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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 6 - Nov 2001
Volume 9, Issue 5 - Sep 2001
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Jul 2001
Volume 9, Issue 3 - May 2001
Volume 9, Issue 2 - May 2001
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
Selecting the target year
The Fundamental Study on Liquid Phase LPG Injection System for Heavy-Duty Engine (II)
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 1~7
Recently, several LPG engines for heavy-duty vehicles have been developed, which can replace some diesel engines that are one of a main source for air pollution in urban area. As a preliminary study on the liquid phase LPG injection (hereafter LPLI) system applicable to a heavy duty LPG engine, the engine output and combustion performance were investigated with various combustion chambers and fuel compositions using a single cylinder engine equipped. Experimental results revealed that ellipse, double ellipse and nebula type combustion chamber made a more advantage in breaking swirl flow into small turbulence scale than bathtub type. Especially, performance of nebula type showed most highest efficiency and engine output under lean mixture conditions. An investigation fur various LPG fuel compositions was also carried out, and revealed that the case with 40% propane and 60% butane shows the lowest efficiency at stoichiometry, however, as the mixture became leaner its efficiency increased and became even higher for 100% propane case.
Basic Study on an Aftertreatment System of Diesel Particulate Matters with Electrostatic Precipitator and Cyclone
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 8~15
An aftertreatment system of diesel exhaust gas was attempted to extract particulate matters. The system consisted of a corona-less electrostatic precipitator to agglomerate soot particles and a counter-flow cyclone to collect them. When the effect of high voltage was examined at different configuration of electrode plates, the case of positive 15kV at both plates showed the maximum reduction of 38% in diesel smoke level. However, the back pressure became quite high as engine speed increased, so that minimizing pressure drop in cyclone should be studied with improving collection efficiency of soot particles.
Dispersion Characteristics of Sprays under the Condition of Solid Body Rotating Swirl
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 16~23
Spray dispersion in high pressure diesel engines have been simulated experimentally with a special emphasis on the effect of swirl by using a liquid injection technique. A constant volume chamber was designed to be rotatable in order to generate a continuous swirl and to have the flow field closely resembling a solid body rotation. Emulsified fuel was injected into the chamber and the developing process of fuel sprays was visualized. The effect of swirl on the spray dispersion was quantified by calculating non-dimensionalized dispersion area according to the spray tip penetration length. The results show that the effect of swirl on the spray dispersion is different between short and long spray penetrations. For short range of spray tip penetration, the effect of swirl on spray dispersion is quite small. However, as the spray tip is penetrated into longer distance in spray chamber, the effect of swirl on spray dispersion becomes larger. These results can be used as a basic data for designing combustion chamber and injection system of direct injection diesel engine.
Effects of Variable Valve Timing Operation Modes on Engine Performance
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 24~29
Adaptive valve timing control is one of the promising techniques to accomplish the optimized mixture formation and combustion depending on the load and speed, which is needed to meet the future challenges in reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The behavior and the effect of adaptive valve timing control system has been investigated by computer simulation, which simulates the gas dynamics in engines. Improved fuel economy can be achieved by reduction of pumping loss under low and mid load conditions. EIVC(Early Intake Valve Closing) strategy turns out to be superior to LIVC(Late Intake Valve Closing) strategy in reducing fuel consumption. Deterioration of combustion quality can be overcome by introducing LIVO(Late Intake Valve Opening) strategy, which increases turbulent intensity in cylinders. Furthermore, LIVO can reduce HC emission by decreasing the required amount of fuel to be injected during cold start.
