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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Oct 1986
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jun 1986
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Erosion Control Effect by Soil ansi Vegetation Transition in Mountainous Area after Soil Erosion Measures were Initiated
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 14, issue 2, 1986, Pages 7~16
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of such erosion control measures as sowing, planting and small earth structures on the soil and vegetation. In order to study the changes in soil and vegetation, 36 plots were surveyed from 1981 to 1982 in the large erosion control area which is restored last 20 years. The factors which were measured included vegetation coverage, tree growth, number of species, soil depth, soil consistancy, and Chemical properties of soil. The results were as follows; 1) Maximum coverage of the overstory and understory was attained 7 years after the initiation of erosion control. So the overstory need to be tended and pruned. 2) Diversity of species increased until age 6 after which it began to decrease. 3) In order of tree growth, black locust was the fastest, followed by siberian alder and pitch pine. The initial growth of black locust, though the best among the 3 tree stop., decreased rapidly year by year. At the same time, siberian alder and pitch pine grew well until 12 and 6 years after the initiation of erosion control respectively. 4) Fifty percent of the initially planted trees died within 8 yeard. The mortality of siberian alder occurred until the 20th year while the mortality of pitch pine stopped after 10 years. Thereafter 500 trees per hectare were maintained. 5) The soil depth in A and B horision increased by 2cm annually during 20 years. The soil consistency also decreased rapidly until 7th year. The physical soil properties of the rehabilitated areas were improved after the 14th year. 6) The soil pH tend to decrease from 5.3 during the first year to 5.1 during the twentieth year. 7) The organic matter and nitrogen content in the soil were increased by fertilization but after 20 years these nutrients are still deficient for normal tree growth. 8) The phosphorous content in the soil was high in the first year but the longer the period after the initiation of erosion control the lese the content of phosphorous. 9) The biomass of black locust was the highest and increased continuously. The biomass of siberian alder on the contrary decreased from the 15th year because the number of trees in this place was very low. The total biomass in the twentieth year after erosion control initiation was 105.7 ton per hectare.
Indication of Immanent Picture in Rural Settlement According to the Corelation between Man and his Environment
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 14, issue 2, 1986, Pages 17~26
Landscape around a settlement is not only a natural object, but also a matters of the man in the co-relation with his environment. Man perceives the landscape rational or sensible. Then it changes into the substance for him and influences him: as we see often in the folklore, that is of importance in the mind. Man reacts against his surroundings deceidedly, selfassurd or commonly, and uses sometimes the landscape to the elements for realization, physical or symbolical. Out of one character of korean villages, adaption to the circumstances, we can notice also its inner image, the reflection of the mind. Seeing and perceiving the environment emotional or reasonable and, reflecting and descreibing the inner self on the space. Here, the landscape and the nature are matter of the man, a scale for his ethical estimation or a mailer of the realization his mind. It is difficult, but important, such a immanent picture in(or of) the landscape to find. This is a preliminary study in such a way.
Phytosociological Studios on Natural Vegetation in Hoo-Won, Changduk Palace
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 14, issue 2, 1986, Pages 27~42
The vegetation structure in the Hoo - Won, Changduk Palace in Seoul was analysed on 10 sites sampled for understanding structure of natural vegetation. The main vegetational survey was conducted during July, 1985 and actual vegetaion and degree of natural vegetaion types were surveyed additionally. The result summarized of this research are as follows. 1) The physical - chemical conditions of soil showed middle class. This might be derived by short succession period from Pine forest to decidious broadleaf forest and artificial impact by human intervention. 2) When considering dominance species by crown story, Quercus aliena was a dominant species over all site and Castanea crenata, Prunus sargentii and Quercus variabilis appeared as a dominant species locally at upper story. Styrax story and Rhododendron mucronulatum, Styrax japonica, Stephanandra incisa and Lespedeza spp. at lower story. 3) The distances kept by trees per crown story are as follows. The mean distances between trees were 4.5-5.5m at upper story, 2.8-3.3m at middle story. On the other hand, the mean distances between dominant species were 6-8m at upper story, 5-9m at middle story. 4) The vegetation in this area was not developed yet into dominant species community according to the similarity analysis. The natural vegetation was dominated by Quercus spp. especially Quercus aliena according to the analysis of species diversity, relative dominance by story and DBH class. On the orther hand, succession to climax stage dominated by shade tolerent species will take a long time due to little appearance of shade tolerence species by previous heavy artificial impacts on understory species. 5) Quercus forest took possesion of 71.3%(27.37ha) of total forest area when considering the actual vegetation and especially Quercus aliena community covered 53.2%(15.21ha). Carpinus laxiflora community, one of the climax species in temperate zone, took possesion of 1.0%(0.3ha) and Pine densiflora was almost disappeared due to species competition. 6) According to the degree of natural vegetation types, the possession of degree of 6-9 was 60.6% and degree of 7-8, substitute vegetation, was 15.5%. The possesion of degree of 9 which consists of over 50 years old trees simliar to natural vegetaion was the highest, 43.1% in this area. Therefore continuous protection in this area of degree of 9 should be recommended.
