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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean earth science society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Earth Science Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 7 - Dec 2013
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Oct 2013
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Plan and Strategy for Probable Volcanic Eruption of Mt. Baekdusan
Lee, Khil-Ha ; Kim, Sung-Wook ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 453~455
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.453
Volcanological Interpretation of Historical Eruptions of Mt. Baekdusan Volcano
Yun, Sung-Hyo ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 456~469
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.456
This study is performed to find out the eruptive events of the historical period recorded in literature, which have been recognized and regarded as ones from Mt. Baekdusan, and to make volcanological interpretations of the eruptive events. Since the Millennium eruption, more than 31 eruptive events have been discovered, most of which are Plinian eruptions with volcanic ash that dispersed into the regions in the vicinity of the volcano. The 1903 record includes the event of the phreatomagmatic or vulcanian eruption that occurred within the Cheonji caldera lake. Based on the eruption records of the historical period and the 2002 precursor unrest to volcanic eruptions, Mt. Baekdusan has been evaluated and regarded as an active volcano that has the potential to erupt in the future.
A Study on the Change of Magma Activity from 2002 to 2009 at Mt. Baekdusan using Surface Displacement
Yun, Sung-Hyo ; Lee, Jeong-Hyun ; Chang, Cheolwoo ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 470~478
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.470
There have been a number of observed precursors of volcanic activities- such as volcanic earthquake, surface inflation, specific volcanic gas emission, temperature of hot spring- at Mt. Baekdusan since 2002. We identified the increase of the volume of magma chamber beneath Mt. Baekdusan as we observed an inflation trend of vertical and horizontal surface displacement around Cheonji caldera lake by using precise leveling data from 2002 to 2009. The surface displacement trend changed to deflation in 2010, and the trend changed to inflation again after a while. Utilizing the data of inflated surface (46.33 mm) on the northern slope of Mt. Baekdusan from 2002 to 2003, we calculated the volume change of magma chamber beneath the Mt. Baekdusan. The volume change was about 0.008
) from 2002 to 2003. It indicated that a new magma (0.008
) injected to the magma chamber 5 km below Mt. Baekdusan.
A Preliminary Study for Predicting a Damage Range of Pyroclastic Flows, Lahars, and Volcanic Flood caused by Mt. Baekdusan Eruption
Kim, Sung-Wook ; Choi, Eun-Kyeong ; Jung, Soo-Jung ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Khil-Ha ; Yun, Sung-Hyo ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 479~491
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.479
Products of the eruption of Mt. Baekdusan are identified as volcanic materials at the estuaries of the Songhuagang river to north, the Dumangang river to east and the Amnokgang river to west. More speficially, pyroclastic flows, lahars and volcanic floods can affect an area of 400km in radius, centering around Lake Cheonji caldera. However, unlike the millenium eruption, the flow situation has been changed. Because multi-purpose dams and reserviors with a combined pondage of mora than 2 billion tons of water have been built in the rivers of which sources are originated from Lake Cheonji caldera. In addition, the flow of fluids expected to take place when the volcano has erupted is thought to be affected by artificial constructions in both direct and indirect ways. This study calculates the direction of fluids flow by using numerical analyses of pyroclastic flows, lahars and volcanic floods that can occur when the volcano of Mt. Baekdusan has erupted. We also estimate the scope of damages by pyroclastic flows, lahars, volcanic flooding caused by the pondage of the dams and water storages in and around Mt. Baekdusan. Pyroclastic flows transported over the steep slopes at the early times of eruptions move over the mountain slopes, affecting airplanes, and lahars due to leaks of Lake Cheonji could reach as far as major rivers and streams near Mt. Baekdusan. Unlike historical accounts, volcanic flood is expected to be limited in its scope of influence to reservoirs bigger than Lake Cheonji in pondage.
Probable Volcanic Flood of the Cheonji Caldera Lake Triggered by Volcanic Eruption of Mt. Baekdusan
Lee, Khil-Ha ; Kim, Sung-Wook ; Yoo, Soon-Young ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 492~506
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.492
The historical accounts and materials about the eruption of Mt. Baekdusan as observed by the geological survey is now showing some signs of waking from a long slumber. As a response of the volcanic eruption of Mt. Baekdusan, water release may occur from the stored water in Lake Cheonjii caldera. The volcanic flood is crucial in that it has huge potential energy that can destruct all kinds of man-made structures and that its velocity can reach up to 100 km
to cover hundreds of kilometers of downstream of Lake Cheonji. The ultimate goal of the study is to estimate the level of damage caused by the volcanic flood of Lake Cheon-Ji caldera. As a preliminary study a scenario-based numerical analysis is performed to build hydrographs as a function of time. The analysis is performed for each scenario (breach, magma uplift, combination of uplift and breach, formation of precipitation etc.) and the parameters to require a model structure is chosen on the basis of the historic records of other volcanos. This study only considers the amount of water at the rim site as a function of time for the estimation whereas the downstream routing process is not considered in this study.
