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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Weed & Turfgrass Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Weed Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 4, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Distribution Characteristics of Weeds and Vegetation Types in Cnidium officinale Field
Kim, Duk-Hwan ; Park, Jae-Man ; Kang, Sang-Mo ; Lee, Seok-Min ; Seo, Chang-Woo ; Lee, In-Yong ; Lee, In-jung ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 279~287
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.279
The present research was carried out in order to investigate the occurrence of problematic weed species in Cnidium officinale Makino. Field in South Korea. Total 53 sites of the 3 different regions in S. Korea were investigated from May to October, 2014. In Cnidium officinale fields, the identified weeds were distributed in 35 families and 99 species. Total 5 communities that consist of Commelina communis, Eleocharis kuroguwai, Persicaria vulgaris, Chenopodium album-Acalypha australis, and Galinsoga ciliata dominated the appearance. The weeds occurred in Cnidium officinale fields were divided into three groups in principal component plot analysis (PCA). It was observed that in control weeds plots; 20 plants of Cnidium officinale fresh weight is 739.9 g while the uncontrolled plots have no Cnidium officinale plants. The current investigation could be useful for estimation of future weeds occurrence, weed flora dynamics and establishment of weed control methods in Cnidium officinale fields in Korea.
The Influence of Adjuvants on Herbicide Activity of Streptomyces scopuliridis KR-001
Kim, Jae Deok ; Sin, Hoon Tak ; Kim, Young Sook ; Ko, Young Kwan ; Cho, Nam Kyu ; Hwang, Ki Hwan ; Koo, Suk Jin ; Choi, Jung Sup ; Park, Kee Woong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 288~294
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.288
This study was conducted to investigate efficient adjuvants to increase herbicidal efficacy of metabolites from Streptpmyces scopuliridis KR-001. Commonly used 21 adjuvants mixed with the metabolites were applied to eight weed species (six grass weeds and two broadleaved weeds). Based on the visual evaluation, two adjuvants, LE7 (Polyoxyethylene lauryl ether) and EP4C (Sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate), were selected as most efficient adjuvants to elevate herbicidal efficacy of the metabolites. Higher efficacy in the LE7 and EP4C was obtained when overall spray volume was
. Field study demonstrated that
of metabolites from KR-001 applied with EP4C at concentration of
provided a highly effective post-emergence weed control which was almost equivalent to the glufosinate-ammonium at
. On the basis of these results, combination and multiple application methods could be developed to enhance herbicidal efficacy of metabolites from KR-001.
Weeds on Rice Paddy Field of Jeonnam Western Region
Im, Il-Bin ; Im, Bo-Hyeok ; Park, Jea-Hyeon ; Jang, Jeong-Han ; Im, Min-Hyeok ; Lee, In-Yong ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 295~307
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.295
Surveys of weed species in paddy fields were conducted to identify weed occurrence on July 2013. Total 237 sites of paddy fields in 9 City/Gun, Jeonnam Provinces in Korea were investigated. From the survey, 45 weed species in 18 families were identified and classified to 33 annuals and 15 perennials. Based on the occurrence ratio, the most weed species belonged to Poaceae (9 species) and 8 and 4 weed species belonged to Cyperaceae and Scrophulariaceae, respectively. These 21 weed species in the most four families accounted for 46% of total weed occurrence. The most dominant weed species in Korean paddy fields were Echinochloa spp. (18.5%), followed by Monochoria vaginalis (12.3%), Lemna perpusilla (8.2), Eleocharis kuroguwai (5.2%) and Scirpus juncoides (5.2%). The most dominant weed species in machine transplanting paddy fields were Echinochloa spp. (14%), followed by Monochoria vaginalis (12%) and in water seeded rice paddy fields were Echinochloa spp. (25%), followed by Monochoria vaginalis (11%). This information could be useful for estimation of future weed occurrence, weed population dynamics and establishment of weed control methods in paddy fields.