Fuel-Spray Characteristics of High Pressure Gasoline Injection in Cross Flows
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 30~39
The direct injection into the cylinders has been regarded as a way of the reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The spray produced by the high pressure injector is of paramount importance in DISI(Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engines in that the primary atomization process must meet the requirement of quick and complete evaporation, mixing with air and combustion especially to prohibit the excessive HC emissions. The interaction between air flow and fuel spray was investigated in a steady flow system embodied in a wind tunnel to simulate the variety of flow inside the cylinder of the DISI engine. The direct Mie scattered and shadowgraph images presented the macroscopic view of the liquid sprays and vapor fields. The velocity and particle size of fuel droplets were investigated by phase doppler anenometer(PDA) system. The processes of atomization and evaporation with a DISI injector were observed and consequently utilized to construct the data-base for the spray and fuel-air mixing mechanism as a function of the flow characteristics.
A Study on the Effects of Ignition Energy and Discharge Duration on the Performances of Spark Ignited Engines
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 40~46
An experimental investigation is proceeded to study on the relationship between spark ignition characteristics and the performances of an S. I. engine. The ignition parameters examined in this study are the ignition energy and discharging duration. The combustion pressure and exhaust gas are measured during the experiment. From the measured data of cylinder pressure, the heat release rate, the mass fraction burned, and the COV of IMEP are calculated. The dwell time and the injection time are varied. A single cylinder engine and a 30kW dynamometer are employed. Four different kinds of ignition systems are assembled, and one commercial ignition system is adopted. The experimental results show that the ignition energy is increased as the dwell time extended until the ignition energy is saturated. The higher ignition energy is effective in achieving the laster burning velocity and less producing HC emission. However, when the amount of ignition energy is similar, while the discharge duration becomes longer, the burning velocity is reduced but the engine operation becomes stable in terms of the COV of IMEP.
A Study on the Combustion Characteristics of DEE as an Alternative Fuel in Diesel Engine
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 47~56
Nitrogen oxides(NOx) and smoke emissions of diesel engine are regarded as a source of air pollution, and there is a global trend to enforce more stringent regulations on these exhaust gas emissions. However, the trade-off relation of NOx and smoke is a main obstacle to reduce both of them simultaneously. In this paper, experiments were conducted with an oxygenated fuel(diethyl ether) as an effective way to improve the trade-off relation of NOx and smoke. Exhaust emissions of diesel fuels with DEE were influenced by the additive content of DEE and the injection timing. Especially, DEE effected more at the high engine speed and load than at the low engine speed and load. Diesel fuel blended with DEE 10% was a desirable blend for the simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke.
A Study on the Improvement of Air-Fuel Ratio Control Performance in Sl Engine Using STR
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 57~64
This study presents an self tuning regulator(STR) to improve the air-fuel ratio control of performance of gasoline engine. The STR is designed based on the nonlinear dynamic engine model, and the performance of the STR is evaluated through the simulation and experiments. The STR shows better performance than a conventional PI controller in terms of the response time and disturbance rejection. Since the STR has less calculation load than the complex nonlinear controller, this algorithm can be easily applied to on-board engine controller.
An Experimental Study of the Improvement of Driveability in Vehicle Acceleration Mode
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 65~75
Modern vehicles require a high degree of refinement including good driveability. Vehicle driveability, which becomes a key decisive factor f3r marketability, is affected by many parameters such as engine control and the dynamic characteristics in drive lines. Therefore engine and drive train characteristics should be considered to achieve a well balanced vehicle response simultaneously. This paper describes experimental procedures which have been developed to measure engine torque and investigate shuffle characteristics. To analyze the vehicle dynamic behavior, fractional torques and inertia mass moment of engine, and drive train were measured. Shuffle characteristics during tip-in condition were investigated in an experimental vehicle at 2nd and 3rd gear stages. It was found that the shuffle characteristics were caused by sudden changes of engine torque and have a different vibration frequency with gear stage variation. Inertia mass moment of engine including flywheel rotation showed a key factor for the shuffle characteristics.
Development of Gasoline Direct Swirl Injector II
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 76~84
Generally fuel injection system using solenoid have some problems between control signal and mechanical movement like as time lag. Main purpose of the present study is to help the design optimization of GDSI for real engine application. We have adopted two different solenoid driving circuit, namely saturation and pick-hold type and have investigated experimentally the current, needle force, needle opening duration and injection quantity. The pick-hold type driving circuit surpassed a saturation type in the response time and pression control of injection quantity. Accordingly, Using characterization data of operating factors such as time constant, driving force and so on, can be evaluated and adjusted to obtain an optimum injector performance.