A Study on the Improvement of Children′s Playground in Apartment Complex
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 14, issue 2, 1986, Pages 43~68
It is necessary that children's actual activities in the playgrounds should be analyzed for the study on the children's playgrounds. The purpose of this study is to establish the design principles for the improvement of the children\`s playgrounds in apartment complex by means of the various methods ; behavior mapping, questionaires and photo simulations. For the purpose of data collection, children are divided into three groups-infants(0 to 4 years), young children(pre ; 5 to 8 years, post ; 9 to 11 years), teenagers(7.2 to 14 years). The study results are as follows; 1) Analysis of behavior mapping : (a) Approximately 70 percent of the children observed stayed in the playground less than 20 minutes. (b) Playing time for each play apparatus was less than 5 minutes. (c) As a result of the observation, the duration time in the attic was 1 hour or more (d) The swing was the most frequently used apparatus as children's first and last choice. (e) Most of the users were young children(46.5%). 2) Analysis of questionaires : (a) Children considered that the existing playgrounds were lack of shadows and the play apparatuses are not interesting. (b) They felt danger and crowding at the multi-used wooden apparatus. 3) Suggestions for the playground design : It is necessary that the playgrounds are divided into the infants, the young children's and the teenagers'playground. (a) The infants'playground needs about 50 square meters and needs to be located in the apartment court. (b) The young children's playground needs about 330 to 660 square meters and needs to be located adjacent to the pedestrian road. (c) The teenagers'playground needs about 660 to 1000 square meters, which is needed for various ball games.
Fundamental Studies on the Quantitative Analysis of Color Preference -Reference of Twenty Ages-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 14, issue 2, 1986, Pages 69~80
In order to analyse the color preference quantitatively, specially with reference to the subjects in the age of twenties, 100 subjects(M=50, F=50) that unconsidered other factors were adopted and responded to 4 items of the questionaire. The item no. 1 was to investigate the most prefered color on the white background, no. 2 was to most preferred stimulation -level of lightness in the same hues, no. 3 was to most prefered color on 5 different backgrounds -grey, blue, pink, yellow, and yellow green-, and no. 4 was same as no. 3 but with different color-arrangement Materials for item 1 and 3 were made with transparent acryl-boards(30cm
30cm), on which 16 color chips arranged on circle, for item 4 on lattice, and for item 2 with 16 white boards(8cm
21cm), on which 7 color chips of different lightness-level arranged. Reflectance(Y) and color coordinate(x, y) of all color chips measured with color difference meter were transfered into wavelength(nm), exitation purity(%), and Munsell's value. The results may be summarized as follows: 1) Most prefered color was bluish green with wave1ength about 500nm. As increasing of exitation purity of color, more prefered. 2) When there were 7 different levels of lightness in the same hues, the relationship between the number of preference and the stimulation was inverted U-shaped. 3) With changing the background -color, the prefered colors were contrasting when backgrounds were low or high intensity-stimulation and familiar colors when backgrounds were medium intensity.
A Study on the Fluctuation and Influential factors of Daily Visitors of Seoul Children′s Grand Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 14, issue 2, 1986, Pages 81~90
The full grasp of recreation demand and factors affecting on recreation demand can be very important information for park planning and management. The object-tives of this study are to investigate factors affecting the fluctuation of urban park visitors and to analyze the relationship between these factors and the daily parti-cipations. The results were as follows; 1) The peak of monthly participations comes on May, April, August and October in order. And these months are specified as school picnic period and vacation of school children. 2) In correlation analysis, the variables such as ‘Day of a week(D)’, ‘Monthly mean temp.(T)’and ‘Monthly character(M)’have high correlations with ‘No. of visitors’in order. And it is better to categorize months by its charater(picnic period in school, vacation etc) than by seasons. 3) Candidate regression model were established, as for 1984 log U= 1.51 + 0.64D1 + 0.02T + 0.36W1 - 0.23M4 + 0.003SS + 0.24Ml(
=0.5326) where, U=no. of daily visitors D1 = sunday.ho1iday(1), weekday(0) T=monthly mean temperature(
) W1= weather (sunny.cloudy(1) , rainy (>5mm)(0)> M4=non vacations and non school picnic period(1) , if not (0) SS=monthly sunshining hours M1=summer vacation(1), if not(0) 4) The most important variable was ‘Day of a week’(sunday.holiday or not). And temperature, weather and monthly charcter(especially picnic period of school and vacation) were in turn, hence ‘Children's grand park’shows the use pattern of