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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean earth science society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Earth Science Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Dec 2002
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Oct 2002
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Aug 2002
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Jun 2002
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Apr 2002
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Feb 2002
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jan 2002
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
Landsat TM Based Land-cover Analysis of Cholwon (South Korea) and Wonsan (North Korea)
Song, Moo-Young ; Park, Jong-Oh ; Shin, Kwang-Soo ; Yu, Young-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 1~14
The land-cover of two regions of South and North Korea included in one Landsat TM scene was investigated by comparing different seasons and different band data over the multiple land-cover types. The relationships between the intensities of two bands in the 2-D plot are mainly linear in band2 versus band1 and band3 versus band1, polygonal sporadic in band5 versus band1 and band7 versus band1, and almost tri-polarized in band4 versus band3. The 2-D plot of band4/band3 shows the best capability to discriminate different main land-cover such as water, vegetation and dry soil. Some discriminations are not clear between city and dry field, or mountain and plain field in the scene of September. The digital number data of band4 from vegetated zones show stronger reflectance in September rather than April, while other band values tend to be lager in April than in September over each land-cover. NDVI presents high value in both regions in September. However the image of Wonsan area in April suggests weak vigor of vegetation in comparison with Cholwon area. Band ratios are very effective in eliminating the influence of the complex topography. The proper pairing of the band ratio improved the discrimination capability of the land-cover; band5/band2 for dry soil, band4/band3 for vegetation and band1/band7 for the water. The RGB combination of the three band ratio pairs showed the best results in the discrimination of the land-cover of Wonsan, Cholwon and even the Demilitarized Zone.
Bayesian Inversion of Gravity and Resistivity Data: Detection of Lava Tunnel
Kwon, Byung-Doo ; Oh, Seok-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 15~29
Bayesian inversion for gravity and resistivity data was performed to investigate the cavity structure appearing as a lava tunnel in Cheju Island, Korea. Dipole-dipole DC resistivity data were proposed for a prior information of gravity data and we applied the geostatistical techniques such as kriging and simulation algorithms to provide a prior model information and covariance matrix in data domain. The inverted resistivity section gave the indicator variogram modeling for each threshold and it provided spatial uncertainty to give a prior PDF by sequential indicator simulations. We also presented a more objective way to make data covariance matrix that reflects the state of the achieved field data by geostatistical technique, cross-validation. Then Gaussian approximation was adopted for the inference of characteristics of the marginal distributions of model parameters and Broyden update for simple calculation of sensitivity matrix and SVD was applied. Generally cavity investigation by geophysical exploration is difficult and success is hard to be achieved. However, this exotic multiple interpretations showed remarkable improvement and stability for interpretation when compared to data-fit alone results, and suggested the possibility of diverse application for Bayesian inversion in geophysical inverse problem.
A New Species of Leptostrobus from the Upper Triassic Amisan Formation of the Nampo Group in Korea
Kim, Jong-Heon ; Kim, Hee-Soo ; Lee, Bong-Jae ; Kim, Jung-Min ; Lee, Hee-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 30~37
Leptostrobus myeongamensis sp. nov. is newly described from the well-preserved but broken material occurring in the Upper Triassic Amisan Formation of the Nampo Group in Korea. This species is characterized by its lateral appendages of cone axis, each consisting of a rounded capsule and small scale leaf, and by its cone base covered with small scale leaves, the same size as in cone axis. This species is the first record from the Mesozoic strata in Korea.
Petrology of Spinel lherzolite from South Korea: Implication for P/T Estimate
Lee, Han-Yeang ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 38~51
Mantle xenoliths in alkali basalt at Boun, the Gansung area and Baegryung Island in South Korea are spinel lherzolites composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel. Minerals show homogeneous compositions. Olivine compositions have Fo
, low CaO (0.03 to 0.12 wt%), and NiO of 0.34 to 0.40 wt%; the orthopyroxene is enstatite with En
of 4 to 5 wt%; the clinopyroxene is diopside with En
of 7.42 to 7.64 wt% from Boun and 4.70 to 4.91 wt% from Baegryung. Spinel chemistry shows a distinct negative trend, with increaeing Al corresponding with decreasing Cr, and Mg
(100Mg/Mg+Fe) and Cr
(100Cr/Cr+Al) of 75.1 to 81.9 and 8.5 to 12.6, respectively. The equilibrium temperatures of these xenoliths, taken as the average obtained from those of Mercier (1980) and Sachtleben and Seck (1981), lie between 970 and 1020
C, and equilibrium pressures derived from Mercier (1980) fall within the range of 12 to 19 kbar (i.e., 42 to 63 km). These temperatures and pressures are reinforced by considerations of the Al-isopleths in the MAS system (Lane and Ganguly, 1980), as adjusted for the Fe effect on Al solubility in orthopyroxene (Lee and Ganguly, 1988). The equilibrium temperatures and pressures of xenoliths, as considered in P/T space, belong to the oceanic geotherm, based upon the various mantle geotherms presented by Mercier (1980). This geotherm is completely different from continental geotherms, e.g., from South Africa (Lesotho) and southern India. Mineral compositions of spinel-lherzolites in South Korea and eastern China are primitive; paleo-geotherms of both are quite similar, but degrees of depletion of the upper mantle could vary locally. This is demonstrated by eastern China, which has various depleted xenoliths caused by different degrees of partial melting.
