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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Weed & Turfgrass Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
The Occurrence of the Weeds on the Lawn and the Effective Control System
Lee, In-Yong ; Kim, Chang-Seok ; Lee, Jeongran ; Park, Nam-Il ; Park, Jae-Eup ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 111~121
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.111
Literatures were reviewed to understand the weeds occurring on the lawn and the effective control methods of them. Thirty-seven species of 16 families including three species of Cyperaceae for example Cyperus sanguinolentus, nine species of Poaceae including Digitalis ciliaris, Poa repens, etc., and 25 species of broad-leaved weeds such as Artemisia princeps, Draba nemorosa, Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides were occurred on the lawns. One hundred ninety-six weed species of 53 families were occurred on a tomb graveyard adjacent to the mountain. Therefore, it is possible to be infested by the weeds occurring on the graveyard on the golf course adjacent to the mountains. There are 67 items, 32 kinds of the soil treatment herbicides including dichlobenil GR, methiozolin EC, oxaziclomefone SC, imaxaquin GR et al, and 35 kinds of the foliar treatment herbicides including metamifop EC, bifenox flucetosulfuron WG, flazasulfuron WP, trifloxysulfuron-sodium WG et al. registered at the end of May 2012 for efficient management of the weeds occurring on the lawn. For effective management of the weeds, the herbicide can be generally applied twice a year on March to April and August to September for soil treatment and once a year on June to July for the foliage treatment.
Biological Characteristics and Control of Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua)
Lee, Sang-Kook ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 122~130
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.122
The object of this study is to review the current states of the characteristics and strategies to control annual bluegrass to apply information to the circumstance of South Korea. Annual bluegrass is one of the most widespread turfgrass species which has great ability to produce seedhead and shoot growth. It also has ability to tolerate low mowing height and to form uniformity of turfgrass when it is established. Annual bluegrass is well-known as weak turfgrass for high and low temperature. High rate of nitrogen and phosphorus improves growth of annual bluegrass. To control annual bluegrass, deep and infrequent irrigation is more effective than light and frequent irrigation. Clipping removal is more effective than clipping return to control annual bluegrass. Prodiamine, bensulide, and dithiopyr are applied as pre-emergence herbicide, and ethofumesate and bisbyribac-sodium are used as post-emergence herbicide. Paclobutrazol and flurprimidol are used as plant growth regulator. Trinexapac which is one of the most popular plant growth regulators (PGRs) in South Korea is not proper to control annual bluegrass because it accelerates improve growth of annual bluegrass in summer. Although chemical control is mainly used in South Korea, combination of cultural and chemical control may be the strategy to maximize effectiveness to control annual bluegrass.
The Distribution and Occurrence of Sulfonylurea-Resistant Weeds in Paddy Fields of Gyeongbuk Province
Kim, Sang Kuk ; Kim, Hak Yoon ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 131~137
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.131
The study was carried out to obtain the basic information on distribution and occurrence of weeds including resistant weeds to sulfonylurea herbicides in paddy fields of Gyeongbuk province. In weed distribution on life cycle, annual weed was occupied by 91.8% and perennials were 8.2%, respectively. In morphological distribution of weeds, broad leaf weeds were 85.7%, sedges was 9.1%, and grass weed was 3.8%, respectively. Sulfonylurea-resistant weeds in paddy fields of twelve regions were widely occurred except for Yecheon region. The six sulfonylurea resistant biotypes occurred in paddy fields of Gyeongbuk province were Lindernia dubia, Eleocharis kuroguwai, Monochoria vaginalis and Ludwigia prostrata. It revealed that occurrence rate and area of sulfonylurea-resistant weeds were about 15.9 % and 22,420 ha in Gyeongbuk province.
