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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Weed & Turfgrass Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
A Survey on Farm Management and Occurrence Area of Herbicide Resistant Paddy Weeds in Chungbuk Province
Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Park, Jae-Seong ; Lee, Chae-Young ; Lim, Sang-Cheol ; Song, Beom-Heon ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.001
Studies were carried out to provide basic information for establishing the weed control in Chungbuk, Korea. The present surveys targeting 260 farmers in Chungbuk province were conducted for the cultivation system, weeds occurrence and usage of herbicides. To estimate the occurring area of herbicide resistant weeds, soil samples from 400 paddy fields were collected twice on August, 2011 and April, 2012. In the results of survey, the 99.6% of farmers used the rice planting machine and the 78% of the farmers disseminated herbicides twice to control weeds before and after planting rice. The most commonly used herbicide were as follows; soil-applied herbicide : butachlor 46.6%, mid-term herbicide : mefenacet + pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 10.7%, foliar herbicides : bentazone 62%. The dominant paddy field weeds included Echinochloa crusgalli (16.2%), Scirpus juncoides (12.2%), Monochoria vaginalis (11.9%) and Sagittaria trifolia (9.5%). Occurrence area of sulfonylurea herbicide resistant weeds was 13,659 ha in 26.8% of the paddy area. Monochoria vaginalis showed the highest with 4,605 ha (36.4%) followed Scirpus juncoides (30.7%), and Lindernia dubia (10.6%) at 2011. Monochoria vaginalis and Scirpus juncoides occurred were evenly distributed and the most problematic weed in Chungbuk, Korea.
Ecological Traits of Weed Flora with Different Soil Moisture in Remodeled Paddy Field of Nakdong River
Hwang, Jae-Bok ; Yun, Eul-Soo ; Jung, Ki-Yeol ; Park, Chang-Young ; Choi, Young-Dae ; Jeon, Seong-Ho ; Oh, In-Seok ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 8~14
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.008
Collection of weeds were done in 3 remodeled paddy fields located in different districts with different soil moisture conditions such as Samolpo district (14.6%), Gimhae (9.8%) and Chilhyun (5.6%). Remodeled paddy fields composed of 62 plant species belonging to 23 families. Among 23 families, Compositae was the largest family with 11 species belonged to (17.7%) followed by Poaceae with 9 species (14.5%), Leguminosae with 8 species (12.9%), Cyperaceae with 7 species (11.3%), and Polygonaceae with 5 species (8.1%). Summed dominance ratio of each species based on number, coverage, frequency, and plant height in Samolpo district was Echinochloa oryzoides (100%) > Cyperus difformis (9.0%) > Bidens frondosa (5.3%) > Panicum dichotomiflorum (4.8%) > Eclipta prostrata (4.4%). In Gimhae; Digitaria ciliaris (100%) > Panicum dichotomiflorum (49.4%) > Echinochloa oryzoides (48.8%) > Persicaria hydropiper (27.1%) > Chenopodium ficifolium (10.2%), and in Chilhyun were Panicum dichotomiflorum (90.8%) > Digitaria ciliaris (66.7%) > Cyperus iria (8.6%) > Bidens frondosa (7.6%). Total dry weight of weeds recorded was 535.4 g
, 316.1 g
and 346.2 g
in Samolpo, Gimhae and Chilhyun districts, respectively. Simpson`s index was calculated to 0.09~0.28, which showed that weed occurrence in remodeled paddy fields with different soil moistures varied.
Phenotype Comparison between Herbicide Tolerant Transgenic Rice and Weedy Rice
Go, Eun Mi ; An, Joo Hee ; Nam, Ki Jung ; Nam, Kyong-Hee ; Park, Kee Woong ; Back, Kyoungwhan ; Kim, Chang-Gi ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 15~22
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.015
The phenotypic traits of herbicide-tolerant transgenic rice were compared with those of wild type (Dongjin) as well as two accessions (Hwaseong-aengmi 1 and Gwangyang-aengmi 12) of weedy rice. This study was conducted to investigate whether unintentional alterations in phenotypic characteristics occurred in the transgenic rice and whether the altered traits were similar to those in the two weedy rices. All qualitative traits studied were similar in the transgenic or wild-type rice. On the other hand, awn presence, flag leaf attitude and grain color differed considerably between herbicide-tolerant transgenic rice and weedy rice. As for quantitative traits, plant height, the number of tillers per plant and shoot dry weight were significantly greater for weedy rice than transgenic or wild-type rice. Grain weight per plant and 1000-grain weight of transgenic (or wild-type) rice were significantly greater than those of weedy rice. Transgenic rice shattered less than the other rices. Amylose and protein contents in embryos of transgenic rice were significantly different from those of weedy rice. The potential for weediness of the transgenic rice may be assessed using phenotype comparison between transgenic and weedy rice as shown in this study.
