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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Weed & Turfgrass Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
A Survey of Weeds Occurrence on Paddy Fields in Chungnam Province in Korea
Hwang, Ki Seon ; Won, Ok Jae ; Park, Su Hyuk ; Eom, Min Yong ; Han, Sung Min ; Suh, Su Jeoung ; Lee, In Yong ; Lee, Jeung Ju ; Park, Kee Woong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 341~347
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.341
The survey of weed occurrence was conducted to identify problematic weed species on the paddy field. Total 524 sites of the 17 regions in Chungnam Province in Korea were investigated from June to August, 2013. In the whole region, 23 weed species were identified including 19 annuals and 4 perennials. The most dominant weed species in Chungnam paddy fields were Echinochloa crus-galli (25.3%), followed by Monochoria vaginalis (11.9%), Eleocharis kuroguwai (10.3%), Bidens tripartite (9.3%) and Aneilema japonicum (8.5%). The 95.2% of the investigation sites was determined under dominance value 1 (range of cover <10: numerous individuals) by Braun-Branquet indicating proper weed control in the paddy fields. This information could be useful for estimation of future weed occurrence, weed population dynamics and establishment of weed control methods in Chungnam Province in Korea.
Changes of Weedy Rice Occurrence in Repeated Wet Direct Seeding and Alternate Transplanting/Wet Direct Seeding of Rice
Shon, Jiyoung ; Lee, Chung-Kuen ; Kim, Junhwan ; Yang, Woonho ; Choi, Kyung-Jin ; Park, Hong-Kyu ; Park, Tae-Seon ; Kim, Chung-Kon ; Yoon, Young-Hwan ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 348~351
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.348
Weedy rice is one of the major problems in direct-seeded rice field, resulting in poor rice quality and low grain yield. This study was carried out to evaluate the conversion effect to machine transplanting after wet-direct- seeding for 3 years on weedy rice occurrence, in comparison of repeated wet-direct-seeding. Occurrence of weedy rice in the continuous wet-hill-seeded and broadcasted field for 3 years increased 4 folds, when compared with that in machine transplanted rice paddy. In the first year of wet-direct-seeded field converted from machine transplanting, weedy rice occurrence did not increase, demonstrating lesser weedy rice in wet-hill-seeded than broadcasted field. These results indicate that alternate cultivation of wet-hill-seeding and machine transplanting is more effective to prevent weedy rice occurrence than the repeated wet-direct-seeding method for 3 years.
Fact-finding Survey on Occurrence of Weeds and Herbicide Usage for Paddy Rice Cultivation in Gyeonggi Province, Korea
Won, Taejin ; Park, Jungsu ; Kim, Soonjae ; Kim, Heedong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 352~357
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.352
A survey was performed to investigate major paddy field weeds and frequently used herbicides in Gyeonggi province, Korea in order to establish a system to efficiently control herbicide-resistant weeds. The dominant paddy field weeds included Echinochloa spp. (22%), Eleocharis kuroguwai (14%), Sagittaria trifolia (13%), Scirpus juncoides (12%), Monochoria vaginalis (9%) and Sagittaria pygmaea (7%), and the most widely used herbicides were butachlor 33% CS (25%), benzobicyclon + fentrazamide + imazosulfuron 11.5% SC (9%), cyclosulfamuron + mefenacet 22.2% SC (9%), butachlor 5% GR (6%), and oxadiazon 12% EC (6%) in Gyeonggi province, Korea. Many paddy rice growers considered S. juncoides, M. vaginalis, S. pygmaea and C. difformis as herbicide-resistant weeds. An extensive research deserves to be conducted to monitor occurrence of herbicideresistant paddy weeds in Gyeonggi province, Korea.