Three-Dimensional Fluid Flow Analysis of Automotive Carbon Canister for Reducing Evaporative Emissions
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 85~93
Minimized canister flow restriction and maximized flow uniformity are desired to maximize a purge capability. With the impending ORVR(On Board Refueling Vapor Recovery) systems, the reduction of restriction and increase of flow uniformity in a carbon canister becomes even more critical to meet the stringent regulation. In this study, three-dimensional numerical simulations have been performed to investigate the three-dimensional internal flow patterns in a carbon canister during purge. The effects of the declined angle of the purge pipe and the number of partitions on the pressure drop and purge efficiency in a carbon packed bed are examined. Results show that the purge efficiency and space velocity distribution are affected in the upstream region of 40% of total canister bed by porosity of carbon granule and angle of purge pipe. It is also found that the purge efficiency decreases with increasing the number of partitions.
The Performance Analysis of Otto Cycle Engine by Thermodynamic Second Law
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 94~102
The thermodynamic second law analysis, which means available energy or exergy analysis, for the indicated performance of Otto cycle engine has been carried out. Each operating process of the engine is simplified and modeled into the thermodynamic cycle. The calculation of the lost work and exergy through each process has been done with the thermodynamic relations and experimental data. The experimental data were measured from the test of single cylinder Otto cycle engine which operated at 2500 rpm, WOT(Wide Open Throttle) and MBT(Minimum advanced spark timing for Best Torque) condition with different fuels: gasoline, methanol and mixture of butane-methanol called M90. Experimental data such as cylinder pressure, air and fuel flow rate, exhaust gas temperature, inlet gas temperature and etc. were used for the analysis. The proposed model and procedure of the analysis are verified through the comparison of the work done in the study with experimental results. The calculated results show that the greatest lost work is generated during combustion process. And the lost work during expansion, exhaust, compression and induction process follows in order.
A Study on the Reduction of HC and Heat Characteristics of the Dual Pipe Exhaust Manifold
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 103~111
During cold-start period, the reduction of exhaust emissions is a challenging task. To decrease harmful gaseous substances such as HC, it is necessary to realize a fast catalyst warm-up. In this study, the performance of dual pipe exhaust system have been carried out through different test mode. From measurement of gas temperature and HC concentration, the following conclusions were derived ; 1) Compared with single pipe, dual pipe exhaust system remarkably increase temperature of exhaust gas going through M.C.C(Main Catalytic Converter). 2) W.C.C.(Warm-up Catalytic Converter) also decreases HC emission. To reduce HC emission, it is helpful to use W.C.C. as well as dual pipe exhaust system. 3) Using finite element method, it is shown that inner parts have much higher distribution of temperature than outer parts.
Analysis of Conductivity Gas by using Automotive Dynamo-Meter
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 112~118
In this study the leakage current measurement method based on a porous ceramic is applied to check the conductive substance caused by the ionized particles. By using engine and chassis dynamometer and an experiment vehicle, in which the hydrocarbon sensor (HC sensor) was exposed to the exhaust gas to create the electrical signal, the HC sensor in the exhaust line checked the conductive ions in emission gas. Generally the output electrical signal of HC sensor is followed with amount of hydrocarbon in the experiments in cold start and operation. By combining the electrical signal, a measure of conductivity of exhaust gas with hydrocarbon can be provided by OBD (On Board Diagnosis) II and EMS (Engine Management System).