Fluorescence Assay for High Efficient Mass Screening of the Herbicides Inducing Rapid Membrane Peroxidation
Kim, Jin-Seog ; Kwon, Ok Kyung ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 308~314
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.308
This study was conducted to establish a fluorescence assay system for high efficient mass screening of the herbicides causing rapid membrane peroxidation, based on the fact that peroxide in cellular leakage could be fluorometrically determined through the fuorescent compounds formed after reacting with homovanillic acid (HVA) and peroxidase (HRP). The assay procesure established in this study was as follows. Only single disc (4 mm diameter) excised from cucumber cotyledon is placed on the well containing test solution (
) with 96-well microplate. The plate is shaking-incubated for 8 h under light condition. Then after removing the cucumber disc, HVA and HRP are supplied in the medium buffer and incubated for 5 min at room temperature. Fluorescence values are determined at Ex 320 nm/Ex 425 nm. The higher fluorescence values are obtained in the treatment of chemical having higher herbicidal activity. Using this assay with 96-well microplates, a large number of herbicides inducing rapid membrane peroxidation seemed to be screened more efficiently than spectrophotometric microtiter assay reported previously.
Effects of Soil Moisture Condition and Shading on Growth of Invasive Plant Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.)
Oh, Dagyeom ; Shim, Doobo ; Song, Sonhwa ; Oh, Jihyun ; Hong, Sunhee ; Shim, Sangin ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.315
Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus) is an annual invasive plant species originated from North America. This species grows by twining around tree trunks, and blocks other plants from photosynthesis. Thus, it has caused the destruction of the ecosystem and biological diversity by threatening native plants. This study was performed to find out the effect of different soil water content (20%, 13%, 10%, 3%) and various shading degrees (0%, 60%, 80%) on the growth and photosynthesis-related activity of burcucumber. In the responses of burcucumber to soil water content, plant height (PH), leaf length (LL), leaf width (LW) and photosynthetic efficiency (PE) were lower at 20% water content than 10% reflecting that burcucumber plant grow well in the less dry soil and shows poor growth under wet soil condition. In shading experiment, PH, LL, LW and PE were lower at 80% than 60% shading and in general, the growth characteristics were lowered as the shading intensity increased. The improved growth of burcucumber under highly or moderately shaded condition implies that the plant can grow well without growth retardation and can be adapted to shading condition with other tall plant species including tree. Further study on the combination effects of above factors should be conducted in future for effective ecological control of burcucumber.
Evaluation of Herbicidal Potential of Essential Oils and their Components under In vitro and Greenhouse Experiments
Choi, Hae-Jin ; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy ; Cho, Nam-Gyu ; Hwang, Ki-Hwan ; Koo, Suk-Jin ; Kim, Songmun ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 321~329
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.321
The present study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of essential oils. For this purpose, 18 essential oil samples extracted from Korean plants and 64 commercial essential oils were screened for their phytotoxic potential against the seedling growth of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed). Among the 82 samples, 11 commercial oils (cinnamon, citronella, clove, cumin seed, geranium, jasmine, lemongrass, palmarosa, pimento, rose otto and spearmint) strongly inhibited the seedling growth with
. Major components from these effective essential oils were identified by solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). GC-MS analyses revealed that the effective samples mainly consist of benzyl benzoate, carvone, citral, citronellol, eugenol, geraniol, D-limonene and terpinene. Subsequently, bioactivity of these individual components was evaluated against the seedling growth of B. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli and Aeschynomene indica. The components from different chemical groups exhibited different potency in inhibiting the seedling growth with varied
values ranged from
. In the greenhouse experiment, citral and geraniol completely suppressed the growth of all the tested 10 plants at
. In conclusion, the individual essential oil components geraniol and citral could be used as natural herbicides for weed management.
