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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Weed & Turfgrass Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Current Status and Perspective of Weed Management in Herbicide-Resistant Crops
Pyon, Jong Yeong ; Chang, Kyu Seob ; Lee, Jeung Joo ; Park, Kee Woong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 221~229
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.221
This paper reviews current status of weed control practices in herbicide-resistant crops to examine weed management strategies in cope with cropping herbicide-resistant crops in the near future. Herbicide-resistant crops were rapidly adopted weed management technologies due to broad-spectrum weed control without crop injury. Transgenic glyphosate-resistant cultivars in soybean, corn, canola, and cotton were adopted to manage weeds at lower cost in a simplified weed management system. Dual stack crops with glyphosate and glufosinate resistance were developed to control glyphosate resistant weeds in corn, soybean and cotton. New multiple herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and glufosinate, acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors, synthetic auxin herbicides, 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors or acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors will expended the utility of existing herbicide technologies to manage the evolution of resistant weeds. However, herbicide resistant crops alone cannot solve weed problems and thus studies on diverse weed managements using an array of alternating herbicides of mode of action, mechanical, and cultural practices are needed for integrated weed management systems in the future.
Evaluation of Genetic Structure of Amaranth Accessions from the United States
He, Qiang ; Park, Yong-Jin ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 230~235
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.230
Amaranths (Amaranthus sp.), an endemic American crop, are now grown widely across the world. This study used 14 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyze the genetic diversity of 74 amaranth accessions from the United States, with eight accessions from Australia as controls. One hundred twenty-two alleles, averaging eight alleles per locus, were observed. The average major allele frequency, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphism information content (PIC) were 0.44, 0.69, and 0.65, respectively. The structure analysis based on genetic distance classified 77 accessions (94%) into three clusters, while five accessions (6%) were admixtures. Among the three clusters, Cluster 3 had the highest allele number and PIC values, while Cluster 2 had the lowest. The lowest FST was between Clusters 1 and 3, indicating that these two clusters have higher gene flow between them compared to the others. This finding was reasonable because Cluster 2 included most of the Australian accessions. These results indicated satisfactory genetic diversity among U.S. amaranths. These findings can be used to design effective breeding programs involving different plant characteristics.
Change of Weeds Occurrence, Early Growth and Yield of Soybean at Simultaneous Planting with Rye as Living Mulch
Seo, Jong-Ho ; Moon, Jung-Kyung ; Kwon, Young-Up ; Ku, Ja-Hwan ; Kim, Si-Ju ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 236~241
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.236
Introduction of rye living mulch in soybean production is important for labor-saving and reduction of herbicide usage for weeding by weed suppression and for soil conservation by mulching of rye. Soybean and rye were row-planted and broadcasted simultaneously at different planting times (May 15, May 25, June 5) and row widths (35 and 70 cm) in 2010, different soybean cultivars (Daepoong, Singi) and planting times (May 15 and June 1) in 2011, respectively, and investigated weed occurrence, early growth and yield of soybean. Acalypha australis, which is known to herbicide-resistant weed, could be controlled ecologically by rye living mulch. Occurrence of Acalypha australis was controlled effectively also by mixture of alachlor and linulon at no mulch in 2011. Early growth amount of soybean plant per area was increased by narrow row width (35 cm) at rye living mulch, which was helpful in the control of weeds, but grain yield of soybean with narrow row was decreased compared to conventional row width (70 cm) at the planting in early June. It is concluded that soybean planting as row width 70 cm in early June is proper at simultaneous planting with rye.