Spreading and Distribution of Lactuca scariola, Invasive Alien Plant, by Habitat Types in Korea
Kim, Young-Ha ; Kil, Ji-Hyon ; Hwang, Sun-Min ; Lee, Chang-Woo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 138~151
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.138
This study was carried out to investigate the distribution and habitat types of prickly lettuce, Lactuca scariola of Europe origin for supplying the basic data of management plan. It showed fairly nation-wide distribution although excessive growth was rather limited in the wild. Its habitat types were divided into four types like open fields, roadsides, seashores and riversides. Species diversity examined by species rank-dominance curve tended to increase over riverside > seashores > open fields > roadsides. As a result of analyzing life form, therophytes were more than 50%, means that the habitats of L. scariola were disturbed by human activities etc. Urbanization Index was analyzed 9.1% in roadsides, 7.4% in seashores, 5.8% in open fields and riversides. It has high spread potential with a large number of wind-flying seed per plant. It was evaluated that prickly lettuce was mainly spread along the newly constructed road, expressway and invaded the original ecosystem in the cultivated land as weeds. But it has played a role as a pioneer species in open fields. It is recommended to remove where it has considerable impact on the native plant species of conservation value.
Influence of Plant Growth Regulator Application on Seed Germination of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)
Kim, Yoon Ha ; Lee, In Jung ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 152~158
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.152
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a member of family Asteraceae that grows all over the Korea. Recently, dandelion was cultivated for medicinal crops because of its positive medicinal effects. However, dandelion is considered as a troublesome weed in grass lawns of golf course and orchards. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of plant growth regulators [gibberellins (
); kinetin; salicylic acid (SA); ethephon)] with different concentration on seed germination control of dandelion. Seed germination rates were increased in all concentration of
and kinetin treatment compared to control. In the 0.5 mM of ethephon application, seed germination rate was more increased than that of control while seed germination rate was reduced in 1.0 and 1.5 mM of ethephon treatments. Seed germination rate was significantly decreased with different SA dilutions compared to control. The germination rate was more reduced when SA was applied in combination with
than only SA treatments.
Deterioration of Agronomic Characteristics of Drought-Resistant GM Rice (CaMsrB2-8)
Kim, Bo-Ra ; Son, Jin-Hwan ; Kim, Hye-Ryun ; Ham, Jung-Kwan ; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar ; Park, Soon-Ki ; Shin, Dong-Hyun ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 159~163
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.159
The purpose of this study is to observe the growth habit and investigate a possibility of cultivating the GM rice (CaMsrB2-8) as a rice cultivar having drought resistance. Germination viability test showed that there was no significant difference between the drought-resistant GM(CaMsrB2-8) and non-GM (Ilmi) rice which was the parent variety at the GM rice. All the seeds of CaMsrB2-8 and Ilmi germinated after 6 days. Viviparous germination was not found in CaMsrB2-8 and Ilmi that was grown in greenhouse at
with water spraying for 40 days. Ratooning of CaMsrB2-8 and Ilmi was observed in 7-14 days and found uniform in field condition. CaMsrB2-8 seemed to grow faster than Ilmi. But CaMsrB2-8 and Ilmi were similar in 14-21 days. Both CaMsrB2-8 and Ilmi showed low seed shattering and more than 90% grains were ripened. All the seeds scattered in the paddy soil surface were not germinated after passing the winter. This study suggests that the drought-resistant GM rice was not significantly different with the parent variety of Ilmi in many agronomic characteristics such as wildness traits.
Mixing Pyroligneous Acids with Herbicides to Control Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli)
Acenas, Xernan Sebastian ; Nunez, John Paolo Panisales ; Seo, Pil Dae ; Ultra, Venecio Uy Jr. ; Lee, Sang Chul ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 164~169
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.164
Alternatives to commercial chemical herbicide are currently being searched and tested due to the numerous adverse effects of commercially available herbicides to the environment. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) is an important weed species around the world, especially in paddy rice fields. This study focuses on the favorable effects of mixing pyroligneous acids with commercial liquid herbicides. Seedlings were transplanted and grown under greenhouse conditions. The effect of treatment time or leaf-stage on herbicide-pyroligneous acid efficacies was checked, coupled with isolation and quantification of biochemical compounds. Results revealed that herbicide treatment at early post emergence (2~3 leaf stage) of Echnochloa crus-galli leads to effective control. Both liquid herbicides affected fatty acid, protein, and amino acid syntheses as reflected on their contents. The influence of wood vinegar (WV) or rice vinegar (RV) on these compounds was not thoroughly verified due to lack of information on the pyroligneous products. We observed that mixing WV or RV with BCB (bentazone + cyhalof-butyl) gives more favorable results than BUC (butachlor + clomazone), mixed with WV or RV. The result would indicate the potential of mixing pyroligneous acid in reducing herbicide application rate.
