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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Oct 1994
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jul 1994
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Apr 1994
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Jan 1994
Selecting the target year
An Analysis of Disputants' Environmental Conflict Frames Relating to Ohio Wetland Conversion Disputes
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 1~14
This study attempted to characterize conflict frames of environmental disputes by examining twelve actual wetland permitting cases in Ohio. The participants consisted of such interested parties as applicants, technical, legal or environmental consultants to applicants, U.S.Army Corps of Engineers, U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service, Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Ohio Department of Natural Resoures, local agencies, the environmental community, and citizens who have been involved of the permitting process. The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence of how different perceptual frames existed in the wetland conversion disputes, and to understand different environmental conflict frames that influenced disputants' perception relating to dispute resolution. The vehicles used to collect the necessary data were three survey instruments : Open-ended questionnaires, Likert-type questionnaires, and ranking questionnaires. Forty-three subjects were contacted for open fact-to-fact interviews, 53 subject for Kikert-type mail survey and 54 subjects for ranking instrument mail survey. Analyses of survey results revealed that six different types of frames were clearly identified from all the parties involved in Ohio wetland conversion disputes. It revealed that disputants had statistically significantly different levels of perception to the frames based on the participants' role (i.e. regulator, applicant, commentor), the number of involved parties in the process, processing time and the issuance of a permit. The findings also revealed that information sharing among disputants played a significant role in the process of froming and reframing. The alternative idea, building cooperation through negotiation, was proposed to provide new insight into the resolution of the dispute.
Residents' Satisfaction with Visual Appearance of the Housing Environment in Korean Multi-Family Housing
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 15~27
A Study on the Effect of Follow-Up on Mail Survey for Park Users
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 29~41
The purposes of this study are (a)to investigate the effect of follow-up on the increase of response rate;(b)to analyze the effect of follow-up on the statistics by predetermined response rates ; therefore, (c)to describe the importance of high response rate and to suggest methods in order to increase response rate in mail survey. Telephone directory of Seoul was utilized as a sampling frame, and modified Total Design Method(TDM) was applied to collect the data. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Final response rate was 76.5% by 2 follow-ups. 2. The first follow-up with telephone call had a significant effect on increase of response rate. As a result, follow-up by postcard in TDM could be omitted in this method. 3. The second follow-up by registered mail did not have a significant effect. Therefore, use of this procedure is depending upon such research situtations as importance of high response rate and cost available. 4. Follow-ups helped to make collected sample highly representative. 5. Most questionnaires were arrived on the first half of data collection period in each follow-up. 6. Most of questionnaires were collected for 10 weeks. Accumulated responses could be fitted by exponential and logistic curve, simultaneously. The fitted curve suggested that eventually limited number of questionnaires by arrived. So, if researchers want higher response rate, they have to conduct more follow-ups. 7. Statistics in the predetermined response rate were not changed significantly. But replications are needed to generalize this result.
A Study on the Activity System Methods of Site Planning and Design
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 43~53
This Study is to construct the Activity System Methods of Site Planning and Design. A planned spaces and facilities is considered usually in relation to users of space and facilities, user attributes, needs and values, and activity patterns. Information obtained form this study adds a qualitative dimension to the quantitative emphasis and supplies information for design-oriented analyses of site planning. In the design-oriented aspect, the concern is with devising desirable land use arrangements and facility supply considering objectives defined in the public interest. The design-oriented approache in site planning and design must use information on activity systems and space qualities in defining planning and design requirements of site development-one in the form of principles and standards of design used in land use and facility planning guidelines, and the other form of input variables for land use model and facility supply model.