Herbicidal Activities of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim Extracts
Yun, Young Beom ; Byeon, Ri Na ; Jang, Se Ji ; Hyun, Kyu Hwan ; Shin, Dong Young ; Kim, Sang Su ; Kim, Do Ik ; Kwon, Oh Do ; Kuk, Yong In ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 242~247
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.242
Currently, methods for controlling weeds in organically produced crops have not been as effective as conventional methods. This research was carried out to determine the herbicidal effects of leaf, stem, fruit, root extracts of Trichosanthes kirilowii. The extraction methods used were water, boiling water and ethanol. The characteristics of potential herbicidal components among extraction methods were investigated by using the following solvent fractions: hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. Generally, water extracts provided the best on inhibition of germination rate, plant height, and root length in cucumber and barley. Specifically, extractions made from fruit parts of T. kirilowii provided the greatest inhibition effect on plant growth in cucumber and barely. Inhibition of germination rate, plant height, and root length in cucumber and barley in solvent fractions was the best in water fractions, but there were no significant differences among the other fractions. Digitaria siliaris and Solanum nigrum were controlled 80-100% by 5% extractions of water fraction. However, there were no herbicidal effects from foliar treatment in cucumber, barley, black nightshade, and henry crabgrass by 5% extractions of the water fraction. These results show that extractions of T. kirilowii can be used for controlling some weeds in organically produced crops.
Alternative Herbicides to Control Herbicide-Resistant and Troublesome Weeds in Paddy Fields
Park, Tae-Seon ; Lee, In-Yong ; Seong, Ki-Yeong ; Cho, Hyun-Suk ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ; Yang, Woon-Ho ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 248~253
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.248
This study was conducted to select alternative herbicides to control herbicide-resistant and - troublesome weeds in rice fields, Korea. The resistant Echinochloa oryzicola to ACCase inhibitor was tested by herbicides registered to control Echinochloa oryzicola. And the resistant and troublesome weeds to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides, ALS inhibitors, were tested by widely using herbicides to control the resistant weeds in Korea. The oxadiazon, pyrazolate, pretilachlor and benzobicyclone+thiobencarb effectively controlled resistant Echinochloa oryzicola to ACCase and ALS inhibitors at 0.5 leaf stage of the, Herbicides containing mefenacet or fentrazamide controlled effectively by the 2 leaf stage. In controlling other SU resistant weeds including Sagittaria trifolia and Ludwigia prostrate, benzobicyclon and mesotrione performed well all tested weeds, and carfentrazone and pytazolate were effective to broadleaf weeds. Sagittaria trifolia and Ludwigia prostrate, which were suspected to be resistance to SU herbicides, were well controlled by carfentrazone and pytazolate.
Differential Antioxidant Mechanisms of Rice Plants in Response to Oxyfluorfen and Paraquat
Kim, Jin-Gil ; Jung, Sunyo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 254~259
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.254
The mechanisms of resistance to oxyfluorfen (OF) and paraquat (PQ) were investigated in rice plants. Examination of the concentration dependence of oxyfluorfen- or paraquat-induced increase in conductivity showed that conductivities in the OF- and PQ-treated leaf squares were increased with 0.1
oxyfluorfen and 0.01
paraquat and further increased with higher concentrations. The levels of conductivity were approximately 10-times higher in the PQ-treated plants than in the OF-treated plants, indicating that the PQ-treated plants suffered more severe photodynamic damage than the OF-treated plants. The photooxidative stress caused by foliar application of either 50
oxyfluorfen or 100
paraquat increased the enzyme activities of ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase 1 day after the herbicide treatments and then further increased their enzyme activities 2 days after the treatments. The activities of catalase began to increase 2 days after the oxyfluorfen and paraquat treatments. These antioxidant enzymes appear to play an essential part of defense mechanisms against oxyfluorfen and paraquat. Our results demonstrate that paraquat caused more severe oxidative stress, as indicated by a greater change in conductivity, thereby resulting in greater increases in antioxidant responses in plants, compared with those of oxyfluorfen.
