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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 6 - Nov 2001
Volume 9, Issue 5 - Sep 2001
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Jul 2001
Volume 9, Issue 3 - May 2001
Volume 9, Issue 2 - May 2001
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
Selecting the target year
A Study on Soot Formation of Turbulent Premixed Propane Flames in n Constant-Volume Combustor at High Temperatures and High Pressures
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 1~9
The soot yield has been studied by a premixed propane-oxygen-inert gas combustion in a specially designed disk-type constant-volume combustion chamber to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and turbulence on soot formation. Premixtures are simultaneously ignited by eight spark plugs located on the circumference of chamber at 45 degree intervals in order to observe the soot formation under high pressures. The eight flames converged compress the end gases to a high pressure. The laser schlieren and direct flame photographs for observation field with 10 mm in diameter are taken to examine into the behaviors of flame front and gas flow in laminar and turbulent combustion. The soot volume fraction in the chamber center during the final stage of combustion at the highest pressure is measured by the in situ laser extinction technique and simultaneously the corresponding burnt gas temperature by the two-color pyrometry method. The pressure and temperature during soot formation are changed by varying the initial charge pressure and the volume fraction of inert gas compositions, respectively. It is found that the soot yield increases with dropping temperature and rising pressure at constant equivalence ratio, and that the soot yield of turbulent combustion decreases in comparison with that of laminar combustion because the burnt gas temperature increases with the drop of heat loss.
An Analysis of Engine Cooling using a Three-dimensional Radiator Model
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 10~17
The performance of a radiator is generally determined using a wind tunnel, in which the air velocity is uniform. However, when it is installed in a car, the distribution of the air velocity becomes nonuniform due to front-end openings, cross members, and horns etc., resulting in lower performance. In this study, several underhood flow simulations have been first performed to get flow rates and velocity distributions over the radiator. Secondly heat release rates are calculated by both a performance curve and a radiator model. Finally, using an engine cooling system simulator, radiator-top-tank temperature is predicted and the variations of heat release rate and radiator-top-tank temperature with nonuniformity of air velocity distributions are analyzed. The results show that the current engine cooling model successfully accounts for the nonuniformity effects that should be considered for higher accuracy in predicting engine cooling performance.
The Effect of Impinging Land Size on Diesel Spray Behavior in OSKA Type Combustion Chamber
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 18~26
OSKA engine was developed to remove the dense core of injection sprays. The engine uses impinging spray on a small pip, which spray after impinging is broken into smaller drops and disperses into fee space in chamber. In this paper the pip size is analyzed to give more dispersion of spray and fuel vapor. The gas phase is modelled by the Eulerian continuum conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and fuel vapour fraction. The liquid phase is modelled following the discrete droplet model approach in Lagrangian form, and the droplet wall interaction is modelled as a function of the velocity normal to impaction lands. The droplet distributions, vapor fractions and gas flows are analyzed for various injection pressure cases. Numerical results indicate that the land diameter of 5.6mm has the best performance of spray dynamics and vaporization in the test sizes.
Effects of the Method of Changing Compression Ratio on Engine Performance in an SI Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 27~33
In this study, it is observed that the distribution of combustion chamber volume affects the volumetric efficiency. The distribution ratio was adjusted by controlling combustion chamber volume of head and piston bowl one. Four cases were investigated, which are the combination of different distribution ratios and different compression ratios (9.8-10.0). A commercial SOHC 3-valve engine was modified by cutting the bottom face of the head and/or replacing the piston by the one that has different volume. The result shows that the less the head side volume, the more volumetric efficiency is achieved under the same compression ratio. It is also observed that increasing volumetric efficiency results in early knock occurrence due to increased "real" compression ratio. To consider reliability in estimating the volumetric efficiency, we examined the sensitivity of the AFR equation to possible errors in emission measurements. It is shown that the volumetric efficiency, which is calculated by measuring AFR and fuel consumption, can be controlled in 1% error. 1% error.