Heat-treatment Effects of Agricultural Imports for Devitalization of Quarantine Weed Seeds
Moon, Kwang-Ok ; Oh, Jin-Bo ; Kyoung, Eun-Seon ; Lee, Yong-Ho ; Hong, Sun-Hee ; Kang, Byeng-Hoa ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 170~175
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.170
Korea is carrying out weed quarantine by plant quarantine regulations including heat-treatment method to prevent the influx of exotic weeds. In order to confirm suitability for current heat-treatment criteria and find field-applicable methods which can completely devitalize quarantine weed seeds, the conditions for heat-treatment with/without 40% relative humidity were studied with 9 species among quarantine weed seeds and one weed species similar to quarantine weed. Dry heat-treatments had been tested under various temperatures and time conditions. All seeds were dead at the conditions of
for 48 hours,
for 36 hours,
for 24 hours,
for 4 hours and
for 30 minutes. Heat-treatments at 40% relative humidity resulted in complete seed death at the conditions of
for 36 hours and
for 16 hours. The above results show that current heat-treatment criteria are not suitable for several quarantine weeds and these conditions could be applied as a quarantine method to prevent the influx of quarantine weeds along with agricultural imports. More specific conditions for heat tolerant species such as Picris echioides and heat susceptible species such as Cuscuta spp. are necessary and will improve plant quarantine process in devitalizing quarantine weed seeds with different heat tolerances.
Hydrolysis Methods for the Efficient Manufacture of Sugar Solutions from the Freshwater Alga Water-net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum)
Kim, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Sul Ki ; Ko, Eun Hye ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Kim, Jin-Seog ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 176~183
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.176
To explore hydrolysis methods for the efficient manufacture of sugar solutions from the freshwater alga Water-net (Hydrodictyon reticulatum, HR), acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, and combined hydrolysis (acid followed by enzymatic hydrolysis) were investigated. In the one-step acid hydrolysis, the reaction of 8% solids content using 2% sulfuric acid at
for 1 hour was desirable. In this case, glucose 27.44 g 100 g
could be obtained from the HR-d13 samples. In the two-step acid hydrolysis, the primary hydrolysis (HR powder : 72% sulfuric acid = 1 g : 1.5 mL) was carried out for 1 hour at
, and then the secondary hydrolysis was done for 1 hour at
after addition of distilled water 23.5 mL. In this case, glucose 35.11 g/100 g DM could be obtained from the HR-d13 samples. In the combined hydrolysis, 25% solids content using 2% hydrochloric acid were reacted for 1 hour at
, and then citrate buffer and hydrolysis enzyme complexes (E1 1.0 mL+E2 0.2 mL
dried matter) were added and reacted for 1 - 2 days at
. In this case, glucose 33.5 g 100 g
could be obtained from the HR-d23+26 samples. In conclusion, combined hydrolysis was likely to be more useful saccharification method of HR biomass at a practical level, considering the glucose productivity, generation of fermentation-inhibiting substances (hydroxyl methyl furfural, furfural), and limited use of strong acid.