Change of Vegetation Characteristics and Soil Chemical Properties at Saemangeum Reclaimed Land in Korea
Kim, Sun ; Jeong, Jae-Hyeok ; Lee, Jang-Hee ; Choi, Weon-Young ; Lee, Kyeong-Bo ; Im, Il-Bin ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 260~266
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.260
This study was conducted to investigate changes of vegetation and soil characteristics to tidal land of Saemangeum reclaimed land from 2010 to 2012. Soil salinity was 0.16-22.3 dS
in the first survey, while the three years later, it was decreased to 0.12-4.22 dS
. Vegetations were classified as 6 families and 26 species but it was increased to 8 families and 31 species after three years. Numbers of average species in survey site were increased from 7.1 species to 10.6 species. Numbers of vegetation were increased at each survey sites except for survey site 7 : there was decreased halophyte according to decrease in the soil salinity. Biomass production was increased at low production site, and showed highest production in area of dominant vegetation as Phragmites communis. Simpson`s dominance ratio(SDR) of main vegetation as Phragmites communis, Calamagrostis epigeios were increased but Suaeda maritima, Salicornia europaea, Puccinellia nipponica and Zoysia sinica were decreased.
Characteristics of Seed Variation of Zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp.) Native to South Korea
Bae, Eun-Ji ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Yong-Bae ; Kim, Dong-Soo ; Yang, Geun-Mo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 267~273
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.267
In this study, 241 zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp.) accessions naturally growing in South Korea were collected in order to investigate the seed morphological traits. One of the goals of this study was to identify the morphological characteristics and variations of zoysiagrass seed. For the 241 zoysiagrasses accessions collected, a total of 41% (99 accessions) was interspecific hybrid zoysia, which showed various types of seed variations different from zoysiagrass species. Most of these hybrids zoysiagrasses were classified into Z. sinica type and Z. japonica type. Group I and II included Z. sinica type, this group showed 30.1 and 17.5 in number of seed per spike and 4.6 and 5.2 mm in seed length. Group III and IV included Z. japonica type, this group showed 59.2 and 45.8 in number of seed per spike and 3.3 and 3.4 mm in seed length. There is a need for additional research on growth characteristics and the molecular level for the interspecific hybridization which confirmed that genetic variation from level of gene flow between the species.
Comparison of Seed Germinating Vigor, Early Germination Speed and Germination Peak Time in Perennial Ryegrass Cultivars under Different Germination Conditions
Kim, Kyoung-Nam ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 274~282
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.274
Research was initiated to investigate early germination and establishment characteristics of perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne L.). An alternative condition was applied in Experiment I with 8-hr light at
and 16-hr dark at
(ISTA condition). Experiment II was conducted under
(natural condition). Significant differences were observed in germination percentage, germination speed and germination peak time. Seed germinating vigor was 66.00 to 93.75% under ISTA and 66.25 to 93.50% under natural conditions. Germination speed, measured as days to germination of 50% through 90%, was much faster with `Pennant II`, `Brightstar II`, `Sonata` and `Accent II` under ISTA conditions. But it was faster only with `Pennant II` and `Brightstar II` under natural conditions. Germination peak time ranged 1.48 to 5.65 days under ISTA, while 2.17 to 10.63 days under natural conditions. Regardless of growing conditions, the shortest cultivars in peak time were `Sonata`, `Pennant II`, and `Brightstar II` and the longest one `Revenge GLX`. Considering germinating vigor, early germination speed and germination peak time, `Pennant II`, `Brightstar II`, `Sonata` and `Accent II` were regarded as excellent cultivars under ISTA conditions, while `Pennant II` and `Brightstar II` under natural conditions.