Analysis of In-Cylinder Steady Flow for Gasoline Engine Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 34~43
Analysis and control of intake charge motion such as swirl and tumble are very important to improve the performance of gasoline engines. In this paper, single frame double exposure PTV(particle tracking velocimetry) is used to investigate intake flow characteristic in a steady flow test rig of gasoline engine with 2-valve and pent-roof combustion chamber. To validate this PTV method, we confirmed reliability of this PTV method using chopper, and coaxial burner experiments. The velocity Held of intake flow is measured with the intake valve lift variation. It is shown that maximum flow velocity is increased and tumble flow become stronger than inverse tumble flow as valve lift increase.
Characteristics of the Ignition Delay for Hydrocarbon Fuels by Reduced Chemical Kinetics Modeling
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 44~49
Reduced chemical kinetics mechanism has been derived, which can be applicable for autoignition model of hydrocarbon fuels, and contains 23 reactions and 18 species. The present model is validated with the experimental data, where the ignition delays of several hydrocarbon fuels, such as n-heptane, i-octane, n-decane and DME(dimethylether) are measured as equivalence ratios are varied. Especially, the effects of different fuels on ignition delays can be explained by changing the rate constants of three reactions among the present model. As a result, the proposed model can be applicable to two stage ignition model of Diesel combustion.
Combustion Modeling for Stratified Charge
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 50~55
To simulate the combustion process under stratified charged conditions, like GDI engines, the new combustion model is proposed, which is based on Welter's FAE model and Peters' PDF model for considering primary reactions. In addition to these models, the new laminar burning velocity correlation and diffusion flame model are also included in the proposed model. The former can be applicable to much wider range of equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature than the others, such as Keck's and Guilder's models, and the latter has been derived from water-gas shift reaction and hydrogen oxidation, by which the secondary reactions can be considered after primary reactions. 3-D computation has been performed by using STAR-CD v3.05 in the simple cylindrical geometry under stratified charged condition. Judging from the calculated results, the present model proves to be reasonable to simulate the characteristics of flame propagation and concentrations of products in burned regions.
An Experimental Study on Improvement of Exhaust Gas Testing Method of Light-Duty Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 56~61
In recent years, the environmental demage to urban area becomes serious problem due to the exhaust emissions by increasing the number of vehicle. The proportion of diesel vehicle is very high in this country. Exhaust gas emitted from the diesel-powered vehicle is severly affecting to the air quality. In this study, light-duty diesel engine was studied on the improvement of exhaust gas testing method. Therefore the results obtained effective load method among testing method. It is deserve to test of the PM for the environment.
A Study for the Determination of Engine Test Key Mode to Predict Vehicle Fuel Consumption & Emissions
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 62~68
In an early engine development, it is highly required to determine the Key Test Points at the main driving, zone and lessen those points to reduce a test duration. This paper describes that it is possible not only to predict the cycle fuel consumption[g/km], emissions[g/km] from engine data(BSFC[g/kWh], emissions[g/kWh]) but also to confirm the emission regulation potential before a vehicle test.
Study of Nozzle Characteristics on the Performance of a Small HSDI Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 69~76
VCO nozzle is devised to minimize the HC emission and has been applied on some HSDI diesel engines. But it is not well reported whether VCO nozzle would be advantageous over SAC nozzle in a small HSDI diesel engine. In this paper it is presented that characteristics of VCO and SAC nozzle under common rail fuel injection system and their effects on the performance in a small HSDI diesel engine.
