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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Weed & Turfgrass Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Selecting the target year
Vertical Distribution of Weed Seed in the Soil as affected by Tillage and No-till
Lee, Byung-Mo ; Park, Kwang-Lai ; Lee, Youn ; Cho, Jeong-Rae ; Lee, Sang-Min ; An, Nan-Hee ; Choi, Hyun-Sug ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.001
A simple monitoring method was designed to evaluate seed bank in a upper soil (0 to 30 cm depth), which was observed for the pattern of vertical distribution of weed in the soil under tillage or no-tillage condition. The field experiment was established at an organic corn field located in Hwacheon in Kangwon-do from 2010 to 2011. Undistributed linear soil samples were taken using non-destructive soil sampler from 0 to 30 cm depth at the tillage or no-tillage soils. Weed seed distribution in the linear soil samples was estimated by counting the number of weed germinated according to the soil depth. Under tillage condition, the weed seeds were more evenly distributed from 0 to 30 cm depth, with being 75% of weed seeds located in 0 to 15 cm depth compared to the no-tillage condition. Soil samples taken by no-tillage condition had 85% of weed seeds within 15 cm of soil depth, with being 93% of weed seeds from 0 to 20 cm depth. The number of weeds or the number of weed species were three times higher for tillage soil compared to no-tillage soil, and the major dominant weed species were observed for annual plants, such as Echinochloa crus-gall, Mollugo pentaphylla, and Digitaria ciliaris.
Fact-finding Survey on Occurrence of Paddy Field Weeds and The Use of Paddy Field Herbicides at Farmer's Level in Korea
Kim, Chang-Seok ; Lee, Jeongran ; Won, Tae-Jin ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Kim, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Sun-Gye ; Cho, Seung-Hyun ; Kwon, Oh-Do ; Kim, Sang-Kuk ; Chung, Wan-Gyu ; Park, Tae-Seon ; Moon, Byeong-Chul ; Park, Jae-Eup ; Lee, In-Yong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 6~12
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.006
A fact-finding survey was conducted to obtain the basic information on nation-wide weed distribution and farmer's opinions to weed control strategy in paddy field. Most respondents considered Echinochloa spp., Monochloa vaginalis, Sagittaria trifolia, and Scirpus juncoides etc. as dominate weeds in paddy fields. And herbicide resistant weed species were M. vaginalis, S. juncoides, E. oryzicola and S. pygmaea etc. Purchase guidances for herbicide selection, experience of farmers was 34.0% and dealers recommendation was 33.9% at farmer's level. And paddy field herbicides application frequence were one time 15.6% but twice 75.6%. Preferred herbicides were ranked in the following order: oxadizone 12% EC, butachlor 5% GR, butachlor 33% CS, mefenacet pyrazodulfuron-ethyl 21.42% SC, and oxadiargyl 1.7% EC etc. in paddy fields. And in most preferred foliar herbicide were bentazone MCPA 38.6% SL and bentazone cyhalop-butyl 18.5% ME, 48.5% and 22.3%, respectively.
Effect of Acalypha australis Occurrence on Soybean Growth and Economic Threshold Level of Acalypha australis
Yoo, Ji-Hyock ; Moon, Byeong-Chul ; Lee, In-Yong ; Kim, Doo-Ho ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 13~17
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.013
A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Acalypha australis occurrence on the growth and yield of soybean, to predict the reduction rate of soybean yield caused by competing with A. australis and to establish the economic threshold of A. australis for soybean cultivation. As the density of A. australis increase, the height and stem length of soybean were not affected by the competition with A. australis, however, the yield of soybean was decreased as 11~51% as compared with weed-free condition. The relationship between weed density and soybean yield was established as Y=415.5 / (1+0.003356X) and the reduction rate of soybean yield were predicted from this equation. Compared with the weed-free condition, the reduction rate of soybean yield were calculated as 0.3~9%, 17~29%, and 40~46% when the density of A. australis were 1~30, 60~120, and 200~250 plants
, respectively. The economic threshold level of A. australis for soybean cultivation was established as 6.3 plants
from the Cousens' equation.