A Simulation Program for the Braking Characteristics of 8
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 119~128
Recently safety systems for the commercial vehicle have been rapidly developed. However, we still have many problems in the vehicle stability and the braking performance. Especially, a commercial vehicle may meet a dangerous braking condition when the vehicle is lightly loaded or empty and the road is wet or slippery. To design the air brake system for commercial vehicles, since the air brake system has many design variables, there must have been intensive researches on a method how to prevent dynamic instability and how to maximize the vehicle deceleration. In this study, mathematical models about an 8
4 vehicle and an air brake system including an ABS controller have been constructed for computer simulation. Also, simple examples are applied to show the usefulness of the computer program. Designers can use this simulation program for understanding the braking characteristics of 8
4 commercial vehicles such as trajectory, braking distance, longitudinal deceleration, lateral deceleration, and yaw rate on various road conditions.
An Study of Optimization on Vehicle Body Stiffness using CAE Application
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 129~134
One of the most important purposes in the design of machines and structures is to produce the most light products of the lowest price with satisfying function and performance. In this study, a scheme of design optimization for the weight down of vehicle body structure is presented. Design sensitivity of vehicle body structure is investigated and design optimization is performed to get weight down with the allowable stiffness of body in white. Stress, deformation and natural frequencies are the constraint of the optimization.
A Study on the Life Prediction Method using Artificial Neural Network under Creep-Fatigue Interaction
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 135~142
The effect of tensile hold time on the creep-fatigue interaction in AISI 316 stainless steel was investigated. To study the fatigue characteristics of the material, strain controlled low cycle fatigue(LCF) tests were carried out under the continuous triangular waveshape with three different total strain ranges of 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%. To study the creep-fatigue interaction, 5min., 10min., and 30min. of tensile hold times were applied to the continuous triangular waveshape with the same three total strain ranges. The creep-fatigue life was found to be the longest when the 5min. tensile hold time was applied and was the shortest when the 30min. tensile hold time was applied. The cause fur the shortest creep-fatigue life under the 30min. tensile hold time is believed to be the effect of the increased creep damage per cycle as the hold time increases. The creep-fatigue life prediction using artificial neural network(ANN) showed closer prediction values to the experimental values than by the modified Coffin-Manson method.
A Development of Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System of Automatic Transmission for the Simulation of Shifting Characteristics
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 143~151
During the past several years, the major interests of car manufacturers in development of automatic transmission were in durability and shift quality. However, a large number of researches for improving shift quality that are based on dynamic characteristics of shifting mechanism have been rarely adopted in the developing process because it is quite difficult to predict the shifting performance from the dynamics simulation. One of the important reasons for the difference between simulation results and experiments arises from the automatic transmission hydraulic system that consists of many valves with high order model and shows a lot different dynamics to temperature variation. In this work, hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for automatic transmission was developed f3r improving the accuracy of simulated result by combining the real-time simulation model with the real hydraulic system. The real-time simulation for automatic transmission model excluding hydraulic system is executed with TI's TMS320C31 DSP and the interfacing board which includes 12bit A/D, PWM signal generator and driver, serial driver ,etc is designed for acquiring the simulation data and signal interface with hydraulic system. We verified the proper operation and correctness of shifting result by comparing the off-line simulation result with that of HILS and experimental result which was performed on transmission dynamometer driven by electric motor.
Development of Contact Module in AutoDyn7 Program
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 152~159
In multibody dynamic analysis including contact and impact, there are two major analysis methods, i.e., piecewise analysis and continuous analysis. Modeling of contact phenomena is mainly classified with a Kelvin-Voigt model or a model of Hertz contact model. In this paper, a contact module fur AutoDyn7 program was developed and implemented. Both the Kelvin-Voigt model and a model of Hertz contact law were developed. The process of this module is composed of contact distinction and the contact force calculation. Two examples were verified and compared to the commercial program DADS.
Bursting Failure Prediction in Tube Hydroforming Process
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 160~169
To predict busting failure in tubular hydroforming, the criteria for ductile fracture proposed by Oyane is combined with the finite element method. From the histories of stress and strain in each element obtained from finite element analysis, the fracture initiation site is predicted by mean of the criterion. The prediction by the ductile fracture criterion is applied to three hydroforming processes such as a tee extrusion, an automobile rear axle housing and lower am. For these products, the ductile fracture integral I is not only affected by the process parameters, but also by preforming processes. All the simulation results show the combination of the finite element analysis and the ductile fracture criteria is useful in the prediction of farming limit in hydroforming processes.