Morphological Variation and Characteristics of Native Medium-Leaf Type Zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp.) by Site Environment
Bae, Eun-Ji ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Han, Eun-Hui ; Park, Yong-Bae ; Lee, Sang-Myeong ; Huh, Moo-Ryong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 184~190
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.184
It is important for genetic resources to collect and identify in native medium-leaf type zoysiagrasses species distributed in Korea. This study was conducted to investigate morphological variation and characteristics of native medium-leaf type zoysiagrasses from coastal, island and inland regions in Korea. Among them, 75 collected lines was confirmed to have various morphological variations, accessions were classified into 2 main based group coastal and inland regions by morphological characteristics and site environment. Group I included Z. sinica type, this group showed 3.7 mm in leaf width, 29 in number of seed per spikelet and 5.0 mm in seed length. Group II included Z. japonica type, this group showed 4.4 mm in leaf width, 42 in number of seed per spikelet and 3.5 mm in seed length. There is a need for additional research on growth characteristics and the molecular level for the introgressive hybridization between species which confirmed that cross-pollination is possible due to protogyny. The individuals showing variations should be preserved as valuable genetic resources for the expansion of variations in zoysiagrasses, and the results of this investigation on the genetic resources collected will be highly valuable in breeding high quality turfgrass.
RAPD-SCAR Markers Linked to Medium-Leaf Zoysiagrass Ecotypes
Chung, Sung Jin ; Park, Su Jeong ; Kim, Hun Joong ; Yang, Geun-Mo ; Choi, Joon-Soo ; Oh, Chan-Jin ; Jang, Deok-Hwan ; Song, In-Ja ; Lee, Geung-Joo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 191~197
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.191
Two medium-leaf ecotypes (CY6069, CY6097) belonging to one species (Zoysia japonica) of Korean lawngrasses were selected in sod production fields in Jang Seong, Korea. They were reported to have distinct morphological and growth rate characteristics different from the preferred medium-leaf type zoysiagrass in Korea. This study was conducted to define further the genotypic difference at the molecular level and to develop DNA marker based on the specific DNA fragment. Polymorphic DNA fragments were first explored by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers, which were then converted into PCR-based sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. The CY6069-specific primer set amplified about 550 bp successfully, while the CY6097 marker produced the expected 690 bp band, by which those markers were nominated by CY6069_550 and CY6069_690 SCARs, respectively. Together with the reported morphological and other phenotypic features, the SCAR markers confirmed in this study will be useful to identify those medium-leaf zoysiagrass genotypes when they are cultivated with other vegetatively propagated warm-season turfgrasses in sod farms.
Development of New Hybrid Cultivar 'Semil' in Zoysiagrass
Choi, Joon Soo ; Yang, Geun Mo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 198~201
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.198
This study was carried out to develope new zoysiagrass cultivar Semil' (Registration no. 1749). Artificial crossing between the collected lines of typical Z. matrella, NM1 (collected in South Korea) and the different ecotype of Z. matrella, ASm (collected in South Korea) was made to develop a F1 hybrid plant (NM1
ASm). Among the 30 progenies, (NM1
ASm)-1 (Semil) showed superior performance in density rating. 'Semil' showed genetically light green color, with narrow leaf width (
), and low plant height (
), Length to lowest leaf blade of this cultivar was
, which may allow low mowing height upto 12 mm.
Antibiotic Properties of Helicosporium sp. KCTC 0635BP to Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 IV
Lee, Sang Myeong ; Kim, Dong Soo ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Lee, Chong-Kyu ; Lee, Dong Woon ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 2, 2013, Pages 202~206
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.2.202
Biocontrol potential of an isolate of Helicosporium spp. against Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporium and Phytophthora drechsleri was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A selected biocontrol agent designated as Helicosporium 0635BP strongly inhibited growth and lysed mycelium of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporium on PDA. Autoclaved culture filtrate of the agent also completely inhibited growth of the turfgrass large patch pathogen, R. solani AG2-2 IV at the concentration of 50 ml
. The pathogen was killed when dipped under the 20% filtrate for four hours or 50% for one hr. In a field trial, plots applied with the crude or times diluted culture filtrate showed 100% control efficacy of the turfgrass large patch as a chemical applied for a comparison. Results indicated that Helicosporium 0635BP is a promising biocontrol agent on control of the turfgrass large patch disease and its culture filtrate contained unknown heat suitable antifungal substance (s). Further studies on mass production, purification and identification of the unknown compound (s) are in progress for practical use.