Weed Control Efficacy and Growth of Pear Tree according to Several Weed Control Method in Pear Orchard
Jang, Il ; Kim, Hyang Mi ; Park, Yong Seog ; Lee, Jeong Deug ; Kim, Sung Min ; Choi, Jin Ho ; Lee, Jung Sup ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.023
This study was conducted to clarify effects of weed control methods on damages from agricultural chemicals of pear trees, growth of weeds and states of pear trees after treating pear orchards with different methods of weed controlling, density of GLU and application times. The growth and occupation rate were investigated after 10, 20 and 40 days of weeding treatment. According to a result of the first treatment conducted when weeds in the lower parts of crown in a pear orchard began to grow and grew about 20 cm, unwoven cloth covering showed the highest control value with 100% in all 14 kinds of grasses. In comparison, Stellaria aquatica and catchweed bedstraw showed 96.7% and 97.3% respectively in the 20 DAT investigate after the first treatment of GLU 540 g a.i. ha-1 and the high control value of 100% in other all kinds of grasses. According to an investigation of stalk enlargement, length of new shoot and the number of new shoot made to know differences in tree growth following treatment of the lower part of crown, to use weed killers two or three times a year or to eliminate grasses with machines have positive effects on cross growth of pear trees.
Herbicidal Activities of Essential Oils from Pine, Nut Pine, Larch and Khingan Fir in Korea
Yun, Mi Sun ; Cho, Hae Me ; Yeon, Bo-Ram ; Choi, Jung Sup ; Kim, Songmun ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 30~37
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.030
The objective of this research was to understand herbicidal activity of essential oils isolated from leaves of pine (Pinus densiflora), nut pine (Pinus koraiensis), larch (Larix kaempferi) and khingan fir (Abies nephrolepsis) in Korea. In a seed bioassay, essential oils of nut pine, larch and khingan fir inhibited the growth of rapeseed (Brassica napus) seedlings by 50% at 4,766, 1,865,
, respectively, however, that of pine did not show any herbicidal effect. In a green house experiment, fall panicum, Southern crabgrass, sorghum, barnyardgrass, quackgrass, black nightshade, Indian jointvetch, velvet leaf, and Japanese morningglory were controlled in 24 hours by the foliar application of 10% essential oils from pine, nut pine, larch and khingan fir. The treated plant parts showed burndown effect, however, new shoots appeared 3 days after treatment. Results of GC-MS analysis showed that essential oils from pine, nut pine, larch and khingan fir contained 16, 25, 25, and 16 compounds, respectively, with hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, and esters. The major compounds of the essential oils were 3-carene, bornyl acetate, camphene, limonene,
Identification of Streptomyces scopuliridis KR-001 and Its Herbicidal Characteristics
Lee, Boyoung ; Kim, Jae Deok ; Kim, Young Sook ; Ko, Young Kwan ; Yon, Gyu Hwan ; Kim, Chang-Jin ; Koo, Suk Jin ; Choi, Jung Sup ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 38~46
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.038
With increasing environmental issues from synthetic chemical herbicides, microbe-originated herbicides could be a fascinating alternative in current agriculture. We isolated Streptomyces strains that produced herbicidal active metabolite(s) against a grass weed Digitaria sanguinalis. According to the result from 16S rDNA sequence comparison with the close strains, the best isolate (Code name MS-80673) was identified as Streptomyces scopuliridis KR-001. The closest type strain was Streptomyces scopuliridis RB72 which was previously reported as a bacteriocin producer. The optimal culture condition of S. scopuliridis KR-001 was
, pH 7.0 and culture period 4 to7 days. Both of soil and foliar application of the crude culture broth concentrate was effective on several troublesome or noxious weed species such as a Sciyos angulatus in a greenhouse and field condition. Phytotoxic symptoms of the culture broth concentrate of S. scopuliridis KR-001 by foliar application were wilting and burndown of leaves, and stems followed by discoloration and finally plant death. In crops such as rice, wheat, barley, hot pepper and tomato, growth inhibition was observed. These results suggest that the new S. scopuliridis KR-001 strain producing herbicidal metabolites may be a new bio-herbicide candidate and/or may provide a new lead molecule for a more efficient herbicide.