A Study on Failure Analysis of Turbine Blade Using Surface Roughness and FEM
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 170~177
Turbine blade is subject to torsional load by torsion-mount, centrifugal load by rotation of rotor and repeated bending load by steam pressure. Turbine with partially cracked blade has normal working condition at initial repair time but vibratory working condition at middle repair time due to crack growth. Finite element analysis on turbine blade indicates that repeated bending load out of all loads is the most important factor on fatigue strength of turbine blade. Therefore, this study shows root mean square roughness has linear relation with stress intensity factor range in 12% Cr steel and can predict loading condition of fractured turbine blade.
Noise Estimation in a Passenger Compartment and Trunk Coupled System by Using the Vibro-Acoustic Reciprocity
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 178~185
This paper describes the correlation between the interior noise and the trunk wall vibration. Using the vibro-acoustic reciprocity, effect of the trunk wall vibration on the compartment noise is investigated on a medium size car. In the low frequency range, vehicle interior noise is dominated by several acoustic modes of the passenger compartment and the vibration modes of the surrounding shell parts. Especially, vibration of the trunk wall radiates sound and it is transferred through holes on the package tray into the passenger compartment. This paper experimentally reveals that sound can be well produced at some particular vibration modes of the trunk lid and it strongly influences the compartment noise through package tray holes. Contributions of the trunk walls to the interior noise are estimated by measuring the acoustic-structural transfer function, based on the vibro-acoustical reciprocity theorem.
A Strategy to Evaluate Semi-Active Suspension System using Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 186~194
To meet the challenge of testing increasingly complex automotive control systems, the real-time hardware-in-the-loop(HIL) simulation technology has been developed. In this paper, a strategy for evaluation of semiactive suspension systems using real-time HIL simulation is presented. A multibody vehicle model is adopted to simulate vehicle dynamic motions accurately. Accuracy of the vehicle simulation results is compared to that of the real vehicle field test and proven to be very accurate. The controller and stepping motor to adjust semi-active damper stage are equipped as external hardwares and connected to the real-time computer which has vehicle dynamic model. Open and closed loop test methods are used to evaluate a controlled suspension system and the system's operations are verified it is found that the proposed evaluation methods can be used well for the verification of semi-active suspension systems.
The Study on the Axial Collapse Characteristics of Composite Thin-Walled Members for Vehicles
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 195~200
Composites have wide applications in aerospace vehicles and automobiles because of the inherent flexibility in their design for improved material properties. Composite tribes in particular, are potential candidates for their use as energy absorbing elements in crashworthiness applications due to their high specific energy absorbing capacity and the stroke efficiency. Their failure mechanism however is highly complicated and rather difficult to analyze. This includes fracture in fibres, in the matrix and in the fibre-matrix interface in tension, compression and shear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the energy absorption characteristics of CFRP(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) tubes on static and impact tests. Static compression tests have been carried out using the static testing machine and impact tests have been carried out using the vertical crushing testing machine. Interlaminar number affect the energy absorption capability of CFRP tubes. Also, theoretical and experimental have the same value.
Influence of the Inclined Hole in Residual Stresses Measurement Using the Hole-Drilling Method
Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, volume 9, issue 6, 2001, Pages 201~206
The hole-drilling method makes a little hole through the metal surface that has residual stress and measures the relieved stress with a strain gage. It is used widely in measuring the residual stress of surfaces. In this method, the inclined hole is one of the source of error. This paper presents a finite element analysis of influence of the inclined hole for the uniaxial residual stress field. The stress differences between measured and applied residual stress increase proportionally to inclined angle of the hole. The correction equations which easily obtain the residual stress taking account of the inclined angle and direction are derived. The measurement error of stress due to the inclined hole can be reduced to around 1% through this study.