Comparison of Germination Power, Germination Speed, and Germination Peak Time among Five Festuca Species
Kim, Kyoung-Nam ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 330~337
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.330
Research was conducted to investigate germination and establishment characteristics of five fescue species. Alternative conditions of 8-hr light at
and 16-hr dark at
were applied. Significant differences were observed in seed germination power, germination speed and germination peak time. Germination power was 62.25% in CRF 'Audubon' to 96.75% in TF 'Olympic Gold'. It was greater with TF over FF, being TF > HF > SF > CF > CRF. Germination speed, measured as days to seed germination of 50% through 80%, was fastest with TF, medium with CF and HF, and slowest with CRF and SF, being TF > CF, HF > CRF, SF. Germination peak time was much faster with TF over FF. It ranged from 0.94 to 1.47 days with TF. But it varied with 2.80 to 12.36 days among FF species. The peak time was longer in order of HF, SF < CF < CRF. Considering germination power, germination speed and germination peak time, TF 'Arid III' was the best cultivar under alternative conditions, while CRF 'Audubon' the poorest. Overall establishment characteristics among Festuca species were even better with TF over FF in order of TF > CF, HF > SF > CRF.
Performance Assessment of Three Turfgrass Species, in Three Different Soil Types, and their Responses to Water Deficit in Reinforced Cells, Growing in the Urban Environment
Ow, L.F ; Ghosh, S. ; Chin, S.W. ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 338~347
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.338
Reinforcement cells are used to aid grass growth and taken together, this serves to extend greenery beyond the conventional spaces of lawns, tree pits, gardens, and parks, and is advantageous to urban cities since space for greening is often limited. Drought has variable effects on plant life and the resilience of turf to drought resistance also varies with species. Changes in photosynthetic ability were more pronounced for media rather than grass species. The media of sand without organic matter was found to be least suited for drought resistance. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and digital image analysis (DIA) data were generally in favour of Zoysia species as oppose to A. compressus. In A. compressus, selective traits such as, a more extensive root system and lower specific leaf area (SLA) were not an underlying factor that assisted this grass with enhanced drought resistance. Generally, WUE was found to be strongly related to plant characterises such as overall biomass, photosynthetic features as well as the lushness indexes, and specific leaf area. This study found a strong relationship between WUE and a suite of plant characteristics. These traits should serve as useful selection criteria for species with the ability to resist water stress.
Physiological Characteristics of Actinomycetes Isolated from Turfgrass Rhizosphere
Lee, Jung Han ; Min, Gyu Young ; Shim, Gyu Yul ; Jeon, Chang Wook ; Kwak, Youn-Sig ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 348~359
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.348
Total 443 isolates of actinomycetes were isolated from turfgrass rhizosphere as potential biological control agents. The two isolates (S11 and S4) showed highest cellulase activity with compared to the other isolates that exhibited a clear zone of 1.2 mm around the colony on cellulose agar medium. S12 strain appeared the most active chitin degrading, which exhibited a 1.2 mm of clear zone. The highest proteolytic activity on skim milk agar was which exhibited a 7.5 mm of clear zone by S2 strain. S1 strain from the soli showed siderophore production ability, which exhibited a 0.6 mm of large clear zone on chrome azurol S agar. The antifungal activity of the volatile compound producing by 4 selected actinomycetes was investigated that inhibition rate against Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. Growth inhibition effect of S8 isolate against S. homoeocarpa was appeared to 94.8%, S2 to 76.9%, S5 to 46.1% and S12 to 43.5%. The significant inhibition effects on mycelial growth of S. homoeocarpa were shown on media with four strains. The inhibition effect was the highest with S8 strain treatment at 94.8%.