A Study on the Characteristics of Korean Townscape in Perspective of the Oriental World View
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 55~68
It has been generally agreed that the city form especially in the preindustrial age resembled their own world view, either in the western or the eastern cultural sphere. So, we aimed to redefine the characteristics of oriental world views compared with the western one, in order to find the relative nature of the Korean townscapes. It is said that the both world views(of western and oriental) are composed of the contrastive binary concepts in common, but there seems to have been nearly contrary differences in these two world views. Wheareas the former was based on the passively segregational and oppositional dualism, the latter, on the dynamically harmonious and complementary dualism, called generally as 'Yin(陰) and Yang(陽)'. Thus, the oriental world view can be thought as the 'philosophy of the relationship', which aim to unify the dualism ultimately with the help of this relationship. So, we can assume a certain third and intermediate concept between these dual concepts of the world view, which can unify these two into the one holistic whole. And the focuses of the most traditional oriental philosophies were concentrated on this, so called, 'the third concept', namely Taoistic 'Tochu(道樞)', Buddhistic 'Kong(空)' or Confucian 'Chung(中)'. And this triple concept, including the third one, of the oriental world view revealed a more concrete form of the cosmological relationship, as the triple structure; 'Heaven(天), Earth(地), and Man(人)', in which the 'Man' is thought as the middle or the center of the world. In this manner, we could found this oriental 'triple world view' was revealed in the real topology of most places in the Korean traditional city and the whole townscape itself. So, in the scale of houses and the roads around them, we can construe the 'Maru(a central board-floored room)' and the 'Madang(a inner court)' as the 'third and intermediate space(中)' between the interior space(陰) and exterior space(陽) in the former, and between the private house(陰) and the public residential road(陽) in the former case, and between the dual parts(陰,陽) of the city representing the contrary social classes and the contrastive visual landscapes. So, we insist that this 'triple world view' represented in the townscape can be one of the most important characteristics of Korean traditional townscape. And this third intermediate spaces, which generate the active social contact and the harmonious relationship among the people, can be the most important cues, as the central places, in the interpretation of the Korean townscapes even in contemporary circumstance, which inherits its spatial and social frame more or less from the preceding one.
A Study on the Estimating Probable Period of the Planting Work in Consideration of Weather Factor -In the Case of Seoul City-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 69~82
The purpose of this study is to estimate the probable period of the planting work in consideration of weather factors. The impact degree of weather factors on the control of planting schedule was measured by the possible working days on the basis of weather condition. To establish the weather standard, the researcher analyzed the questionnaires on the manager of planting work and also the meteorological data for 10 years(1983-1992) in Seoul. The results are as follows;
The possible period of the planting work is from March 17 to May 18 Spring and from September 26 to December 15 in Autumn during a year.
The problem working days of the planting work(106-130) days per year) are less than the building construction days(174 days per year), because of handling the living material of plants, specially in summer and winter.
A Study on the Injury of Nature Environment in Chongnung Valley of Mt. Puk'an -In the Case of Trail and Rest Area-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 83~99
To compare basic information and to inspect impacts situations between 1987 and 1992, this study was executed in Chongnung valley of Mt. Puk'an. And to provide basic informations through the change of plant species diversity, some methods were applied and analyzed such as the degree of environmental impacts and belt-transect method. The results were summarized as follows; 1. In order to find environmental impacts by visitor, the degree of environmental impacts class that was proposed by Kwon(1991) was implicated. In 4 sites, total area of over impact class 2 is 86,692
and area of impacts class 4-6 that is impossible to recover naturally is 36,856
. Totally, the impacted area was profounded qualitatively and quantitatively against 1987's. 2. In the vegetation change by visitor's impacts, species diversity was rapidly decreased as nearer the campsite and trail. And in the basal area and coverage, lower layer species was sensitively changed. Trampling-resistent species is as following; Robinia pseudoacacia, Lespedeza cyrtobotrya, Staphylea bumalda, Clerdendron trichotomum, Stephanandra incisa, Rubus crataegifolius, Lespedeza maximowiczii, Weigela subsessilis, Rosa multiflora, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Lindera obtusiloba, Callicarpa japonica, Sorbus alnifolia, Symplocos mongolica and so on. In the results of soil hardness test, that was decreased as far away from campsite and trail. 3. In the 4 sites selected in Chongnung valley of Puk'ansan Natioal Park, management plans was largely divided 4 category, such as trail improvement, facilities setting, ecotone vegetation establishment, and vegetation rehabilitation. And a suggestion was provided to each site.
