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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean earth science society
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Earth Science Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - 00 1999
Volume 20, Issue 5 - 00 1999
Volume 20, Issue 4 - 00 1999
Volume 20, Issue 3 - 00 1999
Volume 20, Issue 2 - 00 1999
Volume 20, Issue 1 - 00 1999
Selecting the target year
Development and Application of a Rock-forming Mineral Experimental Kit
Kim, Jung-Uk ; Lee, Yun-Jong ; Im, Seong-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 445~445
The purpose of this study is to develop the experimental kit of minerals, to applicate it to the learning activity and to discuss its result. It is investigated from the five middle schools of the questionaires that the factors controlling the minerals learning are composed of interest, hands-on experiment, memorizings, and difficulties and complexities. The practice items currently suggest that the interesting pupils on the minerals are 45.8 percent, whereas the no interesting pupils are 54.2 percent. It is thought that 70 percent of the teachers are suffer from the short of teaching materials and have hard loadings to identify the minerals by oneself. A developed experimental kit is composed of plutonic rock grains, polished rock slabs, rock masses, mineral identification table, hardness set, and magnet. It is very highly positive that the fitness test and the utilities of a kit and the pupils attitude received the scores in the range from 4.00 to 5.00 in the likert scale. An interest of the experimental group is 70.1 percent that is higher value than that of the comparative group. It is thought that such interest is increasing in the experimental group is due to hands-on experiment examining the minerals by hands. Therefore it is suggested that the rock-forming mineral experimental kit plays a positive role to improve the pupils interest in the experimental activities.
University Students' Judgements and Thoughts about the Traditional View on Lunar Occultation
O, Pil-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 454~454
We have investigated university students' judgements and thoughts about the traditional view on lunar occultation. Data was obtained through a questionnaire survey, group discussions and students' essays. The data from 98 students were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. While 16 students agreed and 31 students disagreed to the traditional interpretation of lunar occultation, 51 students did not make any decisions. Students' views of nature and views of science were major reasons for their judgements. Especially, a lot of students were fixed with the traditional view of nature. It seemed that students' personal experiences, social experiences, scientific knowledge, and religion exerted an influence upon their views. Most students thought that if a certain knowledge is scientifically supported by observations and experiments, then the knowledge is trustworthy. However they believed that the traditional knowledge system in Korea had its own value. This study should be expanded more to various astronomical events and different groups, which could contribute to multicultural science education.
Fusulinid Phylogeny and Biostratigrapy of the Late Paleozoic Strata in the Bamchi-Mitan Area, Kangweon-do, Korea
Lee, Chang-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 463~463
Fusulinid phylogeny and biostratigraphy of the Late Paleozoic strata are performed in the Bamchi area of Yeongweol-gun and the Mitan area of Pyeongchang-gun, Kangweon-do, Korea. 20 species belonging to 14 genera of the Moscovian and Sakmarian fusulinids are identified, and four fusulind zones; Eostaffella-Pseudostaffella, Profusulinella. Neostaffella, and Schwagerina-Pseudofusulina zones are established from the Late Paleozoic strata of the study area. The Enstaffella-Pseudostaffella Zone is correlated with the upper Bashkirian Series, Profusulinella Zone with the lower Moscovian Series, Neostaffella Zone with the upper Moscovian Series, Schwagerina-Pseudofusulina Zone with the Asselian and the lower Sakmarian Series. Three phylogenetic lines of the fusulinacean genera are established on the basis of the form and internal structures of the typical fusulinids: Eostaffella-Pseuodstaffella-Neostaffella line, Akiyoshiella-Fusulina-Pseudofusulina (Quaslfusulina) line, Pseudowedekindellina-Profursulinella (Taitzehoella)-Beedeina-Schwagerina line.
Fusulinacean Biostratigraphy and Phylogeny from the Yobong Limestone near the Daerim Coalmine-Jeopsan Area, Yeongweol-gun, Korea
Lee, Chang-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 469~469
21 species belonging to 9 genera of the Carboniferous fusulinids collected from the Yobong limestone are analyzed for the biostratigraphic zonation and the fusulinacean phylogeny in the Daerim coalmine-Jeopsan area, Yeongweol, Korea. Based on these materials, two fusulinacean biostratigraphic zones are established: Eostaffella-Pseudustaffella Zone and Profusulinella Zone which are correlated with the Bashkirian and Moscovian Series. Three phylogenetic lines of the fusulinacean genera are established on the basis of variation of the form and internal structures of the typical fusulinids: Millerella-Eostaffella-Pseudostaffella line, Pseudowedekindellina line, and Aljutovella-Pseudofusulinella-Taitzehoella line. The phylogenetic lines will be useful to the fusulinacean biostratigraphic correlation of the lower-middle Carboniferous strata in the Eurasia.