Synthesis of Zr
Crystals by the Bridgman-Stockbager Method
Kim, Won-Sa ; Yu, Young-Moon ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 52~58
A colorless and transparent zirconium oxide (
) crystal has been synthesized by the Bridgman-Stockbager method. The gem-quality material is produced by adding 20
(stabilizer) and 0.04 wt.%
(decolorising agent) to the
powder. It shows a vitreous luster with a slight oily appearance. Under a polarizing microscope, it shows isotropic nature with no appreciable anisotropism. Mohs hardness value and specific gravity is measured to be 8
and 5.85, respectively. Under ultraviolet light it shows a faint white glow. The crystal structure of yttria-stabilized zirconia with 0.27 at.% Y has been re-investigated, using single crystal X-ray diffraction, and confirmed to be a cubic symmetry, space group
) with a=5.1552(5)
, Z=4. The stabilizer atoms randomly occupy the zirconium sites and there are displacements of oxygen atoms with amplitudes of
0.033 and 0.11 along <110> and <111> from the ideal positions of the fluorite structure, respectively.
Radiative Transfer Simulation of Microwave Brightness Temperature from Rain Rate
Yoo, Jung-Moon ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 59~71
Theoretical models of radiative transfer are developed to simulate the 85 GHz brightness temperature (T85) observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer as a function of rain rate. These simulations are performed separately over regions of the convective and stratiform rain. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) observations are utilized to construct vertical profiles of hydrometeors in the regions. For a given rain rate, the extinction in 85 GHz due to hydrometeors above the freezing level is found to be relatively weak in the convective regions compared to that in the stratiform. The hydrometeor profile above the freezing level responsible for the weak extinction in convective regions is inferred from theoretical considerations to contain two layers: 1) a mixed (or mixed-phase) layer of 2 km thickness with mixed-phase particles, liquid drops and graupel above the freezing level, and 2) a layer of graupel extending from the top of the mixed layer to the cloud top. Strong extinction in the stratiform regions is inferred to result from slowly-falling, low-density ice aggregates (snow) above the freezing level. These theoretical results are consistent with the T85 measured by TMI, and with the rain rate deduced from PR for the convective and stratiform rain regions. On the basis of this study, the accuracy of the rain rate sensed by TMI is inferred to depend critically on the specification of the convective or stratiform nature of the rain.
Depositional Environment of the Cambrian Machari Formation in the Yeongweol Area, Gangweon Province, Korea
Chung, Gong-Soo ; Lee, Eun-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 72~86
The Middle to Late Cambrian Machari Formation in the Machari area, Yeongweol, Korea consists of 7 lithofacies and 3 facies associations, which are thought to be deposits of carbonate ramp (mid to outer ramp) to basin environment. These lithofacies are bedded lime mudstone, laminated lime mudstone, bioclastic/peloidal packstone to grainstone, poloidal/bioclastic wackestone, conglomerate, mottled lime mudstone, and shale. Bedded lime mudstone facies, a few cm thick lime mudstone alternating with shale layer, is believed to have been deposited by intermittent dilute turbidity currents. Laminated lime mudstone facies, alternating lime mudstone with laminated shale, is interpreted to have been formed by fine-grained turbidity currents. Bioclastic/peloidal packstone to grainstone facies was deposited by turbidity current and peloidal/bioclastic wackestone faceis was deposited by debris flow. Conglomerate facies is thought to be deposits of storm activities. Mottled lime mudstone facies is interpreted to have been formed by bioturbation. Shale facies is interpreted to have been formed by suspension settling. Seven lithofacies of the Machari Formation are divided into three facies associations. Facies association I consisted of bedded lime mudstone facies, mottled lime mudstone facies, conglomerate facies, and bioclastic/peloidal packstone to grainstone facies, is interpreted to have been deposited on the mid ramp. Facies assocaition II consisted of bedded lime mudstone facies, laminated lime mudstone facies, bioclastic/peloidal packstone to grainstone facies, and peloidal/bioclastic wackestone facies is thought to be deposits of the outer ramp. Facies association III consisted of laminated lime mudstone facies and shale facies is interpreted to have been formed on the basin environment.