Analysis on the Degree of Enclosure on the Court Space in Suh-Won
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 101~111
This study deals with the degree of enclosure on the Court Space in 'Suh-Won' that has warious perceptual composition elements. 1. The size of Court Space in which we can read the complexion of others and easily understand every behavior of them is similar to that of the 'Madang' in the Korean traditional houses. 2. The angles of elevation are within the range of suitable enclosure as going from the center of the court Space to 'Kang-Dang' and the space -from the center of the Court Space to 'Kang-Dang'- is restricted and surrounded. It is also within the range of the least enclosure as going from the center of the Court Space to the 'Mun-Ru'. 3. The degrees of enclosure based on the horizontal angle are within the degree we can perceive the objects of structure easily. 4. The degree of enclosure based on the ratio D/H is increased as approaching from 'Mun-Ru' to 'Kang-Dang'. The distance as approaching from 'Mun-Ru' to 'Kang-Dang' is changed from social distance to personal distance. To conclude this the Court Space in 'Suh-Won' represents the hierarchical system with variety and the degree of enclosure and the size of space are within the range of human scale.
A Study on the Practices of Landscape Planning & Design Services in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 113~129
This study is designed to analyze the trends of professional services in Landscape Architecture during the past 5 years(1987-1991) in Korea. The data were collected from 1,117 projects from 56 engineering and landscape architecture firms. The findings are summarized as follows: 1) The projects have been increased annually by 19 percent in numbers and by 47 percent in money terms. 2) The main sources of projects are local governments and corporations. However the private sector comprise 31 percent in projects number and 46 percent in money terms. 3) The public park and tourism site development comprise a half of the projects. Recently recreational forest, golf, amusement and large housing site development have increased very rapidly. 4) In terms of workscope they are devided by 'complex' project which include extensive engineering works and 'simple' project which contain mostly planting design. The former include receational project with average 5 or 6 months contract period, and the later include housing and building site design with 2 or 3 months period. 5) Two types of consulting firms are typical. One is comprehensive engineering firms with urban planning section and few landscape section. The other is specialized professional firms with urban planning or landscape architecture. 50 percent of the project was done by comhensive engineering firms and 60 percent was done by urban planning section. The implication of these findings are broad: Firstly, We have to meet the demands in private secter mostly in recreation and leisure related projects. Secondly, landscape architects and project managers need more professional skills and coordination ability to deal with 'complex' projects. Thirdly, to enhance the quality of professional services it is required to have enough work time and higher service fee through legal and institutional enforcements.
A Study on a Choice Model of Outdoor Leisure Activities of the Megalopolis Citizens
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 131~145
The leisure demands and the interests for the quality of urban residents have been increased, but the leisure space is absolutely deficient. In the leisure site planning, the concrete understanding about people's leisure site choice is the most important thing, not only for the aspect of the leisure demands reception and the improvement of the life quality but also the aspect of the efficiency of land use. The purposes of this study are firstly, to find out prefered leisure sites, secondly, to establish the choice models of the each prefered leisure site to be substituted for existing indiscriminating leisure space planning. And for the choice model establishment, we used Logit Model, which has been used in the Traffic, the Toursim, the Economics fields. We extract people's perfered leisure sites in Seoul through 1st and 2nd survey, those are a park, a pocket park, a play hall, a recreation center(sport center), a hobby facility, a library. The established choice model for each prefered site can predict people's choice about 70 percents correctly. It indicates that the Logit model is useful for the explanation about the choice of residents in the urban area. Specially, the main affect factors to the choice of each prefered leisure site are different. It means that different consideration factors or different standards are needed for each leisure site planning.
환경-행태연구(EBS;Environment-Behavior Studies)의 환경설계분야 에의 적용과 문제
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 21, issue 4, 1994, Pages 147~170