Evaluating Pre-silicon Treatment to Alleviate Drought Stress and Increases Antioxidative Activity in Zoysia japonica
Bae, Eun-Ji ; Han, Jeong-Ji ; Choi, Su-Min ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Yong-Bae ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 360~367
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.360
This study was performed to determine the effects of silicon on zoysiagrass after the application of drought stress. The daily amount of water or scilicon solution was 150 ml per a pot. For 14 days, plants were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 mM silicon (Si) and with distilled water for control and the drought only-treatment. Afterward, the plants in Si and drought treatment were exposed to a 21-day under drought stress condition but the plants in control received water. The results indicated that the growth and the moisture and chlorophyll contents decreased in the drought only-treatment and 0.1 mM Si compared to the control. However, 1.0 mM Si showed an increase in the growth with a significant increase of water and chlorophyll contents. The MDA and
concentrations and electrolyte leakage decreased, while the radical scavenging capacity increased in 1.0 mM Si. 1.0 mM Si showed little to no differences in the growth and no differences in water and chlorophyll contents, electrolyte leakage, MDA and
concentrations and antioxidant capacity compared to the control. These results suggested that application of silicon is useful for drought tolerance improvement of zoysiagrass under drought that is occurring in turf fields.
Seasonal Earthworm Casting Activity on Korean Golf Courses
Shin, Chong Chang ; Kim, Jong Kyung ; Hong, Yong ; Kim, Young Sub ; Kim, Jin Ho ; Park, Dae Sup ; Lee, Dong Woon ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 368~375
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.368
Earthworm cast occurred in surface of turfgrass in golf courses which affect turfgrass maintenance and golf play. In this study several survey of seasonal fluctuation of earthworm cast in different golf courses (Anseong, Gapyeong, Gunpo and Yongin in Gyeonggi province, and Geumjeong in Busan) was done. A number of earthworm, soil temperature and moisture of detection site of earthworm cast in each golf course were also done. Cast occurred in different golf courses are found mostly from April to November on turf surface and the cast number varied in different month as well as in golf courses. In the same golf courses, a number of detected cast was difference from individual sites. A number of cast and earthworm was correlated. Also, in higher soil moisture showed the higher cast density in different golf courses. Soil temperature and moisture of detecting cast ranging from
and 4.9 to 44.1%, respectively. In case of cast, soil temperature level lies in between
where the highest soil moisture was 25%.
Toothpick-Aided Detection of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa in the Turfgrass Leaf Canopy, Thatch, and Soil in Relation to Dollar Spot Infection Centers
Lee, Jung Han ; Min, Gyu Young ; Shim, Gyu Yul ; Kim, Dong Soo ; Sang, Hyunkyu ; Jung, Geunhwa ; Kwak, Youn-Sig ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 376~382
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.376
Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, is the major disease in cool-season turfgrasses. Understanding the distribution of this pathogen in soil and thatch is important to developing disease control strategies. In this study, toothpicks were used to detect S. homoeocarpa in the turfgrass canopy, thatch, and soil at different distances from dollar spot infection centers. The effect of penetrant and contact fungicide applications with different water volumes on distribution of S. homoeocarpa was also investigated. S. homoeocarpa was detected in 100% of samples taken from the leaf canopy, 83.3% in thatch area, and 0% in the soil from within the infection center. S. homoeocarpa was isolated in 100% of samples taken from the edge of the infection center, but was only detected in 13% of the samples taken at 1.5 cm away from the infection center edge. S. homoeocarpa was isolated at a higher frequency in the propiconazole treated plots than those treated with chlorothalonil and was not detected in leaf canopy samples when either fungicides was applied with 6.78 L of water. In conclusion, the toothpick-aided detection technique has improved our understanding of S. homoeocarpa epidemiology and could be used as a diagnostic tool to detect for fungicide resistance on golf courses.