Subsurface Structure of the Yeongdong Basin by Analyzing Aeromagnetic and Gravity Data
Kim, Kyung-Jin ; Kwon, Byung-Doo ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 87~96
Aeromagnetic and gravity data were analyzed to delineate the subsurface structure of the Yeongdong basin and its related fault movement in the Okcheon fold belt. The aeromagnetic data of the total intensity (KIGAM, 1983) were reduced to the pole and three dimensional inverse modeling, which considers topography of the survey area in the modeling process, were carried out. The apparent susceptibility map obtained by three dimensional magnetic inversion, as well as the observed aeromagnetic anomaly itself, show clearly the gross structural trend of the Yeongdong basin in the direction on between
. Gravity survey was carried out along the profile, of which the length is about 18.2 km across the basin. Maximum relative Bouguer anomaly is about 7 mgals. Both forward and inverse modeling were also carried out for gravity analysis. The magnetic and gravity results show that the Yeongdong basin is developed by the force which had created the NE-SW trending the magnetic anomalies. The susceptibility contrast around Yeongdong fault is apparent, and the southeastern boundary of the basin is clearly defined. The basement depth of the basin appears to be about 1.1 km beneath the sea level, and the width of the basin is estimated to be 7 km based on the simultaneous analysis of gravity and magnetic profiles. There exists an unconformity between the sedimentary rocks and the gneiss at the southeastern boundary, which is the Yeongdong fault, and granodiorite is intruded at the northwestern boundary of the basin. Our results of gravity and magnetic data analysis support that the Yeongdong basin is a pull-apart basin formed by the left-stepping sinistral strike-slip fault, which formed the Okcheon fold belt.
Oxygen Isotope Study of Mulgeum, Yangseong, Maeri and Kimhae Iron Ore Deposits in Gyeongnam Province, Korea
Woo, Young-Kyun ; Savin, Samuel M. ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 97~104
Mulgeum, Yangseong, Maeri and Kimhae iron ore deposits in Gyeongnam Province are hydrothermal skarn type magnetite ore deposits in propylitized andesitic rock near the contact with Cretaceous Masanite. Symmetrical zoned skarns are commonly developed around the magnetite veins. The skarn zones away from the vein are quartz-garnet skarn, epidote skarn and epidote-orthoclase skarn. Oxygen isotope analyses of coexisting minerals from andesitic rock, Masanite and major skarn zones, and of magnetite, hematite and quartz were conducted to provide the information on the formation temperature, the origin and the evolution of the hydrothermal solution forming the iron ore deposits. Becoming more distant from the ore vein, temperatures of skarn zones represent the decreasing tendency, but most
values of skarn minerals represent no variation trend, and also the values are relatively low. Judging from all the isotopic data from the ore deposits, the major source of hydrothermal solution altering the skarn zones and precipitating the ore bodies was magmatic water derived from the deep seated Masanite. This high temperature hydrothermal solution rising through the fissures of propylitized andesitic rock was mixed with some meteoric water, and occurred the extensive isotopic exchange with the propylitized andesitic rock, and formed the skarns. During these processes, the temperature and
value of hydrothermal solution were lowered gradually. At the main stage of iron ore precipitation, because all the alteration was already finished, the new rising hydrothermal solution formed only the magnetite ore without oxygen isotopic exchange with the wall rock.
Petrogenetic Significance of the New Petrogenetic Grid (2000) Compared with Synthetic System and Theoretically Computed Grid
Ahn, Kun-Sang ; Nakamura, Yasuo ; Shin, In-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 105~111
The observation of the new biotite isograd (chlorite + chloritoid = andalusite + biotite) in the Mungyong coal field requires the modification of Harte and Hudson's (1979) metapelite grid which eliminates the stability field of staurolite + cordierite assemblages. The newly proposed metapelite grid by Ahn and Nakamura (2000) can define more properly the isograd reaction observed from nature. We discuss first topological interrelations between synthetic system (FASHO-, KFASHO-, KFMASH system) on an isobaric section at 2kbar, where phase relations are well constrained. The following discussion is concentrated on the topological relations between stable reactions. At the last, we discuss the petrogenetic significance of the Ahn's petrogenetic grid compared with theoretically computed grids. Ahn's petrogenetic grid is consistent with synthetic and natural system, and is one of the excellent example of KFMASH approximation in metapelite.
Experiment on the Anomalous Animal Behaviors by Electric Field Effects for Detecting Earthquake Precursors
Kyung, Jai-Bok ; Yoon, Jang-Keun ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 23, issue 1, 2002, Pages 112~118
The anomalous behaviour of animals prior to a large earthquake has been frequently reported from many places throughout the world since ancient times. This study is to experimentally testify what relations exist between the anomalous animal behavior and electric field effect, which is reported due to the piezo-electric effects in a basement rock before earthquake occurrences. We investigated the electric field effects on behaviors of two kinds of rats and birds. Rats show more sensitive anomalous behavior than birds. Even though the current applied to the experimental birds and rats is just a few
A, they show various abnormal behaviors. The anomalous animal behaviors under the small ground electric field may have some relations to the actual phenomena before great earthquake.