Effect of Tillage and No-tillage of Winter Green Manure Crops on Yield of Red Pepper in Plastic Film House
Won, Jong-Gun ; Jang, Kil-Su ; Hwang, Ji-Eun ; Kwon, Oh-Hun ; Kwon, Tae-Young ; Cho, Jeong-Rae ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 18~23
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.018
To determine the effect of winter green manure crops for tillage and no-tillage organic pepper cultivation in plastic film house, five different green manure crops were cultivated during winter season. In nutrition composition of green manure crops, total nitrogen contents were higher in Vicia hirsuta and Vicia angustifolia than any other crops. The average dry weights of green manure crops were 8.3 ton per ha in tillage and 7.0 ton per ha in no-tillage, among green manure crops that of Secale cereale was the highest. Fertilizer supply was depended on the biomass of the cultivated green manure crops and nutrition contents, total nitrogen supply of V. angustifolia was 226 kg and that of S. cereale was 251 kg per ha in tillage field. In no-tillage field, N-supply of V. angustifolia was 197 kg and that of S. cereale was 222 kg per ha. In yield components of red pepper, fruit numbers per plant were 55.5 in green manure crop tillage and 37.0 in no-tillage cultivation. Among green manure crops, the yield of dried red pepper was the highest for V. angustifolia in both green manure crop tillage and no-tillage cultivation.
Weed Occurrence in Organic Apple Orchards by Different Cover Crops
Oh, Young-Ju ; Song, Yang-Ik ; Kang, Seok-Beom ; Hong, Sun-Hee ; Choi, Jin-Ho ; Paik, Weon-Ki ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 24~30
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.024
This study was conducted to select the cover crops in organic apple orchard by estimating the coverage of each cover crops and time-periodic weed occurrence. Seeding of Festuca myuros and Trifolium repens showed high contents of soil organic matter and phosphorus as compared with control. Seeding of Trifolium sp., Hordeum vulgare and Secale cereal reduced relatively occurrence of weed in May and S. cereal among others showed the greatest effect in June. In July, seeding F. arundinaceae and Poa pratensis showed low coverage and a lot of weeds occurred in their field. Fifty one species were occurred as weeds and it needs to removal of high and broadleaf weeds such as Chenopodium ficifolium, C. album var. centrorubru and Humulus japonicus in spring to increase the rate of ground cover. P. pratensis having the lowest cover rate showed the similar dry weight of weeds as compared with control. Trifolium sp. and Persicaria hydropiper had a high correlation with contents of soil organic matter and C. album var. centrorubru had a correlation with contents of soil phosphorus by CCA analysis.
Prediction of Rice Yield Loss by Aneilema keisak and Aeschynomene indica Competition in Flooded Direct-Seeded Rice
Cho, Seung-Hyun ; Lee, Ki-Kwon ; Song, Young-Eun ; Lee, Deok-Ryeol ; Jeung, Jong-Sung ; Song, Young-Ju ; Chun, Jae-Chul ; Moon, Byeong-Chul ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 31~37
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.031
This study was conducted to make the rice yield prediction model system as affected by densities of Aneilema keisak and Aeschynomene indica and to determine their economic threshold levels in flooded direct-seeded rice. When the density of A. keisak was 8 plants per
, the yield of rice reduced to 8% and as the density increased up to 96 plants per
, the reduced rate of rice yield reached to 45% and in A. indica, the reduced rate of rice yield were 20 and 77%, respectively. The rice yield loss models of A. keisak and A. indica were predicted as Y=553.2 kg (1+0.00913X),
and Y=567.9 kg/(1+0.04434X),
, respectively. Economic threshold levels calculated using cousens' equation were 3.0 plants per
in A. keisak and 0.6 plants per
in A. indica.