Effects of False Seedbed on the Preventative Weed Control in Organic Rice Paddy Field
Lee, Byung-Mo ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Cho, Jeong-Rae ; An, Nan-Hee ; Ok, Jung-Hun ; Jeong, Ji-Hee ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 358~361
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.358
This study was conducted to determine the weed control effect of false seedbed in organic rice paddy field. False seedbed is one of the preventative weed control method, especially effective in upland vegetable field. False seedbed frequency and methods were examined by varying the processing time in greenhouse and field condition in 2012 and 2013. In greenhouse experiment, shallow recultivation and harrow surface soil was effective to control weed up to 70%. Optimal processing time of false seedbed was when the weed was two or three leaf stages. Under field condition, one-time treatment of false seedbed was 61% of weed suppression rate and two-times of false seedbed treatment was 79% of weed suppression rate. Monochoria vaginalis was still troublesome weed after false seedbed treatment, but the occurrence of Echinochloa oryzoides was decreased after false seedbed treament. Results indicated that false seedbed treatment was very effective to lower early weed occurrence in rice paddy field especially Echinochloa spp. Weed control efficiency of shallow recultivation by weeder hollow and rotary tillage by tractor were 68%, 13% respectively.
Control of Water Foxtail in the Cultivating Barley and Wheat before Harvesting Rice
Im, Il-Bin ; Im, Bo-Hyeok ; Park, Jea-Hyeon ; Jang, Jun Hyeong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 362~367
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.362
This study was conducted to develop an efficient control method for water foxtail in the field sowing barley and wheat seeds before rice harvesting. When thifensulfuron-methyl (75%) was applied 0, 5 and 10 days after rice harvesting, little phytotoxicity was observed on both barley and wheat. Percent of water foxtail control with thifensulfuron-methyl (75%) was more than 88% at three different application timing. When butachlor (5%) was applied 5 days before barley and wheat sowing, phytotoxicity on barley and wheat was severe. However, no phytotoxicity was observed on barley and wheat 5 and 10 days after rice harvesting. Percent of water foxtail control with butachlor 0 and 5 days after rice harvesting was 85-89%. However, it dropped to 74-80% when applied 10 days after rice harvesting. In the thifensulfuron-methyl treatment, the dry matter of barley and wheat was 96-108% and 100-108%, respectively when compared with untreated control. While, in the butachlor treatment, the dry matter of barley and wheat was 53-73% and 106%, respectively when compared with untreated control. Therefore, we recommend thifensulfuron-methyl (75%) 0-10 days after rice harvesting or butachlor (5%) 5 days after rice harvesting to provide efficient water foxtail control and safe barley and wheat production.
Miscanthus EST-originated Transcription Factor WRKY Expression in Response to Low Temperature in Warm-season Turfgrasses
Chung, Sung Jin ; Choi, Young In ; Lee, Geung-Joo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 368~375
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.368
Whole genome transcriptomes from Miscanthus species were sequenced and analyzed, which provided 50 different types of transcription factor (TF) involving various developmental processes or environmental stresses. Among the explored TF, WRKY gene family was the major type and one of the WRKY genes, MSIR7180_WRKY4, induced under low temperature environment was selected to investigate how the Miscanthus-originated MSIR7180_WRKY4 TF responds when exposed to low temperature in four warm-season turfgrasses (Z. matrella `Semil`, bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and seashore paspalum). The MSIR7180_WRKY4 was expressed higher during low temperature period in Bermudagrass, but the expression was enhanced in St. Augustinegrass. In contrast, the gene in `Semil` cultivar was barely expressed and relatively less expressed, but repressed gradually in seashore paspalum, which seems to allow two turfgrasses stay-green longer in the fall season. The results indicate that bermudagrass and St. Augustinegrass adapt to low temperature quickly, but relative tolerance to low or cold temperature at the molecular level needs to be further investigated at different physiological stages and the corresponding genes systematically.
Seed Treatment and Plug Production of Ornamental Grasses (Gramineae spp.)
Kim, Ki Dong ; Kim, Yoon Joong ; Lee, Jong Min ; Lee, Jeong Ho ; Joo, Young Kyoo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 376~380
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.376
This research was carried out to establish a mass-production method and to develop ornamental Gramineae species as cash crops for famers as three species of ornamental grasses were used for seed treatment and plug production. Germination rates of Arundinella hirta were improved to 52.6% by soaking in 4% NaOCl for 60 min and 49.4% with 4% NaOH for 30 min. Germination rates of Panicum virgatum were 20.3% and 22.4% when treated with 4% NaOCl for 10 min and 2% NaOH for 60min treatment, respectively. Pennisetum alopecuroides showed germination rates higher than 98% with both 4% of NaOCl and NaOH for 60 min. When the same size of trays were used, Pennisetum showed faster plug formation in 21 and 30 days with 162 and 40 cell trays, respectively. Arundinella showed a similar trend with Pannicum in completing plug formation, those took 32, 41, and 44 days with the 162, 72, and 40 cell tray, respectively. Plug production was faster with smaller cells; however, total growing period was longer with larger cells in general.
