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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Oct 1991
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jul 1991
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Apr 1991
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Jan 1991
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Ground Covering in Landscape Planting -In the Case of the Mongchon Earth Fort-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 18, issue 4, 1991, Pages 7~16
This research investigated soil, plants, insects and birds in the Mongchon Earth Fort, establishing the 11 plots, according to planting treatment, in order to present management method for ecological stability of species in the ground covering plots. The results of analysizing the investigated data summarize as follows. 1. In the ground covering plots without upper layer, the density and coverage of middle and low layer in the natural plots were higher than those in the artificial plots. 2. In the ground covering plots without upper layer, the density and coverage of low layer were higher than those in the artificial, while the density and coverage of herb layer in the natural plots were lower. 3. Whether there was upper layer or not, the total species diversity and enenness of the ground covering community in the natural plot without artificial treatment and natural treatment plot were higher than those ground covering. 4. In the ground covering plots with upper layer, the species diversity of ground covering in the plots without artificial treatment is high, while the species diversity in the plots with natural treatment caused the secondary succession is higher than that of the natural plot. 5. In the ground covering plots without upper layer, the species diversity in the plots with artificial management was higher than that of natural plots, while the evenness in the plots with artificial management was lower. 6. In the ground covering plots with upper layer the species diversity of insect in the plot of natural state was higher than that of insect in the plots with artifical treatment. 7. Synthetically, in the area with upper layer the species diversity of the ground covering community in the natural plot was high, while in the area without upper layer, the species diversity of it in the plots with artificial treatment was high. The insect turned up frequently in the plots of high species diversity of the ground covering, so the bird did in the plots of high species diversity of the ground covering and insects.
A Study on the Method of Measuring Accessibility to Urban Open Spaces
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 18, issue 4, 1991, Pages 17~28
The purpose of this study is to investigate and present a method for measuring public accessibility to urban open spaces. A basic assumption is that, for urban open space policies, accessibility is more important than per capita area. In this study, for the purpose of simplicity, a residential area is assumed to have access to open space if it is within a certain distance from an urban open space. Official city planning map is overlayed with a 200m grid and each cell of dwelling area is checked whether it is within a certain distance from a cell categorized as urban open space. A computer program for widely commercialized personal computer is developed for data processing so that local governments without access to more sophisticated systems can carry out similar studies for their own jurisdictions. Five cities, big, small, old and new, are selected to test the proposed method. Dwelling areas of Ansan new Town have highest accessibility to open spaces(93.4% of dwelling cells have open space cell within 500m). Seoul (91.2%), Suwon(78.2%), Pusan(73.8%), and Inchon(61.4%) have less accessibility. If we assume the Ansan City residents are evenly distributed over the dwelling area, 93.4% of the population has open spaces within walking distance of 500m. However, if we consider physical barriers such as arterial roads, railroads, and streams that reduce the accessibility, less than 93.4% of Ansan city residents enjoy good access to open spaces. Though a further detailed analysis is needed to picture the microscopic accessibility, this method can serve as a useful tool for urban open space policy and open space alternatives evaluations.
A Study on the Maximum Rate of Daily Users and the Turnover Rate of Parks in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 18, issue 4, 1991, Pages 29~44
The purpose of this study is to investigate the maximum rate of daily users and the turnover rate of parks in Korea. Median calculation, percentile analysis, and regression analysis methods were adopted for the investigation of the maximum rate of daily users. The maximum level, adaptable level and current dispersion of each index were analyzed. The results are summarized as follows. 1) It is location, kinds of facility, and purpose of visiting that mainly affect the concentration pattern of the number of park users. 2) Parks are devided into such three types as common urban park, royal tomb park, and large amusement park. 3) Spring is the peak season in all parks. 4) The maximum daily rates of the three types of parks are 0.92%, 1.86%, 1.18% respectively and the turnover rates are 18%, 54%, 63% respectively. 5) The results of this study show the necessity of the revision of the existing maximum daily rate and turnover rate.