Yield Response of Red Pepper by Densities of D. ciliaris and A. patulus in Eco-firendly Cultivated Field
Won, Jong-Gun ; Jang, Kil-Su ; Hwang, Ji-Eun ; Kwon, Oh-Hun ; Kwon, Tae-Young ; Moon, Byeong-Chul ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 38~43
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.038
This study was conducted to predict the yield response of red pepper and to determine the economic weed threshold levels for red pepper cultivation field from competition with the most serious weeds, Amaranthus patulus and Digitaria ciliaris in Youngyang of Korea. Crop yield as a function of weed density was predicted by using a rectangular hyperbola, and their economic threshold levels were determined by using the equation developed by Cousens (1987). The red pepper yield loss models of weeds were predicted as y=304.7/(1+0.063x),
=0.967 in D. ciliaris and y=281.3/(1+0.1723x),
=0.952 in A. patulus. Economic thresholds calculated using Cousens' equation were negatively related with the competitiveness of weed. Economic thresholds of each weed were calculated as 18.2 plant
in D ciliaris, and 7.2 plant
in A. patulus.
Herbicidal Activity of Essential Oil from Amyris (Amyris balsamifera)
Yun, Mi Sun ; Yeon, Bo-Ram ; Cho, Hae Me ; Choi, Jung Sup ; Kim, Songmun ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 44~49
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.044
The objective of this study was to know the herbicidal activity of the essential oil from amyris (Amyris balsamifera). In a seed bioassay experiment, the amyris essential oil inhibited the growth of rapeseed (Brassica napus) by fifty percent at 8.8
. And in a greenhouse experiment, sorghum, barnyard grass and Indian jointvetch, which was applied in above-ground parts, with the amyris essential oil at 4,000
showed visual injuries of 90, 70, and 70, respectively (0, no damage; 100, total damage). However, soil application of the essential oil did not show such herbicidal injuries. In a field experiment, foliar application of the amyris essential oil at 5% controlled effectively weeds such as barnyardgrass, shepherd's purse, and clover in 24 hours. Our results indicated that the amyris essential oil had herbicidal activity. To understand the composition of the amyris essential oil, the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectometry with solid-phase micro-extraction apparatus. There were 15 organic chemicals in the oil and the major constituents were calarene, elemol,
-sesquiphellandrene, zingiberene, selina-3,7(11)-diene, 1,3-diisopropenyl-6-methyl-cyclohexene,
-maaliene. Overall results suggest that the amyris essential oil had a herbicidal activity with fast, contact, and non-selective mechanism.
Levels of Resistance and Fitness in Glufosinate-ammonium-Resistant Transgenic Rice Plants
Yun, Young Beom ; Kuk, Yong In ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 50~56
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.050
The objectives of this research were to quantify resistance levels of transgenic rice expressing the bar gene to glutamine synthetase (GS)-inhibiting, and methionine sulfoximine and photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide, paraquat, and compare the ammonium accumulation, chilling injury, and yield between transgenic and non-transgenic rice. The transgenic rice lines were 45-96-fold more resistant to glufosinate-ammonium than non-transgenic rice. The transgenic rice lines were also 18-fold more resistant to methionine sulfoximine, but was not resistant to paraquat, which has different target site. Glufosinate-ammonium increased the ammonium accumulation in leaves of non-transgenic rice plants, but had minimal or no effect on leaves of transgenic lines. The transgenic lines except for 258, 411, 607 and 608 were more susceptible during chilling and recovery than non-transgenic rice plants. The yield of transgenic lines 142, 144, 258 and 608 was similar or higher than that of non-transgenic rice in pot conditions.
Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Thirteen Turfgrass Cultivars Cultivated at Golf Courses Using RAPD Markers
Kim, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Tae-Soo ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Yong-Ki ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 57~63
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.057
This study was carried our to examine the genetic relationship of 13 commercial turfgrass cultivars using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA to provide genetic informations more efficient golf course management. Analysis of 56 random hexamer primers generated 13 to 54 polymorphic bands among the 13 cultivars with an average of 30.7 bands per primer. The results of cluster analysis based on RAPDs revealed that three major variety groups: Group I - 'Shadow II', 'Aurora Gold', 'Little Bighorn Blue', 'PennA-1', and 'PennA-4'; Group II - 'Midnight II', 'Prosperity', 'Moon light SLT', 'Bright star SLT', and 'Silver dollar'; and Group III - 'Olympic Gold', 'Silver Star', and 'Tar Heel II'. The genetic similarity coefficients among 13 turfgrass cultivars ranged from 0.039 to 1.0 with highest coefficient in Group III. Studies on morphological characters and the effective molecular markers such as sequence characterized amplified regions are further needed to identify relationships and genetic diversities within species and among species.
Mesotrione and Seeding Rate Effects to Recover Kentucky Bluegrass Contaminated by Creeping Bentgrass
Lee, Sang-Kook ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 64~68
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.064
Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is one of the highest maintained turfgrass but often problematic especially for Kentucky bluegrass fairway. Mesotrione is one of selective herbicide that is firstly registered for corn (Zea mays L.) and provides preemergence and postemergence control of broadleaf and annual grassy weeds. Although mesotrione is effective to eradicate area contaminated by creeping bentgrass, protracted time is required to recover damaged area by rhizome extension of Kentucky bluegrass. Overseeding is typically used to fill bare or damaged areas using appropriate turf species to create a uniform turfgrass surface. The objectives of this study were to evaluate mesotrione and seeding rate effects to recover Kentucky bluegrass contaminated by creeping bentgrass. Six treatments consisted of three mesotrione rates and two Kentucky bluegrass seeding rates. The mesotrione rate were 0, 0.05 and 0.10 m
. Two seeding rate of to Kentucky bluegrass 'Midnight' were 15 and 30 g
. Mesotrione application and Kentucky bluegrass overseeding at the same time is helpful to damage creeping bentgrass but not for establishment of Kentucky bluegrass to refill damaged area. To maximize mesotrione effects, temperature above
would be recommended based on this study.
Sensitivity to Fungicides of Typhula incarnata Isolates Causing Gray Snow Mold
Lee, Seong Jun ; Lee, Dong Woon ; Chang, Taehyun ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 69~75
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.069
In response of fungicides for control of gray snow mold, isolates of Typhula incarnata were collected from three golf courses in 2012 Yongpyeong, Korea and tested for sensitivity to propiconazole, tebuconazole and azoxystrobin fungicides. Four discriminatory concentrations were used to detect in vitro sensitivity of 50 isolates. Mean 50% effective concentration inhibiting mycelial growth (
) values for tebuconazole was the lowest among the three fungicides. The
value of tebuconazole ranged from 0.0005
with a mean of 0.0048
. The mean
values of propiconazole in triazole family was 0.5825 (0.78-1.651)
value of azoxystrobin ranged from 0.0017
with a mean of 0.0278
. There was no correlation among
values for propiconazole, azoxystrobin and tebuconazole indicating no cross-resistance relationships with each other. Results of this study were confirmed no resistance isolates in vitro sensitivity of T. incarnata of three fungicides in Yongpyeong.
Damage of Zoysiagrass by Zoysiagrass Mite, Aceria zoysiae in Korean Golf Courses
Park, Dae-Sub ; Lee, Jong-Ho ; Cho, Myeong-Rae ; Kim, Yong-Sun ; Kim, Kyung-Duck ; Kim, Jong Ju ; Choo, Ho Yul ; Lee, Dong Woon ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 1, issue 4, 2012, Pages 76~79
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2012.1.4.076
This study provides basic information on morphological characteristics of zoysia mite, Aceria zoysiae and symptom in zoysiagrass for turfgrass management in golf courses. Zoysiagrass mite distributed from Pocheon, Gyeonggii province to Jinju, Gyeongnam province and damaged turfgrasses from spring to fall. Damaged leaf by zoysiagrass mite was rolled unidirectionally and mite damaged leaves in the inside of rolled part. Leaves was turned to yellow and damaged area formed irregular yellow patch.