Local Concentration and Flame Temperature Characteristics of Combustion Product in Premixed LPG/Air Flames
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 77~84
Measurements of local CO,
, NOx concentrations and flame temperature are made for partially premixed flame with and without acoustic excitation. The CO,
, and $C
H_8$ concentrations are determined by thermal conductivity detection (Gas-chromatograph) and NOx concentrations are determined by chemiluminescent detection (NOx analyser). To measure local sample concentration, sampling probe was made by quartz with inlet diameter of 0.25mm. In the case of excitation, the visual shape of the flame is changed from laminar flame to turbulent-like flame. The flame length is also reduced, and the flame width becomes broad. In the observation of emission concentration without acoustic excitation, meanwhile, the
and NOx concentrations peak at flame front where the mixture meets with surrounding air, and the CO concentration is increasing at maximum position of CO2 concentration and peaks at the centerline of the burner. In the case of acoustic excitation, the
concentration is widely occurred at nozzle of the burner and is higher relative to unexcitation. The CO concentration is much reduced, but NOx concentration is more increasing. And flame temperature is higher relative to unexcitation. These are caused by enhancing of mixing with surrounding air due to excitation. However, in the case of acoustic excitation, the total NOx concentration is reduced because of the shortened flame length which affects residence time.e.
Fundamental Study on Liquid Phase LPG Injection System for Heavy-Duty Engine (I)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 85~91
LPG has been well known as a clean alternative fuel for vehicles. As a fundamental study on liquid phase LPG injection (hereafter LPLI) system application to heavy-duty engine, engine output and combustion performance were investigated with various operating conditions using a single cylinder engine equipped with the LPLI system. Experimental results revealed that no problems were occurred in application of the LPG fuel to heavy-duty engine, and that volumetric efficiency and engine output, by 10% approximately, were increased with the LPLI system. It was resulted from the decrease of the intake manifold temperature through liquid phase LPG fuel injection. These results provided an advantage in the decrease of the exhaust gas temperature, in the control of knocking phenomena, spark timing and compression ratio. The LPLI engine could normally operated under
=1.5 or EGR 30% condition. The optimized swirl ratio for the heavy duty LPG engine was found around
A Study on the Performance of the MPI Gasoline Engine with Gasoline-Ethanol Blends
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 92~102
The effect of ethanol-blending on the performances of the MPI gasoline engine was examined. The experiments were carried out for the stoichiometric conditions under MBT spark timing over various operating conditions. The blending rate of ethanol were determined as 10 to 30 percent according to the analysis of the properties of blended fuels. The engine with ethanol-blended fuels showed improved performances such as brake torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions compared with those of pure gasoline over most operating conditions. Though the brake specific fuel consumption was increased by ethanol-blending due to their lower heating values, the increasing rates of the brake specific fuel consumption were limited to the half of the blending rates owing to the increase in the thermal efficiency.
Study on the Heat Flux Using Instantaneous Temperature in the Constant Volume Combustion Chamber
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 103~111
In the present study, the internal combustion engine tends to high performance, fuel economy, small-sized. Therefore, it is necessary to solve the problems on thermal load, abnormal combustion, etc in the engine. Thin film instantaneous temperature probe was made, and the measuring system was established. The instantaneous surface temperatures in the constant volume combustion chamber were measured with this system and the heat flux was obtained by Fourier analysis. Maximum instantaneous temperatures were obtained after 55∼60ms from ignition and they increased as equivalence ratio and varied differently as the position of probe. Total heat loss during combustion time was affected by the equivalence ratio and differed widely as the position of probe.
An Experimental Study on the Fuel Heating for Enhancing Fuel Atomization
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 112~120
Poor fuel vaporization in gasoline engines causes the problem of HC emission during the cold start and warm-up period. This paper presents a strategy to improve fuel atomization during the warm-up phase. In this experiment, the heated fuel-rail system is constructed to investigate the effects of fuel heating on the average size of fuel droplets. The fuel atomization effects are examined by measuring Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of the fuel droplets from the three different types (two-hole, pintle, and six-hole) of injectors based upon a returnless heated fuel-rail system. The results show that the six-hole type injector is the most sensitive to fuel heating in terms of SMD among three different types of injectors.