Comparison of Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germinating Pattern in Fine-textured Fescues Grown Under Alternative and Natural Conditions at the Room Temperature
Kim, Kyoung-Nam ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 47~54
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.047
The study was conducted to investigate early establishment characteristics and germination pattern of fine-textured fescues (FF) under natural room temperature and to analyze differences between alternative and natural conditions for a practical application. Six cultivars from Chewings fescue (CF), creeping red fescue (CRF), hard fescue (HF) and sheep fescue (SF) were evaluated in the study. Daily and cumulative germination pattern were measured and analyzed. Significant differences were greatly observed in germination pattern, days to the first germination, days to 60% germination, and germination percentage with environments, species and cultivars. Final germination rate was 29.7 to 80.0% under natural conditions. The first germination was initiated between 8 and 10 DAS (days after seeding) under natural conditions, being 3 to 4 days later as compared with ISTA conditions. Days to the 60% germination were 12.1 to 19.0 DAS, being 3.0 to 4.2 days slower than that under ISTA conditions. CF `Jamestown II` was the fastest cultivar, while the slowest CRF `Audubon`. Turf establishment speed was faster with CRF < SF < HF and < CF in order. Information on differences in germination characteristics and pattern between alternative and natural conditions would be practically useful for a golf course construction etc., when established with FF.
Soil and Morphological Characteristics of Native Zoysiagrasses by the Habitats
Lee, Sol ; Yu, Han-Chun ; Yoon, Byeong-Seon ; Yang, Geun-Mo ; Kim, Jong-Yeong ; Kim, Yeong ; Oh, Chan-Jin ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 55~61
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.055
This study was carried out to investigate the morphological and soil characteristics of Zoysia spp. native to South Korea. Samples [41 ecotypes of Zoysia japonica, 28 ecotypes of natural hybride between Z. japonica and Z. sinica (Junggi), 22 ecotypes of Z. sinica, and 8 ecotypes of Z. matrella] were collected in seashores, levee and summit of the rock in southern Korea. Variations in leaf width, plant height, leaf angle, length of leaf sheath, leaf trichome, stolon length, and seed shape were measured at collection sites and experimental plots. Among the entries, most of the measurements did not show any significant differences between natural and experimental plot except for leaf angle of Z. sinica and the number of seeds per spike of Z. matrella, which might be caused by different environmental conditions. Soil pH was 6.0 at the most of the collection sites.
at most zoysiagrasses growing soils.
Effect of Essential Oils and Paraffin Oil on Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Lee, Dong Woon ; Potter, D.A. ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 62~69
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.062
The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), damages various cultivated crops and it can also be a serious pest of turfgrass, especially on golf courses. Essential oils have potential as alternative control agents for insect pests. Sixteen essential oils (anise, camphor, cinnamon, citronella, clove, fennel, geranium, lavender, lemongrass, linseed, neem, peppermint, pine, thyme, turpentine and tea saponin) and paraffin oil were assessed in the laboratory, the green house and field trials for their efficacy against black cutworms in turf. Treatment of potted cores of perennial ryegrass turf with anise, cinnamon, neem, paraffin or turpentine reduced black cutworm damage in a greenhouse trial, and in a similar trial, applying neem oil at 4000, 2000 and 1000 ppm resulted in 100, 100 and 64% mortality, respectively, of black cutworms. Weight of survivors at the 1000 ppm rate was 5- fold less than weight of comparably-aged controls. Neem oil (2000 ppm) reduced growth of black cutworms feeding on treated clippings. A high rate of neem oil followed by irrigation (0.1 L of 20000 ppm neem oil with 0.9 L watering/
) was more effective than a lower concentration (1 L of 2000 ppm neem oil/
instars in potted turf cores and field plots, respectively. However, not even the aforementioned higher rate effectively controlled
instars in the field.
Screening of Antifungal Activities of Medicinal Plants for the Control of Turfgrass Fungal Disease
Kang, Jae Young ; Kim, Dae Ho ; Lee, Dong Gu ; Kim, In Seob ; Jeon, Min Goo ; Lee, Jae Deuk ; Kim, Ik Hwi ; Lee, Sanghyun ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 70~75
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.070
Seven medicinal plant extracts were tested for antifungal activities against six species of the major turfgrass pathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum graminicola, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia cerealis, Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1, Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2, and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa) using paper disk diffusion method. Three medicinal plant extracts, including Pinus densiflora showed antifungal activities. In suppression of mycelium growth test, on medium adding P. densiflora extract showed that inhibition rate of mycelium growth were above 80% in 10 mg/10 ml concentration of the extract. The inhibition rate of Pythium spp. was 100% and C. graminicola was 84.3% in 10 mg/10 ml concentrations of P. densiflora extract, respectively. In particularly, the inhibition rate of Pythium spp. was 89.5% in 2 mg/10 ml concentrations of P. densiflora extract. As a result, P. densiflora extract showed high antifungal activity to Pythium spp. and C. graminicola of the turfgrass pathogen in in vitro test.