A Landscape Interpretation of Island Villages in Korean Southwest Sea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 18, issue 4, 1991, Pages 45~71
The landscape systems in Korean island settlements can be recognized as results of ingabitants' ecological adptation to the isolated environment with the limited natural resources. Both the fishery dominant industry in island society and ecological nature of its environments seem to have influenced on inhabitants' environmental cognition as well as the physical landscape of island villages such as its location, spatial pattern in each village, housing form and so on. This study was done mainly by both refering to the related documents and direct observations in case study areas, and results of the study can be summarized as follows. 1. In general, the landscape of an individual island seems to take more innate characteristics of island's own, corresponding to the degree of isolation from mainland. That is, while the landscape of island in neighboring waters takes both inland-like and island-innate landscape character at the same time, the one in the open sea far from land takes more innate landscape character of all island's own in the aspects of village location, land use and housing density etc. 2. The convex landform of most islands brings about more centrifugal village allocation than centripetal allocation in most inland villages. And thus most villages in each island face extremely diverse directions different from the south facing preference in most inland rural villages. 3. Most island villages tend to be located along the ecologically transitional strip between land and sea, so called 'line of life', rather than between hilly slope and flat land as being in most inland village locations. So they are located with marine ecology bounded fishing ground ahead and land ecology bounded agricultural site at the back of them. 4. The settlement pattern of the island fishing villages shows more compact spatial structure than that of inland agricultural villages, due to the absolute limits of usable land resources and the adaptation to the marine environment with severe sea winds and waves or for the easy accessability to the fishing grounds. And also the managerial patterns of public owned sea weed catching ground, which take each family as the unit of usership rather than an individual, seem to make the villagescape more compact and the size of Individual residence smaller than that of inland agricultural village. 5. The folk shrine('Dand') systems, in persrective of villagescape, represent innate environmental cognition of island inhabitants above all other cultural landscape elements in the island. Usually the kinds and the meanings of island's communal shrine and its allocative patternsin island villagescape are composed of set with binary opposition, for example 'Upper shrine(representing 'earth', 'mountain' or 'fire')' and 'Lower Shrine(representing 'sea', 'dragon' or 'water') are those. They are usually located at contrary positions in villagescape each other. That is, they are located at 'the virtical center or visual terminus(Upper shrine at hillside behind the village)' and 'the border or entrance(Lower Shrine at seashore in front of the village)'. Each of these shirines' divinity coincides with each subsystem of island's natural eco-system(earth sphere vs marine sphere) and they also contribute to ecological conservation, bonded with the 'Sacred Forest(usually with another function of windbreak)' or 'Sacred Natural Fountain' nearby them, which are representatives of island's natural resources.
A Study for Use of Wild Rhododendron mucronulatum for. albiflorum as Landscape plant
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 18, issue 4, 1991, Pages 73~85
Rhododendron mucronulatum for. albiflorum, native species is a shrub that has white flowers on May to June, and rare species endangered by people's rash digging or cutting. But its physiological ecological characteristics and propagation method are not being known at all. Therefore, this study was executed to utilize this species as the planting material for landscaping by analysing its habitat environment and growth form, and also experimenting its seed and vegetative propagation, and it field culture and utilization. The results are as follows; 1. The elevation, gradient and direction of this species were 295-1,350m, 10-36
, northwest respectively. It was found that the species is shade-liking plant that grows under forest cover of average 51.33%. 2. The soil pH and water content of its habitat were 5.4, 25.41% respectively. The organic matter content was 6.29% that was higher than 3.2%, the average organic matter content of forest soil in Korea. 3. Representative plant community within which this species was living was Quercus mongolica community, and its main neighboring species were Lindea obtusiloba, Fraxinus sieboldiana, Rhus trichocarpa, Rhododendron Schlippenbachii, Rododendron mucronulatum. 4. The leaf length and width of this species were 39.18mm, 12.60mm respectively. This result showed that generally its leaf size was larger than that of R. micranthum, R. yedoense var. poukhanense and R. mucronulatum var. ciliatum and smaller than that of R. mucronulatum and R. schlippenbachii. 5. The whole size of its pollen was, as 59
, the largest of plants of Rhododendron family including R. mucronulatum and R. mucronulatum var. ciliatum. 6. The result of seed germination experiment at intervals of 5
presented the highest germination rate of 94.7% at 20
numerically, but high percent germination at all temperature levels without significant difference. And the seed of this plant proved to be sun-liking seed at requiring dormancy in germination. 7. Through seed germination experiment by treatment of growth regulators such as GA. Thiourea and Kinetin under dark condition, it was found that the effect of GA treatment on germination increase and acceleration was the highest. 8. In greenwood cutting, rooted rate by treatment of various concentration of IBA and NAA on clay and vermiculite bed was not wholly high, but 100ppm plots of both IBA and NAA of clay bed showed relatively good rooted rate. 9. As result of field culture experiment for finding out optimum growth temperature and light intensity, growth conditions such as height, number of leaves, fresh weight and chlorophyll contents were the best at night/day temperature of 20/25
and under 1/2sun. Also, the photosynthetic rate was the highest at 25
. Accordingly, it was found that optimum temperature and light intensity for growth of this plant are 25
(day temperature), 50% of natural light respectively.