A Study on the Dynamic Characteristics of ABS Hydraulic Control Valve
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 121~130
For the purpose of optimal control of anti-lock brake systems, precise dynamic characteristics analysis of hydraulic modulator, especially solenoid valve is necessary. However, most of researches so far have dealt with dynamic characteristic analysis of valve itself, and the results have been restrictively applied to the actual ABS modulator, where hydraulic pressure is acting. In this study, mathmatical modeling and experimental analysis were peformed in order to evaluate the valve dynamic characteristics when the hydraulic pressure is applied. High pressure on the master cylinder that affects on the valve dynamic characteristics have been analyzed quantitatively, and performance improvement methods have been suggested through parameter study. Consequently, results of solenoid valve dynamic characteristics analysis derived in the study can be utilized as criteria for the optimal control of anti-lock brake systems.
Analysis of Dry CVT Vehicle with a Torque Cam
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 131~138
In this paper, performance of a dry CVT vehicle with torque cam is investigated. Based on belt transmission mechanism and torque cam actuator characteristics, an algorithm which is able to calculate the speed ratio from given thrust and load torque is suggested and a 3-D map is constructed for the speed ratio-thrust-torque. Using the 3-D map, a steady state characteristic of torque cam and a transient response of a dry CVT vehicle are investigated by simulation. It is found that initial spring compression plays a key role in determining the sliding criteria and the speed ratio velocity.
Performance Evaluation of Control Algorithms for 1/2 Tracked Vehicle with Semi-Active Suspension System
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 139~147
2 DOF half-car model with 6 semi-active suspension units is utilized to evaluate the tracked vehicle dynamic performance simulated by several suspension control algorithms. The target of this research is to improve the ride comfort to maintain operator's handling capability when the tracked vehicle travels fast on the rough road. The control algorithms for suspension systems, such as full state feedback active, full state feedback semi-active, sky-hook active, sky-hook semi-active, and on-off systems, are evaluated and analyzed in view point of ride comfort. The dynamic performances of vehicle are expressed and evaluated by vibratory characteristic evaluation curves, performance indices and frequency characteristic curves. The simulation results show that the performances of sky-hook algorithms for ride comfort nearly follow those of full state feedback algorithms and on-off algorithm is recommendatory when the vehicle runs relatively fast.
Analytical Study in Brake Judder Reduction of Medium Bus
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 148~156
Brake judder, one of low Sequency vibrations in brake system is determined by the excitation of Brake Torque Variation (BTV). The largest contributor to BTV is disc thickness variation. In this study, the static loads of brake torque at Suspension Mounting Points (SW) are obtained by the quasi-static analysis using DADS. The dynamic loads with frequency of BTV at SW are derived from correlation between forced vibration analysis with static loads and brake test results. And the accelerations at steering wheel were analyzed by forced vibration analysis with dynamic loads using commercial finite element program MSC/NASTRAN so that vibration characteristics of vehicle due to brake judder were investigated. Reliability of analysis results was verified through comparing the brake test results. Also, a parametric study with natural frequencies of frame, such as the 1st torsional mode and 1st bending mode, was conducted to reduce vibration amplitudes. As a result we could detect frame natural frequency conditions to improve vibration characteristics and obtained the frame model to reduce vibration amplitude.
A Study on the Safety of the Electronic Rear Brake Pressure Reducing System using a Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Controller
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 157~165
In the brake systems, it is important to reduce the rear brake pressure in order to secure the safety of the vehicle in braking. So, there was some research that reduced and controlled the rear brake pressure exactly like a LSPV and a ELSPV. However, the previous research has some weaknesses: the LSPV is a mechanical system and its brake efficiency is lower than the efficiency of ELSPV, But, the cost of ELSPV is very higher so its application to the vehicle is very difficult. Additionally, when a fail appears in the circuit which controls the valves, the fail results in some wrong operation of the valves. But, the previous researchers didn't take the effect of fail into account. Hence, the efficiency of them is low and the safety of the vehicle is not confirmed. So, in this paper we develop a new economical pressure modulator that exactly controls brake pressure and confirms the safety of the vehicle in any case using a direct adaptive fuzzy controller.