The selection of Post-emergence Herbicides to Control of Poa annua in Kentucky Bluegrass
Hong, Beom-Seok ; Tae, Hyun-Sook ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 76~81
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.076
This study was performed to find the effective post-emergence herbicides to control of Poa annua that has already emerged from the soil in Kentucky bluegrass. A total of 8 treatments consist of various post-emergence herbicides applied at recommended concentration or lower concentration than recommended concentration to prevent Kentucky bluegrass injury in this study. Methiozolin showed the least injury in Kentucky bluegrass during 40 days after treatments and there were no footprints by methiozolin in creeping bentgrass green during 20 days. However, Poa annua control was 60.4%, which was less than those of other 7 treatments in this study. Both of asulam sodium and iodosulfuron plus asulam sodium exhibited the higher Poa annua control of 81.7% and 82.2% respectively without serious injury in Kentucky bluegrass during 40 days, and they showed a slight footprints damage in creeping bentgrass green. On the other hand, critical Kentucky bluegrass injuries and the vivid and numerous footprints were occurred in treatments of trifloxysulfuron-sodium, foramsulfuron, rimsulfuron and flazasulfuron, even though they were applied with only 1/4 of recommended concentration. Methiozolin is available to reduce gradually Poa annua population on Kentucky bluegrass without severe turfgrass damage. Asulam sodium or iodosulfuron plus asulam sodium could be useful to remove Poa annua by spot treatment but it is prohibited to spray directly on green even spot.
Growth and Contents of Inorganic Nutrient during Cultivation of Zoysiagrass
Bae, Eun-Ji ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Yong-Bae ; Lee, Sang-Myeong ; Yang, Geun-Mo ; Huh, Moo-Ryong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 82~87
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.082
This research will be utilized as a base line data by researching on growth and the accumulation of inorganic nutrients during the cultivation period of zoysiagrass and also to establish a cultivation strategy of zoysiagrass. It involves the management such as fertilizer and mowing which ultimately led to the difference of growth and accumulation of inorganic nutrients. The accumulation of inorganic nutrients after mowing, the amount of accumulation was small when compared to the amount lost for the shoot, rhizome and root. Difference in the accumulation of inorganic nutrients, but as for K, Ca and Mg accumulation it shows similar aspects to N accumulation. The orders of inorganic nutrients in zoysiagrass were N > K > P > Ca > Mg. The characteristics of inorganic nutrients absorption of such zoysiagrass acts as the foundation of cultivation, and in the aspect of making decisions on the fertilization amount and soil management, it is closely related to the requirement on nutrients. In order to increase the productivity based on the zoysiagrass`s growth and density rate improvement, accumulation of inorganic nutrients per growth period needs to be analyzed, and supplying nutrients in an efficient method suitable to the growth period is advisable, so such basic research was necessary.
Occurrence of Brown Patch on Kentucky Bluegrass Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IB
Chang, Taehyun ; Lee, Yong Se ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 88~94
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.088
Brown patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IB occurred on Kentucky bluegrass during late May through early October 2010 at golf course in Gyeongbuk Province, Korea. Disease symptoms on the turfgrass for spring season were leaf blights dying from the leaf tip, which appeared patches of brown color in the field. However, it appeared patches of dark brown color or gray brown color in fall. The fungus (B-7 isolate) of brown patch was isolated from the diseased leaf tissue and cultured on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) for identification. The young hyphae had acute angular branching and few septa and mature hyphal branches showed about 90-degree angles and development of monilioid cells, which were morphologically identical to Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IB reported previously. DNA sequences of ribosomal RNA gene (internal transcribed spacer) of the fungus were homologous with similarity of 99% to those of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IB isolates in GenBank database, confirming the identity of the causal agent of the disease. Pathogenicity of the fungus was also confirmed on the creeping bentgrass and Kentucky bluegrass by Koch`s postulates. This is the first report of brown patch on Kentucky bluegrass caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IB in Korea.
Sod Production and Current Status of Cultivation Management in Korea
Bae, Eun Ji ; Lee, Kwang Soo ; Kim, Dong Soo ; Han, Eun Hui ; Lee, Sang Myeong ; Lee, Dong Woon ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 1, 2013, Pages 95~99
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.1.095
To investigate the actual condition of production and management of sod, a questionnaire was ask to 57 farmers in major cultivated areas of turf sod in Korea in 2010 and 2011. The results of the turfgrass management situation analysis showed a mixed farming where the ratio of the principal work and the side work progress similarly, and for the landholding type depending on the management scale, the rental ratio was high for a scale over 0.5 ha. Sod production farmers has high-profile in new varieties of turfgrass, integrated management of the fertilization and soil or disease and insect pest however the future of the turfgrass industry does not seem optimistic due to the problems such as market stability or scarcity of worker. Obtaining of information on culture methods depended neighbor`s experience (81.8%). Concerning the varieties preference analysis, the 32.1% of farmer answered that the reproductive rate was a key factor for the new variety. Sod production farmers want to receive financial support (28.1%), improvement of distribution structure of sod (26.6%), and spread of good variety turfgrass (23.4%).