Depositional Processes in Transitional Zone Between Coast and Offshore area off the Tae-an Peninsula
O, Jae-Gyeong ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 476~476
Sedimentological characteristics of 38 surface sediments and 4 core sediments were analyzed to reveal the depositional processes in transitional zone between coast and offshore area off the Tae-an Peninsula, mid-western part of Korea, which is characterized by macrotidal regimes. Surface sediments were classified into five groups; gravelly sandy material eroded by strong tidal current and wave action in the tidal channel, sand transported from the offshore, muddy sand distributed parallel to tidal current, sandy mud distributed in the central part, and mud distributed in Chunsu Bay. Gravelly sandy material, muddy sand, and sandy mud are poorly sorted and positively skewed due to the mixture of coarse sand with fine materials. Sand as palimpsest sediment is relatively well sorted, probably resulting from continuous tidal effect and active movements of sandwaves in the offshore. According to the log-probability curve, gravelly sandy material were transported in traction. The sandy sediments were transported in saltation. The transportation of muddy sandy sediments ocurred dominantly by saltation. The sandy muddy sediments were transported in suspension. Bioturbation is common in core sediments. Despite of bioturbation, laminations of core sediments in the St. L1-2 and L5-1 represent tidal environments. Core sediments consist of mud and sand showing coarsening upward in the northern and southern parts, implying that the hydraulic regime has been getting stronger with due to the sea level transgression. In the central part, sediments show a fining upward trend indicating deposition of fine-grained sediments transported in suspension.
Distribution of the Surface Sediments and Transport Pattern of Suspended matters during Winter Season in Tando Bay, the Southwestern Coast of Korea
Ryu, Sang-Ok ; Yu, Hwan-Su ; Kim, Ju-Yong ; Lee, In-Gon ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 486~486
To consider the depositional environments and sedimentation of Tando Bay, southwestern coast of Korea, studies on surface sediments, direction and velocity of tidal current and characters of suspended matters were carried out. Surface sediments in the bay are classified into muddy sandy gravel, gravelly muddy sand, gravelly sandy mud and mud facies based on distribution and texture of sediments. Coarse sediments involving cobble and pebble deposited in the bay-mouth are probably relict sediments formed in fluvial environments at that time which kept a low stand sea level B.P 7,000∼8,000 years. Sandy sediments derived from weathered granitic gneisses and gneissose granites around the coastal area of the Tando Bay, were supplied by coastal erosion associated with hydrodynamic condition, sea level uprise and storm. In addition, muddy sediments widely distributed on the intertidal flat around bay-mouth, are interpreted as suspended matter transported from several rivers, streams, and seafloor of shelf in origin. In winter season, suspended matter contents are high in western bay-mouth than southern bay-mouth, bottom water than surface water. On the other hand, residual suspended matter flux is high in southern bay-mouth than western bay-mouth, surface water than bottom water. In addition, it is high in flood current but low in ebb current, so influxed into the inner part of the bay. Accordingly, Tando Bay is interpreted deposition-dominated environments, and residual suspended matter deposit on the mud tidal flat during winter season.
The Pencil Structures of Cretaceous Sedimentary Rocks in the Northern Part of the Eumseong Basin, Korea
Jeong, Sang-Won ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 497~497
The pencil structures are developed in the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the northern part of the Eumseong Basin. Intersections of two sets of fractures which their long axes parallel to the bedding and weakly developed cleavage produced the pencil structures. Pencil structures show variations in length and width depending on the grain size and rock composition. Their shape factor ratios (I/w) are a direct measure in the field and varies in wide range. Shape factor ratio in the western part of the area is relatively higher than those in other areas. It indicates that development of pencil structures in the western part of the area has more affected by folding.
Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Cretaceous Igneous Rocks in the Mogpo Area
Kim, Yong-Jun ; Lee, Chang-Sin ; Kim, Hui-Nam ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 505~505
Igneous rocks of Mogpo area composed of mainly Cretaceous volcanic and granitic rocks, especially volcanic rocks included with some glassy rock. The glassy rock corresponded to pitchstone with waxy and resinous luster because of absorbed water from neighboring hydrous rock formations. The pitchstone occur as dike in Gajido, Momilhang and Gohado of Mogpo area, and as small stock in Geumdangdo area. The Cretaceous igneous rocks plot on trend of calc-alkaline and corresponded to sub-alkalic rock series, but pitchstone show different trend from these igneous rocks, and are a series of differentiated products from cogenetic magma. In minor elements, igneous activity of Mogpo area start from volcanic activity, and continued on intrusive rocks at end of the Cretaceous. Pitchstone with relatively high differentiation intrued into hydrous rock formation at early Tertiary (Eocene). In chondrite normalized REE pattern, REE pattern are similar to micrographic granite-pitchstone and rhyolite-tuff, respectively. The former enriched than the latter in LREE, and have high Eu(-) anomaly. Parental magma type of these igneous rocks correspond to mantle fractionation+Syn-collision(volcanics). VAG field in Pearce diagram, and NCA field in volcanic arc maturity. Isotopic age of igneous rocks in the Mogpo area are 82.8∼86.4 Ma, 61.6∼81.4 Ma, 71.8∼75 Ma and 81.2∼86.9 Ma and 41.4∼42.3 Ma in tuff, rhyolite, porphyries and pink feldspar granite, respectively. These isotopic and geochemical data suggest the Cretaceous igneous rocks of Mogpo area were intruded and emplaced at two orogeny associated with igneous activity (Bulkuksa and Youngil disturbance). Pitchstone intrued into hydrous rock formations at late Eocene (in MogPo area) and late Cretaceous (in Geumdangdo area). and concluded pitchstones of both area have similar geological environment that rhyolitic magma intruded into neighbouring hydrous rock formation.
Temporal and Spatial Variability of TOMS Reflectivity and its Correlation with Lower Tropospheric Thermal Condition
Yu, Jeong-Mun ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 520~520
In order to examine temporal and spatial variability of monthly mean TOMS reflectivity data and its correlation with lower tropospheric thermal condition, seasonal climatology derived from 14 years (1979∼92) of the data over the globe and temporal correlations between monthly reflectivity, MSU Ch1 brightness temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) have been investigated. Then an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis has been performed on the data and its anomaly. Correlations between reflectivity and the Ch1 temperature which reflects lower tropospheric thermal and hydrometeor(i.e., cloud and precipitation) condition are generally negative over the land, but positive over the ocean due to the difference of Ch1 microwave emissivity between the both areas. Reflectivity correlates negatively with SST over the middle and high latitude oceans. In particular, because of high correlations (r≥0.6) over the tropical ocean it represents well the characteristics which the Ch1 and SST relate with the thermal and hydrometeor condition. In the EOF analysis of monthly mean reflectivity, the first mode which shows annual cycle is predominant (≥21%) over the Pacific, Atlantic and near the Korean peninsula. In the anomaly analysis, the first mode over the above areas except Atlantic indicates remarkably the features, associated with El Nino events. The variability of reflectivity was the largest during the 1982-83 event, and larger during 1991∼92 than during the 1986∼87. During El Nino the reflectivity over the tropical eastern Pacific has substantially increased together with SST and convective activity. The reflectivity near the Korean peninsula which has somewhat weak positive correlation with that over the above Pacific increases in winter of El Nino. This study suggests that TOMS reflectivity data can be used as an indicator of both lower tropospheric thermal state and convective cloud variability.
A Review of the Holocene Major Eruption of Mt. Paektu Volcano
So, Won-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 534~534
A Holocene volcanic ash layer comprising abundant glass shards occurs as near-surface in north Tohoku and in Hokkaido, Japan. This layer has been given a name as "Baekdusan-Tomakomai (B-Tm)". Detailed petrographic observation and accurate determinations of the refractive indices of the glass and several phenocrysts phases in the tephra, together with extensive field work, have led to the conclusion that the B-Tm is the product of a single major eruption of the Cheonji caldera, Mt. Paektu and the event that exalts the tephra is one of the greatest volcanism in the world. The ash is from trachydacitic to trachyrhyolitic in composition and contains abundant glass shards of bubble-walled and pumice type and alkali-feldspar as phenocrysts. The refractive index of the glass ranges from n=1.511 to 1.522, and that of the alkali-feldspar, 1.523. The thickness contour of the ash layer and its grain-size distribution clearly indicate that this widespread tephra represents ejecta from the Cheonji caldera, Mt. Paektu, which is one of the largest calderas in Korea with an approximate diameter of 4.0 ㎞. Various carbon dates of the ash have been obtained so far, ranging rather widely from ca. 850±20 y.B.P. to ca. 1410±80 y.B.P. Besides, the stratigraphical relationships with human remains of North Japan give a probable age of the ash between A.D.915 and A.D. 1334. This marker tephra is thus extremely significant for the correlation of medieval archaeological sites in Northeast Asia and for the restoration of natural changes in thin area.