Effect of Turfgrasses to Prevent Soil Erosion
Ahn, Byung-Goo ; Choi, Joon-Soo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 381~386
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.381
Recent climatic changes by global warming include increased amount and intensity of rainfall. This study was conducted to find out possible roles of turfgrasses to reduce the impact of climatic changes, especially surface soil erosion. Soil erosions by intensive rain were measured after each significant precipitation from the artificially sloped plots of zoysiagrass, cool-season grass mixture of Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass and other typical korean summer crops. Sodded zoysiagrass resulted in minimal annual soil erosion followed by strip-sodded zoysiagrass and cool-season turfgrass mixture while dry-field rice and bean cultivations eroded the surface soils of 5 to 10 MT
and pepper cultivation resulted in 7 to 14 MT
annual loss of surface soil. Annual loss of surface soil from bare land with hand weeding was up to 18 MT
while greatly reduced soil erosion was observed from weed grown treatment.
Response of Systemic Fungicides of Rhizoctonia spp. Causing Rhizoctonia Blight on Turfgrass
Chang, Taehyun ; Lee, Seong Jun ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 387~394
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.387
The Rhizoctonia blight causing by Rhizoctonia spp. is an important disease of turfgrass, requiring fungicide application to maintain acceptable conditions for turfgrass good qualities in the golf course. The experiment was conducted to determine the mean 50% effective concentration inhibiting mycelial growth (
) value of to flutolanil, pyraclostrobine and hexaconazole to Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IB, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IV isolated from Gyeongbuk province of Korea in vitro. Five discriminatory concentrations of each fungicide were used to detect in vitro sensitivity. The mean of
values to three systemic fungicides was the lowest isolate of R. solani AG-1 IB. However, the sensitivity of fungicides to Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IV were higher mean
value of 0.026
of pyraclostrobine and 0.044
of flutolanil. R. cerealis was the lowest sensitivity to hexaconazole which was an average
value of 0.022
. Inhibition of mycelial growth rate (%) by three combine fungicides using the
value of each fungicide was the highest R. solani AG2-2IV. Results of this study were may confirmed in vitro response fungicide of three Rhizoctonia species for control of Rhizoctonia blight in the field.
Effects of Several Herbicides on Control of Creeping Bentgrass in the Kentucky Bluegrass and Its Recovery
Kim, Young-Sun ; Jo, Kap-Jun ; Lee, Hyo-Sun ; Kang, Young-Nam ; Lim, Hye-Jung ; Lee, Kyu-Seong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 395~401
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.395
This study was conducted to evaluate the selective control of creeping bentgrass invaded in Kentucky bluegrass by applying several herbicides and recovery of Kentucky bluegrass by sand injection seeding method. Selective herbicides such as mecoprop, triclopyr-TEA, imazaquin, bentazone and penosulam pyrazosulfuro-ethyl and non-selective herbicides such as glyphosate, paraquat dichloride and glyphsate ammonium oxyflorfen were used. Selective suppression of creeping bentgrass in Kentucky bluegrass was evaluated by turf color, chlorophyll and visual control indexes. Control of creeping bentgrass was most effective with the double dose application of triclopyr-TEA (2 Tri-T) in the selective herbicides and the 1 / 5 dose application of glyphosate ammonium oxyflorfen (1 / 5 GAO) in the non-selective herbicides. Visual control indexes by 2 Tri-T in selective herbicides and 1 / 5 GAOin non-selective herbicides were investigated 6.0 and 7.4, respectively. Treated sites were covered completely in 50 days after seeding Kentucky bluegrass by sand injection method.