A Study on Changduk Palace(I) -Special Consideration on the Chronological Changes of the Traditional Space with Buildings-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 18, issue 4, 1991, Pages 87~100
The purpose of this study is to find the bases for the restoration of traditional Palace gardening by chronologically analyzing the change of space in Changduk Palace. The result of analyzing archives and Dongguldo is that the most of present spaces are considerably differ from the spaces of traditional Palace. But the backyard of Palace was not greatly damaged and the spaces of Injungjun and Daejojun was immediatly restored.
A Study on the Interpretation of Amenity Structure for the Creation of Urban Landscape
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 18, issue 4, 1991, Pages 101~115
A study on the method of evaluation the urban amenity structure in Pusan city was established. Finally a survey sites out of 41 regions were selected on the basis of questionnaires : Taejong-dae and Haeun-dae as a seascape, Pumosa and Daesin-park as a mountain, Daechong-park and Seongjigok-park as a mixed, and Chungryulsa, Yongdoosan-park and U. N. Cemetry as a urban type. The abstracted results of amenity elements were revealed as natural environments including convex type as beach, reservoir, valley and mountain, and plant elements including woods and flower beds which raised amenity. The elements of social surroundings including children's playing, the aged's rest, and elements of structures including historic and memorial structures and high buildings. Amenity element made up of each space by region were abstracted from the Semantic Differential method. According to the factor analysis on the ground SD scale values, Kaiser's measure of sampling adequacy for 24 variables is 08602 and very high. Four factors including pleasantness, healthiness, convenience and safety showed 54.42 percent for total variance. By means of multiple regression, the model was as follows : Y=1.6636+0.3684X4+0.1955X11+0.1614X15-0.1688X23+0.1468X24. Therefore, Y:amenity, X4:beautiful-ugly, X11:clean-dirty, X15:creative-imitative, X23:cozy-dreary, X24:free-restrained. All variables in the model were significant at 0.001 level. According to the results of regression on satisfaction, the variables of satisfaction affecting amenity are the size of green space, the condition of management and the harmony with the surroundings. I think the considerating on the above could improve amenity of each region and further Pusan city.
A Study on Methodology of Visual Quality Improvement of Landscape : The Case of the Han Riverscape
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 18, issue 4, 1991, Pages 117~125
A Study on the Quantitative Evaluation of Outdoor-Recreational Function and User Satisfaction with Urban Park and Open Space
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 18, issue 4, 1991, Pages 127~140
The Primary purpose of this study is to investigate factors and variables which have significant effects on user satisfaction with recreational facilities in Taejong-Dae recreational complex, thereby establishing indices of planning and development of urban parks and open space. To test the causal models of this research, the date were gathered by self-administered questionnaires from 967 households in Pusan City which were selected by the multi-stage probability sampling methood. The analysis of the multi-stage primarily consists of two phase : The first analysis dealt exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in satisfaction with recreational activities and facilities in Taejong-Dae recreational complex and the second analysis tested the fit of the causal models of this research by employing LISREL methodology. There are three advantages of using LISREL over other multivariate analysis methods : First, measurement error is allowed and calculated in LISREL, otherwise there is a risk of seriously misleading estimates of coefficients ; Second, LISREL deals with latent variables or unmeasured variables ; Third, it enables to test causal relations among variables. The factors analysis identified that five factors are involved in satisfaction with recreational facilities. The five factors of satisfaction with recreational facilities are space for repose and relaxation, active recreation facilities such as pool and zoo, physical exercise facility, convenience and maintenance facility, and linear facility, and linear facility for walking. The second phase analysis tested the fit of the causal models for satisfaction with recreational facilities to the data and identified statistically significant causal linkage among overall satisfaction with Taejong-Dae recreational complex, other endogenous factors and exogenous variables. Overall fits of both causal models were very good. Among endogenous factors, facility for repose and relaxation. linear facility for walking, active recreation facility, facility for convenience and maintenance were identified as having significant effects on overall satisfaction. Exogenous variables which have significant effects on endogenous variables wer also identified. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning and development of the recreational complex. On the basis of these significant causal relationships, implications for planning and the delovepment of Taejong-Dae recreational complex were suggested.