinkling prediction methods using thickness strain distribution and farming analysis have been proposed. The wrinkling, however, is not easily predicted precisely by these methods. In this study, the region in the biaxial plane stress state is modeled with a rectangular plate introducing the effective dimension, and critical stress values for the wrinkling are calculated. Prediction index for the wrinkling is then evaluated by normalizing the actual stress with respect to the critical stress. In order to show the validity and efficiency of the method proposed, the wrinkling prediction for a squared sheet in the uniaxial tensile stress and auto-body front finder panel is performed.
A Lane Departure Warning Algorithm Based on an Edge Distribution Function
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 143~154
An algorithm for estimating the lane departure of a vehicle is derived and implemented based on an EDF(edge distribution function) obtained from gray-level images taken by a CCD camera mounted on a vehicle. As the function of edge direction, the EDF is aimed to show the distribution of edge direction and to estimate the possibility of lane departure with respect to its symmetric axis and local mamma. The EDF plays important roles: 1) It reduces noisy effects caused by dynamic road scene. 2) It makes possible lane identification without camera modeling. 3) It also leads LDW(lane departure warning) problem to a mathematical approach. When the situations of lane departure such that the vehicle approaches to lane marks or runs in the vicinity of the lane marks are occurred, the orientation of lane marks in images is changed, and then the situations are immediately reflected to the EDF. Accordingly, the lane departure is estimated by studying the shape of the EDF. The proposed EDF-based algorithm enhanced the adaptability to cope with the random and dynamic road environments, and eventually led to the reliable LDW system.
A Study on Numerical Approximation of Joint Stiffness of Vehicle Structures
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 155~163
Joint stiffnesses can affect the vibrational characteristics of car body structures and, therefore, should be included in vehicle system models. In this paper, a numerical approximation of joint stiffness is presented for considering joint flexibility of thin walled beam jointed structures. Using the proposed method, it is possible to optimize joint structures considering the change of section shapes in vehicle structures. The numerical approximation of joint stiffnesses is derived using the RSM(Response Surface Method) in terms of beam section properties. The study shows that joint stiffnesses can be effectively determined in designing vehicle structure.
A Performance Evaluation Method of a Steering HILS System for Vehicle Mechatronic System Development and Test
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 164~172
Various HILS systems for developing and testing vehicle mechatronic systems have been proposed and constructed during the last few years. However, performance of those systems have not been evaluated in a systematic way. Based on the transfer function approach, this paper presents a method far evaluating performance such as stable dynamic simulation range of a proposed steering HILS system. In the evaluation, we have investigated effects of time delays that exist in the real-time dynamic simulation, additional actuators, and data transmission on the stable dynamic simulation range, simulation frequency range, and steering feel. This evaluation methodology may be useful to help engineers develop a HILS system for their own purposes.
Thermoelastic Contact Analysis of Drums Brakes by Finite Element Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 173~180
In the case of axisymmetric thermal analysis of drum brakes, the distribution of frictional heat produced on the interface and temperature difference between mating frictional faces are very interesting problems to computational researchers. In the first part, the influence of the s-cam load angles and elastic modulus of the pad on the contact pressure distribution between pad and drum was checked by a three dimensional model. In the second part heat conduction from the interface to the pad and the drum was modeled by using a thin interface element, so artificial division of the generated frictional heat between pad and drum is not necessary. Temperature difference between mating frictional faces is successfully modeled by using the interface element. The influence of some parameters on the thermal distribution is checked. The analysis was performed by ABAQUS/Standard code.
The Characteristic of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Laser Welded Sheet Metal for Automobile Body Panel
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 181~189
For the Tailor Welded Blank sheet used fur automobile body panel, the characteristics of fatigue crack propagation behavior were studied. The thickness of specimen was machined to be same (0.9+0.9mm) and different (0.9+2.0mm). As a base test, mechanical properties around welding zone were examined. The results indicated that there were no significant decreases in mechanical properties, but hardness around welding bead is 2.3 times greater than base material. The crack propagation rate was noticeably decreased around welding line and rapidly increased as it passed by welding line. Reviewing the shape of the crack propagation, crack width around welding line was wide around the welding zone due to retardation of crack growth, but it became narrow passing welding line due to decreased toughness. Elasto-Plastic analysis was performed by finite element analysis fur explaining the test results.
A Basic Study of Crashworthiness Optimization Using Homogenization Method(I)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 190~200
The homogenization method is applied to maximize crash energy absorption for a given volume. To obtain the best combination of optimizing factors by resizing and threshold algorithms for an example problem, the sensitivity analysis has been performed using design of experiments. The results show that very little interaction among optimizing factors is found. Optimization analysis of several combination of factors is conducted; and the orignal design and a new design with holes for an example problem are compared for crash energy absorption.
Study of Effects of Body Leakage on Performance of a Sunroof
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 201~209
Some passenger cars with sunroofs open at tilted positions experience reverse flows into cabin rooms and wind noises much louder compared to other cars. In this study, flows around open sunroofs are numerically studied with the variations of body leakage. The effects of body leakage on ventilation and wind noise of a sun roof are examined, in particular. Furthermore, flow visualization, pressure, and noise measured from wind tunnel and road tests are presented. The results show that too small body leakage results in poor performance of ventilation and generates high wind noise around a sunroof. It is therefore very important to secure an adequate body leakage from the early design stage to achieve better performance of a sunroof as well as passengers' comfort related to HVAC(Heating, Ventilation, and Airconditioning).
Influence of Fiber Strength and Stacking Sequences on Impact Damages of CFRP Composites
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 210~220
This paper aims at the evaluation on the characterization of CFRP laminate plates using falling weight impact tester. The experimentation was conducted on several laminates of different fiber and ply orientation. A system was built for the impact strength of CFRP laminates in consideration of stress wave propagation with using drop-weight impact tester as one of impact test. Absorbed energy of orthotropic composites with using T300 fiber, which are composed of the same fiber and stacking number is higher than that or quasi-isotropic specimen over impact energy 7J, but in case or using T700 fiber, much difference does not show. Also, absorbed energy of orthotropic composites with using T300 fiber, which are composed or stacking number and orientation became more than that of T700 fiber specimen; however great change doesn't show in case of quasi-isotropic specimens. It is found that influence was confirmed between impact energy and absorbed energy as the impact energy is increased with adding the falling weight.
A Study on the Shape Design and Stress Analysis of Wheel Plate for Rolling Stock (2)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 3, 2001, Pages 221~229
The mechanical stress due to the wheel-rail contact and thermal stress due to the drag braking increase the incidence of wheel failure. So, firstly, stress analyses(mechanical, thermal and combined stress) of wheel plate are performed using 3-dimensional finite element method(FEM). Secondly, the optimum design of wheel plate ;s investigated in order to reduce weight of the wheel based on results of stress analysis. The optimum design is peformed using 2-dimensional axisymmetric F.E. model and its results are verified by 3-dimensional F. E. model.