Application of LAHARZ for Lahar Modeling in Mt. Baekdusan
Jung, Kwang-Jun ; Kim, Hyun-Jun ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Khil-Ha ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 507~514
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.507
Recent reports about Mt. Baekdusan indicate an increasing potential of lahar generation due to volcanic activity around Lake Cheonji. In this study, we model lahar assuming volcanic activity underneath the caldera located at the top of Mt. Baekdusan. Lahar-inundation hazard zones (LAHARZ), software that runs within a Geographic Information System (GIS), was used for lahar modeling in various conditions of digital terrain resolution and model parameters. The sensitivity analysis of model parameters shows that both sink threshold and terrain resolution have limited impact on the modeling result. Combinations of stream threshold and resolution indicate distinctive distributions in stream delineation. The limitations of LAHARZ seem to largely be associated with the assumption of an existing flow generation algorithm. However, the impact of different resolutions on the final lahar extent was found to be small.
Estimation of Economic Losses on the Agricultural Sector in Gangwon Province, Korea, Based on the Baekdusan Volcanic Ash Damage Scenario
Lee, Yun-Jung ; Kim, Su-Do ; Chun, Joonseok ; Woo, Gyun ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 515~523
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.515
The eastern coast of South Korea is expected to be damaged by volcanic ash when Mt. Baekdusan volcano erupts. Even if the amount of volcanic ash is small, it can be fatal on the agricultural sector withering many plants and causing soil acidification. Thus, in this paper, we aim to estimate agricultural losses caused by the volcanic ash and to visualize them with Google map. To estimate the volcanic ash losses, a damage assessment model is needed. As the volcanic ash hazard depends on the kind of a crops and the ash thickness, the fragility function of damage assessment model should represent the relation between ash thickness and damage rate of crops. Thus, we model the fragility function using the damage rate for each crop of RiskScape. The volcanic ash losses can be calculated with the agricultural output and the price of each crop using the fragility function. This paper also represents the estimated result of the losses in Gangwon province, which is most likely to get damaged by volcanic ashes in Korea. According to the result with gross agricultural output of Gangwon province in 2010, the amount of volcanic ash losses runs nearly 635,124 million wons in Korean currency if volcanic ash is accumulated over four millimeters. This amount represents about 50% of the gross agricultural output of Gangwon province. We consider the damage only for the crops in this paper. However, a volcanic ash fall has the potential to damage the assets for a farm, including the soil fertility and installations. Thus, to estimate the total amount of volcanic ash damage for the whole agricultural sectors, these collateral damages should also be considered.
Building Damage Functions Using Limited Available Data for Volcanic Ash Loss Estimation
Yu, Soonyoung ; Yoon, Seong-Min ; Jiang, Zhuhua ; Choi, Miran ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 524~535
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.524
Catastrophe risk models require the damage functions of each vulnerable item in inventory to estimate volcanic ash losses. The damage functions are used to represent the relation between damage factors and damage and also widely used in engineering and natural hazard studies to calculate the vulnerability. In most cases, damage functions are constructed as fragility or vulnerability curves, and researchers are confused by the similarities between them particularly when they perform interdisciplinary research. Thus, we aim to explain the similarities and differences between fragility and vulnerability curves and their relationship by providing case studies to construct them. In addition, we suggest a simple method to construct the damage functions between damage ratio and volcanic ash thickness using limited damage data. This study comes from the fact that damage functions are generally constructed using damage data. However, there is no available volcanic ash damage data in Korea, and not even enough volcanic disaster data to construct damage functions in the world, compared to other hazards. Using the method suggested in the study and the limited damage data from Japan and New Zealand, we construct Weibull-type functions or linear functions dependent of available data to calculate volcanic ash loss estimation, which we think need to be corrected to make it more suitable for inventory characteristics and environmental conditions in Korea.
Damage and Socio-Economic Impact of Volcanic Ash
Jiang, Zhuhua ; Yu, Soonyoung ; Yoon, Seong-Min ; Choi, Ki-Hong ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 536~549
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.536
This study investigates the damages of and analyzes the social and economic impacts of volcanic ash eruptions in the world in order to estimate the potential volcanic ash impacts in South Korea when Mt. Baekdusan volcano erupts in the future. First, we build a comparison chart called "the impact of volcanic ash" on each economic and social sector by using major volcanic eruptions and we compare the damage with respect to volcanic ash thickness/weights. Secondly, we analyze the social and economic impact from volcanic ash. The economic damage is not likely to occur in South Korea, unless Mt. Baekdusan erupts in winter. However, the potential damage should not be overlooked because the volcanic ash may have a global impact around the world. If Mt. Baekdusan volcano erupts when the wind blows from north or northeast, the volcanic ash may then significantly affect South Korea of which economy is highly dependent on exports. Particularly when the volcanic ash moves to the densely populated metropolitan areas or agricultural areas, the damage can be significant. In preparation for the potential volcanic disasters, the volcanic ash forecast table suitable for South Korea should be prepared. In addition, building a Korean volcanic ash hazard map in advance will have a strategic significance.