Tracking Control of Stewart Platform Manipulator via Enhanced Sliding Mode Control
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 166~175
The high speed tracking control of a 6-6 Stewart platform manipulator (SPM) normally requires knowledge of its complex full dynamics and measurement of its base motion when the SPM operates on a motion nit. In this study, an enhanced sliding mode control scheme has been developed, which is based on the reduced dynamics, not necessitating measurement of the base motion. The enhanced sliding mode control implemented with the perturbation compensation and modified reaching phase alleviation functions has been successfully employed for high speed tacking control of the laboratory SPM, when it is subjected to a virtual base motion.
A Study on the Handling Performances of a Large-Sized Bus with the Change of Rear Suspension Geometry
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 176~183
It is difficult to find out the kinematic characteristics of a vehicle suspension without the usage of CAE software. The application of CAE software into suspension kinematics and dynamics yields the more precise knowledge on the chassis design. In this study, the influence of the suspension geometry on the handling performances of a large-sized bus is investigated using the DADS software. The front and rear suspension of a large-sized bus are a rigid axle suspension with the four control links. The elastokinematic analysis is performed to evaluate the roll characteristics of the front and rear suspension. The elastokinematic responses are evaluated in terms of the roll center height and roll steer for various geometric parameters. The roll center height is mainly dependent on the vertical displacement of a panhard rod and the vertical displacements of lower control links affect the roll steer of a rear suspension. The parameter study with the change of rear suspension geometry is conducted to investigate the vehicle handling performances. This parameter study shows that the vertical displacement and orientation of a panhard rod influence the handling performances of a large-sized bus significantly.
Effect of Valve Train Layout on Cam/Tappet Wear Characteristics of End Pivot Rocker Arm Type OHC Valve Train
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 184~192
Cam/tappet wear is one of the critical concerns in valve train deign. Maximum contact stress and minimum oil film thickness between the cam and tappet are usually checked for the estimation of wear characteristics. If the two extreme cases arise simultaneously, there is a strong possibility of cam/tappet wear. In this paper, effects of valve train layout on the wear characteristics were studied. Especially for swinging arm type valve trains, initial geometric layout must be very carefully defined to avoid wear problems. The study was performed fur an end pivot type OHC valve train, which had severe wear problems. Analysis results show that some geometric parameter affect very sensitively on the wear characteristics. Experiments were also performed for the original and modified valve trains, which strongly support the analysis results.
Evaluation of the Reliability of Crash Discrimination Algorithms by using the Monte Carlo Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 193~203
The Monte Carlo method was used to evaluate the reliability of crash discrimination algorithms. Through the Fast Fourier Transformation, crash pulses obtained during frontal crash tests of a mini van and a sports utility vehicle were transformed to signals in the frequency domain, and the signals were divided into basic signals and changeable signals. The changeable signals were modified through random generation, and they were combined with the basic signals. Then, the combined signals were transferred back to the time domain. In this way numerous crash pulses could be generated. For the generated pulses, crash discrimination algorithms were evaluated by examining whether they did not result in air bag deployment for the pulses requiring no air bag deployment and whether they resulted in time-to-fires faster than required time-to-fires for the pulses requiring air bag deployment. The crash discrimination algorithm in which the absolute value of the deceleration change multiplied by the velocity change or the summation of the absolute value of the deceleration change was used as a metric was Proven to be highly reliable.
The Use of Compliance to Investigate Fatigue Crack Retardation by Cover Plates and Stop Hole Expansion
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 4, 2001, Pages 204~213
This paper develops the compliance approach to the problem of load sharing between a cracked plate and a cover plate used to bridge the crack. The theory is validated by using calculated stress intensity factors for the covered and uncovered cases and by using stop hole method to reduce experimentally observed growth rates to a common base. Calculations are then made on the effect of cover plate width on fatigue crack retardation in order to demonstrate the predictive capability of the technique.