Control of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Causing Weedy in Zoysiagrass matrella Merr
Tae, Hyun-Sook ; Kim, Yong-Seon ; Heo, Young Du ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 402~407
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.402
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon.) is one of the most difficult weedy species to control in turfgrass because it`s high tolerant to various environmental and management stresses. This experiment was performed to find the integrated weed management including cultural practices to suppress bermudagrass in Zoysiagrass matrella (L) Merr. As results, two sequential applications of Fluazifop-P-butyl 0.05 ml
+ Triclopyr-TEA 0.5 ml
and Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 0.1 ml
+ Triclopyr-TEA 0.5 ml
applied on 20 days intervals were evaluated the primary option for bermudagrass suppression and turfgrass injury was acceptable in zoysiagrass. In both treatments, turf injury was observed during 30days after the first application and almost recovered at 40days. While Fenoxaprop-Pethyl 0.1 ml
+ Triclopyr-TEA 0.5 ml
were lightly phytotoxic to zoysiagrass in chlorophyll content test, there was no growth inhibition of zoysiagrass. Verticut practice (4 mm depth) just before herbicides application where zoyisagrass is contaminated with bermudagrass was not helpful to reduce turf injury in this experiment. However, alone verticut management was utilized to decrease about 12-14% bermudagrass population. Thus the application of Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 0.1 ml
+ Triclopyr-TEA 0.5 ml
which are permitted for turfgrass after zoysiagrass is perfectly recovered from turf injury by verticut practice should be utilized for bermudagrass reduction in zoysiagrass.
Control Effect on Dollar Spot Disease Caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa under Different Application Rates and Intervals with Two Mixed Fungicides
Chang, Seog-Won ; Jung, Suk-Woo ; Kim, Sehun ; Park, Jong-Hyun ; Lee, Ji-Young ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 408~412
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.408
Dollar spot caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Benn. is a common and economically important turfgrass disease in South Korea. Fungicides mixture (propiconazole 25% + boscalid 47%) treatments, showing synergistic interaction, with three application rates (low: 50.3 ml
and 97.5 g
, intermediate: 67.0 ml
and 130.0 g
, and high: 100.5 ml
and 195.0 g
) and two application intervals (10 and 15 days) were evaluated for control of dollar spot in creeping bentgrass golf course putting green. In both nontreated plots of field A and B, the disease has severed as 48.3 and 60.0% after the pathogen inoculation. Two fungicide mixture treatments showed significantly higher the disease control effect than a single fungicide treatment (propiconazole). Field A which showed more the disease severity but the fungicide still showed acceptable level of the disease efficacy (89.0%), significant differences in control value were not detected among treatments. The results suggest that the lower application rate of two fungicides mixture treatments may reduce the dollar spot disease severity in creeping bentgrass golf course putting green.
Distribution Characteristics of Paddy Weeds in Northern Gyeonggi-do
Oh, Young-Ju ; Hong, Sun-Hee ; Lee, Wook-Jae ; Kim, Chang-Seok ; Lee, In-Yong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 2, issue 4, 2013, Pages 413~420
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2013.2.4.413
The climate change affects the growth and development of weeds as well as the outbreak of weeds. Especially, the occurrences of problematic paddy weeds due to climate change might cause the difficulties in weed control. This study therefore, investigated the current dominance and distribution of paddy weeds. As a result of the study on paddy weeds in northern Gyeonggi-do, there were total of 65 taxonomy groups including 23 family, 41 genus, 57 species, 7 subspecies and 1 variety. Among all the plants, 46 species were annual plants and 16 were perennial plants. Echinochloa crus-galli was the highest in importance analysis and the followings were in order of Ludwigia prostrate and Lemna paucicostata. The similarity of different paddy weeds in different regions observed through TWINSPAN analysis was distinguished by Fimbristylis miliacea, Rotala indica and Cyperus flaccidus. Regional differences shown in CCA analysis using weed species and soil environment revealed that Gimpo-si and Namyangju-si has difference soil and weeds, which are features that distinguished them from other regions. In northern Gyeonggi-do the result of paddy weed research showed the interregional difference not in dominant weeds but in distribution species.