A Preliminary Study on the Correlation between GRACE Satellite Geoid Data Variation and Volcanic Magma Activity
Oh, Chang-Whan ; Choi, Sung-Chan ; Lee, Deok-Su ; Kim, Myung-Deok ; Park, Jong-Hyun ; Seo, Min-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 550~560
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.550
In this study, the variations of geoid measured by GRACE satellite are investigated in the 20 volcanic areas erupted since 2005, and it is recognized that a detailed geological study is necessary in using geoid data for a research of the magmatic activities under the volcano. Therefore, the relationship between the regional geoid variation obtained by GRACE satellite and the change of magma activity, is studied in Japan's Shinmoedake volcano in the Kirishima volcanic complex whose eruption in 2011 was studied in detail geologically. Throughout this study the increase of geoid from 2002 in the Shinmoedake volcanic area is confirmed to be caused by the increase of gravity under the volcano, which is well matched with geological interpretation of the continuous intrusion of basaltic magma into magma chamber during several years before the 2011 eruption. The result indicates that information of the geoid variation measured by GRACE satellite is useful for monitoring the possibility of volcanic eruption although there is a need to more study to be able to confirm the possibility.
Comparison of Surface Fluxes Based on Landuse Characteristics Near Gangjeong-Goryeong Weir of the Nakdong River
Kahng, Keumah ; Koo, Hae-Jung ; Byon, Jae-Young ; Park, Young-San ; Jung, Hyun-Sook ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 561~574
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.561
This study investigates energy fluxes measured near Gangjeong-Goryeong Weir of the Nakdong River of South Korea for more than a year, from July 2011 to September 2012, in order to analyze the applicability of the data for future impact analyses. Each of the two study sites is located in a rural area, surrounded by agricultural fields, and an urban industrial area. Sensible and latent heat fluxes are analyzed according to the wind direction. In the summertime, when the wind blows from the river, sensible heat tends to decrease and latent heat tends to increase at both sites. This result is considered to be caused by moisture transfer from the river. Bowen ratio, energy balance closure, momentum flux, and stability are analyzed as well. The Bowen ratio of the rural agricultural site turns out higher than that of the urban site regardless of the season. The energy balance closure is higher at the agricultural site compared to the urban area, which is mainly due to exclusion of the storage term calculation at the urban site. The momentum flux is greater at the urban site both in winter and summer. The instability lasts longer during daytime and in the summertime, when there is a strong turbulence. The data from these sites are appropriate to be used in analyzing the impact of river in surrounding areas for future studies.
A Geophysical Survey of an Iron Mine Site
Kim, Kiyeon ; Oh, Seokhoon ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 575~587
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.575
DC electrical and electromagnetic survey was applied to evaluate the reserve of an iron mine site. We analyzed the borehole cores and the cores sampled from outcrops in order to decide which geophysical method was efficient for the evaluation of iron mine site and to understand the geological setting around the target area. Based on the core tests for specific weight, density, porosity, resistivity and P-wave velocity, showing that the magnetite could be distinguishable by the electrical property, we decided to conduct the electrical survey to investigate the irone mine site. According to previous studies, the DC electrical survey was known to have various arrays with high resolutions effective to the survey of the iron mine site. However it was also known that the skin depth is too shallow to grasp the deep structure of iron mine. To compensate the weakness of the DC electrical method, we applied the MagnetoTelluric (MT) survey. In addition, a Controlled Source MT (CSMT) method was also applied to make up the shortcoming of MT method which is weak for shallow targets. From the DC electrical and MT survey, we found a new low resistivity zone, which is believed to be a magnetite reserve beneath the old abandoned mine. Therefore, this study was confirmed for additional utility value.
A Study on the Development of Multifuntional Real-Time Inclination and Azimuth Measurement System
Kim, Gyuhyun ; Cho, Sung-Ho ; Jung, Hyun-Key ; Lee, Hyosun ; Son, Jeong-Sul ;
Journal of the Korean earth science society, volume 34, issue 6, 2013, Pages 588~601
DOI : 10.5467/JKESS.2013.34.6.588
In geophysics and geophysical exploration fields, we can use information about inclination and azimuth in various ways. These include borehole deviation logging for inversion process, real-time data acquisition system, geophysical monitoring system, and so on. This type of information is also necessarily used in the directional drilling of shale gas fields. We thus need to develop a subminiature, low-powered, multi-functional inclination and azimuth measurement system for geophysical exploration fields. In this paper, to develop real-time measurement system, we adopt the high performance low power Micro Control Unit (made with state-of-the-art Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology) and newly released Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Attitude Heading Reference System sensors. We present test results on the development of a multifunctional real-time inclination and azimuth measurement system. The developed system has an ultra-slim body so as to be installed in 42mm sonde. Also, this system allows us to acquire data in real-time and to easily expand its application by synchronizing with a depth encoder or Differential Global Positioning System.