Late Fall Nitrogen Application and Turf Cover for Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) Spring Green-up
Oh, Jun-Suk ; Lee, Yu-Jin ; Lee, Sang-Kook ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 383~389
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.383
The use of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) in the transition zone is limited because of a lack of cold hardiness although zoysiagrass has many advantages compared to other warm-season and cool-season grasses. Late-fall N fertilization is often applied for darker green color of turfgrass in early spring and more extensive root growth without rapid top growth. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of late fall N application and turf cover for zoysiagrass spring green-up. Clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film was used for turf cover. The amount of N applied were 5 and
for the low and high N rate treatments, respectively. Covered zoysiagrass had greater turfgrass color and quality in early spring than non-covered zoysiagrass. The high N rate had 0.6 to 2.3 greater turfgrass quality than the low N rate on 7 of 9 rating dates. Slow-release N as late fall fertilization is more effective for turfgrass color and quality than fast-release N in spring. Turf cover could reduce the period of yellow zoysiagrass, and the earlier time of spring green-up could be advanced by increasing turfgrass quality and growth of zoysiagrass.
Changes of Growth and Quality of Creeping Bentgrass by Greywater Irrigation
Lee, Jong-Jin ; Kim, Young-Sun ; Lee, Jae-Pil ; Yoon, Min-Ho ; Lee, Geung-Joo ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 390~396
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.390
Water shortage is becoming a serious problem of turfgrass management on sand green. Many superintendents in golf course in Korea have interested in use of irrigation of recycled water for turfgrass water management. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of greywater as an irrigation source on the growth and quality of creeping bentgrass green. Turfgrass was irrigated with tap water (TW) and greywater (GW), under with or without compound fertilizer application (nonfertilizer + TW, N-TW; non-fertilizer + GW, N-GW; fertilizer + TW, F-TW; fertilizer + GW, F-GW). The chemical properties of the green sand soil were not changed by irrigation. Turf color index, chlorophyll index, root length, clipping yield and nutrient uptake of GW treatment were similar to TW treatment. The growth and quality of turfgrass were more likely related with the fertilizer application than irrigation source or quality. These results indicated that GW could be used as alternative irrigation source on the sand greens of golf courses.
Growth Response of Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Rate
Bae, Eun-Ji ; Han, Jeong-Ji ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Yong-Bae ; Choi, Su-Min ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 397~404
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.397
This study was conducted to find out the optimum nitrogen fertilization for production of good quality and high yield zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), the changes in chemical properties of soil in pot and field experiments treated with different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. In pot experiment, the fresh and dry weights of shoots and stolons and the number of shoots increased as nitrogen levels increased, and showed no significant between 24 and
. In field experiment, the shoot length, fresh and dry weights of shoots, roots and stolons, the number of shoots and total stolons length linearly increased as affected by increased nitrogen application, and were not significantly different between 24 and
. In both experiments, pH and exchangeable cations (
) in soil decreased as the rate of nitrogen application increased. As a results, chemical properties of soil were more deteriorated in the plots of higher nitrogen fertilizer rate. Thus, these results demonstrated that the nitrogen fertilizer rate for maximum growth of zoysiagrass was
in consideration of growth and soil condition.
Present State of Turf Management of School Playgrounds in Gyeonggi Province of Korea
Han, Sang Wook ; Soh, Ho Seob ; Won, Seon Yi ; Ju, Young Cheoul ;
Weed & Turfgrass Science, volume 4, issue 4, 2015, Pages 405~412
DOI : 10.5660/WTS.2015.4.4.405
Forty schools having natural turf playgrounds were investigated by on-spot investigation and oral interviews with relevant school officials to find out basic information on turfgrass management practices of school playgrounds in Gyeonggi province. Average area of playground was
per school and
per student. Ninety five percent of turf playgrounds were managed by school staff and ninety percent of schools spent less than 5 million won per year for turf management. The difficulties in turfgrass management were considered as a major challenge for the schools, followed by turfgrass management cost. Among the management practices, school officials pointed out weed management as the most difficult work, followed by irrigation. The average number of fertilization and mowing was 2 and 6 times per year, respectively. About the half of playgrounds were irrigated only when there was wilting symptom. Zoysiagrass was the most popular choice for the school playgrounds and only three school playgrounds were established with pop-up irrigation system. Fourteen school playgrounds had good turf quality but the rest of school playgrounds had inadequate turf quality requiring minor or full renovation.