Comparison of the Growth Characteristics of Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) Cultivars at Mountain Area
Jeong, Jun Ki ; Lee, Jong Min ; Kim, Ki Dong ; Lee, Jeong Ho ; Joo, Young Kyoo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 283~291
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.283
This experiment was carried out for the selection of suitable cultivars on the green and fairway at the mountain area. The climate data showed that differences of altitude influenced greater than latitude on temperature and rainfall when compared with 3 areas of the central of Gyeong-gi and Yeong-seo, and the mountain area at Yeong-seo. The plot was prepared with the USGA profiles for green and modified California style for fairway at the mountain golf course in Wonju, Korea. The growth characteristics were compared on two different profiles for 3 years of growing seasons after seeding with 5 creeping bentgrass cultivars. `T-1` and `CY-2` showed a rapid greenup compare with other cultivars in spring of 2010 with the both green and fairway mowing height. However, `Penncross` resulted the slowest among cultivars. `T-1` showed the most prominent visual quality of overall rate and the deepest root length after one year of seeding, while `Penncross` showed an excellent result of root length and weight during summer season. However, `Penn A-1` had an imperial result in that season. Comparison of the growth characteristics under green and fairway conditions, `T-1` and `CY-2` showed exellent overall results at the mountain area at Yeong-seo area in Korea.
Various Turf Covers for Kentucky bluegrass Growth and Spring Green-up
Lee, Sang-Kook ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 292~297
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.292
Winter turfgrass injury is one of the critical problems of many golf courses in Korea. Turfgrass loss from freezing injury due to low temperature leads to many types of damages including weed invasion, increased herbicide cost, increased soil erosion, and expensive re-establishment. Although Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) which is the most widely used among cool-season grasses in Korea is well known as cold tolerance species, freezing injuries to Kentucky bluegrass during winter are often found. Protecting the turfgrass crown is necessary to recover from low temperature stress in winter because shoots and roots can be recovered from the crown. Turf covers may protect the crowns from direct low temperatures and desiccation. Six different turf covers were installed to cover Kentucky bluegrass during a period of low temperatures. Turf covers had positive effects for spring green-up of Kentucky bluegrass based on the study. Applying any type of turf covers on Kentucky bluegrass resulted in an increase average and minimum temperature compared to the uncovered plot. Among turf covers, clear PVC film without holes produced the longest root length and the highest turfgrass quality.
Effect of Soldier Fly Casts Mixed Soil on Change of Soil Properties in Root Zone and Growth of Zoysiagrass
Lee, Sang-Beom ; Kim, Young-Sun ; Ham, Suon-Kyu ; Lim, Hye-Jung ; Choi, Young-Cheol ; Park, Kwan-Ho ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 298~305
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.298
Soldier fly casts produced by eco-friendly treatment of food waste with American soldier fly was composting cast mixed food waste compost and soldier fly pupa. This study was conducted to evaluate a possibility of soldier fly casts (SFC) as soil amendment by investigating soil properties and zoysiagrass growth. Amendments were selected coco peat, compost and SFC and their ratio mixed with sand were non-amendment (NA), 7% coco peat(Coco), 7% compost (Comp), 3.5% SFC (1/2SFC) and 7% SFC. In soil properties, SFC was increased CEC than NA and T-N, Av-
and exchangeable K in soil than Coco. Compared with Coco and Comp, turf quality such as turf color index and chlorophyll index in SFC was higher and root length of zoysiagrass longer. Growth of shoot, runner and root in SFC was increase than that of Coco and Comp. These results indicated that 7% SFC applied as soil amendment was improved growth and quality of zoysiagrass by prompting soil productivity and nutrient availability in soil and root growth.
Occurrence of Pythium Blight Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum on Chewing Fescue
Chang, Taehyun ; Lee, Yong Se ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 306~311
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.306
Pythium blight occurred by Pythium aphanidermatum on chewing fescue cv. "Jamestowm II" from early June, 2010 and 2011 at the test field in Daegu University in Gyeongbuk Province, Korea. Disease symptoms on the turfgrass were leaf blights dying from the leaf tip and root rot, which appeared patches of brown to dark brown color or gray brown color in the field. The pathogens (40-1 isolate) of Pythium blight was isolated from the diseased leaf and crown tissue and cultured on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) for identification. Lobulate sporangia were inflated, complex structures, and filamentous sporangia were usually indistinguishable from vegetative hyphae. Sequences of ribosomal RNA gene of the fungus were homologous with similarity of 100% to those of P. aphanidermatum isolates in GenBank database. Pathogenicity was also confirmed on the chewing fescue, creeping betgrass and Kentucky bluegrass by Koch`s postulates. This is the first report of Pythium blight on chewing fescue caused by P. aphanidermatum in Korea.
Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Nematodes against Armyworm, Pseudaletia separata on Tall Fescue, Festuca arundinacea
Jung, Young Hak ; Kim, Jong Ju ; You, Eun Ju ; Lee, Chae Min ; Choo, Ho Yul ; Lee, Dong Woon ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 312~317
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.312
The armyworm, Pseudaletia separata was occurred suddenly in a golf club in Namhae, Gyeongnam province in 2013. Thus, pathogenicity of seven species of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae GSN1 strain, S. glaseri Dongrae strain, S. longicaudum Nonsan strain, S. monticolum Jiri strain and S. siamkayai, Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan strain, and H. bacteriophora Hamyang strain) was evaluated against armyworm on tall fescue in pot and golf course to control this pest environmentally friendly. The pathogenicity against P. separata larvae was significantly different depending on nematode species. The corrected mortality of fifth instar of P. separata was 100% in the treatment with S. carpocapsae GSN1 in 7 days in tall fescue pot. However, there was not different in the mortality of fifth instar of P. separata (80 to 100%) at the rate of 385 to 6,160 infective juveniles (Ijs) ($
Occurrence Trends of SU-Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Paddy Fields in Korea
Lee, In-Yong ; Won, Tae-Jin ; Seo, Young-Ho ; Kim, Eun-Jung ; Yun, Yeo-Tack ; Cho, Seng-Hyun ; Kwon, Oh-Do ; Kim, Sang-Kuk ; Chung, Wan-Gyu ; Park, Tae-Seon ; Kim, Chang-Seok ; Lee, Jeongran ; Moon, Byung-Chul ; Park, Jae-Eup ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 318~321
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.318
National Academy of Agricultural Science and eight province Agricultural Research & Extension Services investigated the occurring area of herbicide resistant weeds in paddy field of Korea. In order to estimate the occurring areas of herbicide resistant weeds, we collected paddy soils randomly from 3,200 sites in 2011 and 2012, and treated 30 kg
of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl+pyriminobac-methyl GR to the paddy soil. 176,870 ha, approximately 22.1% of cultivated area excluding organic and eco-friendly cultivated area, was estimated to be infested by SUherbicide resistant paddy field weeds. Several species of resistant weeds were occurred at Jeonranam-do with 44.3%, followed by 30.5% at Chungchungnam-do, 27.8% at Chungchungbuk-do, and 24.5% at Jeonrabuk-do, respectively. Monochoria vaginalis showed the highest distribution with 57,018 ha, 32.2% followed by Scirpus juncoides, and Lindernia procumbens, respectively.
Control of Weedy Rice Using Minimum Tillage Direct Seeding of Rice on Dry Paddy
Seong, Ki-Yeong ; Lee, Jeong-Tae ; Park, Tae-Seon ; Cho, Hyeon-Suk ; Seo, Myung-Chul ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 3, 2013, Pages 322~326
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.3.322
This study was tried to control the weedy rice using minimum tillage direct seeding of rice on dry paddy. Minimum tillage direct seeding on dry paddy is tilled with 4 cm in width at 27 cm intervals by 1-shaped rotary blade. Using this cultivation method can control weedy rice effectively by minimizing the soil disturbance. In this study, weedy rice was firstly emerged at April 28 in 2012. After 11 days emergence rate of weedy rice at May 9 was 61.9%. At this time rice was sown and then herbicides was treated at 10 and 15 days after sowing. When herbicides was treated at 10 days after sowing the control effect was 89-96%, and when treated at 15 days the control effect was 97-99%. However emergence of weedy rice differ according to the year and year. It was thought to be affected by April average temperature and total precipitation. So, for effective weedy rice control and stable rice yield, it was considered that irrigation at April 15-20 to induce the emergence of weedy rice is required.