The Petrochemistry on Intermediated-Basic Plutons at the Otanri Area of Kyeonggi Massif, Korea
Park, Yeong-Seok ; Kim, Jeong-Bin ; Park, Gi-Hwa ; Jiangfeng Chen ; Kim, Jin ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 544~544
The Otanri area in the central part of Kyeonggi massif, Korea, is composed of Precambrian gneisses that have been intruded by Jurassic to Cretaceous, felsic to mafic batholiths and stocks. U-Pb zircon ages for plutons in the Kyeonggi massif reported unpublished data. These ages are: Gongju migmatitic gneiss- 2413±21 Ma, Seongnam-Koyang migmatitic gneiss- 2417±39 Ma, Banded gneiss- 2163 Ma, Otanri gabbro- 166±1 Ma, Porphyritic granite- 165±2 Ma. On the basis of normative Qz-Or-Pl and Or-Ab-An diagrams, Gabbro plots monzogabbro region while the diorite plots in a diorite to a quartz diorite field. On the A-M-F diagram, the gabbro and diorite are a calc alkali rock series. The gabbro has high lithopile, HFS, zinc and low ferromagnesian and REE. On the the other hand diorite has high ferromagnesian, copper, REE and low lithophile. For the gabbro-diorite complex the REE characteristics of ΣREE, Eu/Sm and
are 104.76 ppm to 139.59 ppm, 0.31 to 0.29 and 8.52 and 5.65 with no Eu(-) anomaly and thus indicate alkali basalt to andesitic composition. On silica
diagram the plutons plot in subalkaline field. But on the alkalinity-silica diagram all plutonic rocks plot in the calc alkaline region. Based on the silica vs. trace element diagrams gabbro-diorite complex could have formed near volcanic arc or plate collision environments.
The Velocity Structure of the Upper Crust Based on the Seismic Observations around the Central Part of South Korea
Jeong, Tae-Ung ; Gyeong, Jae-Bok ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 556~556
The compressional-wave velocity structure of the upper crust of the central part of South Korea was modeled from seismic observation data recorded on the network around Chung-cheong area in 1998 and 1999. We inverted the travel time data of the 19 microearthquakes by the method of Mukhopadhyay et al. incorporating an inversion technique of a priori information. The resultant model of the upper crust is homogeneous down to a depth of 20 ㎞ with a velocity of 6.25 ㎞/s, which is about 0.2 ㎞/s higher than that of the Yang-san Fault area in the Kyung-sang Basin, 6.07 ㎞/s, which is deduced from fifteen earthquakes. This velocity difference reflects the geologically stable structure of the central part of Korea in comparison with the southeastern part of Korea.
Distribution Characteristics of Major Water Quality Parameters in the Kyung Gi Bay, Yellow Sea
Kim, Na-Yeong ; Kim, Gi-Hyeon ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 20, issue 5, 1999, Pages 564~564
To investigate the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of water quality parameters at the semi-enclosed Kyung Gi Bay area in the western coast of the Korean Peninsula, we analyzed the water quality data from 61 articles and reports published during the periods of 1985 through 1998. To facilitate the data interpretation, we first grouped these data on the basis of salinity and water depth and then analysed each group statistically. The analysis of spatial distribution patterns showed distinctive horizontal differences between the inner and outer regions for nitrogen-nutrients and silicate and higher concentrations in the bottom water than the surface water for suspended solids and chlorophyll-a. The analysis of seasonal distribution patterns for temperature showed that the water in the low-salinity region is more readily heated and cooled compared to that in higher-salinity region. Salinity in the low-salinity region exhibited larger variation than that in higher-salinity region because of the influence of the freshwater discharging from adjacent land. Suspended solids affected by physical forcings (such as winds) showed large seasonal variation. Chlorophyll-a concentration was high in winter in the low-salinity region, while high in spring in the high-salinity region. Chemical oxygen demand and most nutrients were high in winter. To evaluate longterm variability, linear regression analysis was applied to 69 groups based on salinity and water depth. Thirty-two groups exhibited distinguished temporal trend over the period between 1985 and 1998. Chemical parameters including dissolved oxygen and nitrogen-nutrients showed an increasing trend, while some other parameters such as suspended solids showed a decreasing trend. The overall results of our analyses using the field data in the Kyung Gi Bay showed that the distributions of the water quality parameter affected by various natural and anthropogenic processes are characterized by distinctive spatial and temporal patterns.