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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Oct 1995
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jul 1995
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Apr 1995
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Jan 1995
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Use and Provision of Urban Parks in Kwang Ju City
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 1~21
Parks in Kwang Ju ar determined by the development of a housing project under the regulations of land development rather than the planning approach of park provision. This study tries to identify who is the provider of parks, to estimate the size of urban parks per person in the area of the housing project, to look at the spatial allocation patterns of park provision and to identify the character profiles of users and the social profile of an ares(Dong). This research has produced the following major conclusions : 1. The city government should set up a master plan of park provision to control park delivery system to avoid maldistribution. 2. A positive discrimination policy should be introduced to disadvantaged areas in terms of park provision. 3. The null hypothesis - there is no relationship between distance and park Use - is rejected by the correlation rate of 0.4984. 4. The ratio of parks per a person ; 10.43㎡/person in 1990 has decreased to 10.41㎡ /person in 1994. This means that the increase of parks in terms of quantity could not catch up the increase of population.
The Concepts of the Landscape : An Interpretation of related Chinese Characters
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 23~36
This study aims at scrutinizing the etymological meanings and literal usages of the term Gyung perse so as to clarify the traditional concepts formualted in the northeastern Asian countries. Related classical dictionaries and literatures in Korea and China were consulted intensively. Strictly speaking, the compound word gyung-gwan(景觀) composed of gyung(景:seen objects) and gwan(觀:seeing) in terms of word formation is not the synonym of the English term Landscpe. The Chinese character Gyung(景) composed of the character il(日:the Sun) and the character gyung(京:royal palace or capital city) originally indicated a brilliant and beautiful view of the capital city seen in a clear and bright daylight. Thereafter this ideographic letter had been used to indicate an unusual view which is aesthetically and can be used as a typical landscape schema or a model. Due to intrinsic nature of this kind of view, the meanings of gyung had been extended connotativelly as well as denotativelly: the meaning worthy of note in terms of landscape studies ar l) visible object which places some physical and psychological distance from the observer; 2)the scene or the backdrop of a theater, 3)a defined vista. With these in mind, meanings and usages of related terms as Kwung(光:light or bright), Pung(風:wind or fresh). Chi(致:fine), Mul(物:object or world), Gae (槪:general), Seung(勝:outstanding or surpassing), Saek(色:color or colorful), which had produced diversified and delicate connotations through compounding with the etymon Gyung, were reviewed.
On the Geometric Form of the Old City Kyungju and the Buddhistic Temples Sokgulam and Bulguksa
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 37~42
This study aimed at reconstruction the forgotten rules of Silla's. Bulguksa and Sokgulam in their conditions of location and spatial orders. So tried to find out what Korean Traditional principles in spatial art were and how they actually worked. The locations of these two temples related to their immediate environments, the geometric cityscape of the old city Kyungju. This geometric figure formed the basic of city master plan in the 8the century. And it highly effected on not these two temples but also many other significant places in locating decision making.
On the Design Characteristics of Modern Landscape Architecture -With the Trends of Garden Design after Neo-Classicism-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 43~62
This paper is to define what characteristics of modern landscape architecture are in terms of garden design. It is important to understand the characteristics of modern landscape architecture, not only for practical design works but also for design ideology. The characteristics were investigated by anlayzing several crucial drawings of modern landscape architects from the later ninteenth century to the early twentieth century. It is found that modern landscape architecture had been evolved after Neo-classicism in its design language, use of materials and principles. And modern landscape architecture was formulating its own design language not only by borrowing the language from other design fields, such as modern architecture but also by making own vocabulary itself the characteristics of modern landscape architecture were defined as collapse of genre, organic structure, pictorial composition, change of living thing, including those of modern architecture. Modern landscape architects drew their humanistic image on "the garden palette" which pursued artistic sense of creation.
Planting Guidelines for Home Energy Savings
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 63~74
A Study on the Prediction of the Permanent Wilting Point in Woody Plant by Cambial Electrical Resistance
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 75~80
It is important to estimate the possibility of recovery in physiologically damaged woody plant. It is suggested that C.E.R(cambial electrical resistance) might be a useful method to predict the permanent wilting point. D/A and A/D converter can be used to measure the C.E.R and it took only 10-20 msec for a measurement and the values were stable during this study. A computer could be used for the continual measurement of C.E.R. There were very big daily changes of C.E.R. was changed according to the changes of indoor temperature, but the phase was slightly different. It is reasoned that daily changes in C.E.R. is induced by the changes of water potential and cambial thickness. It was difficult to detect the changes of C.E.R. caused by changes in soil moisture under high soil water potential. Under low soil water potential, the changes in soil moisture under high soil water potential. Under low soil water potential, the changes of C.E.R. can be detected. After wilting, C.E.R. is increased very rapidly. When C.E.R. is not decreased by watering, it will be permanent wilting point. But it takes several days to confirm the permanent wilting point. To predict the possibility of recovery from wilting, the values of C.E.R. have no meaning. But the changes of C.E.R. are significant. Therefore we can predict the permant wilting point in woody plant by monitoring the change of C.E.R. by the computer.
A Study on Confucian Philosophies and Taoist Docrine in the Landscape Style of Palaces in Chosun Dynasty
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 81~93
Landscape Style would take various influences in general. In that of Korean Palaces religious thinking has been caused he most important factor. This conceptual attitude has been derived from Confucian philosophies and the doctrines of Taoism, the realm of ideas that had constituted the schema of culture through long times in the Orient. This paper has dealt with the influences of one's outlook on the universe, antropocentricism, and on the relationships of man and nature in those two major teachings upon the landscape style of palaces in Chosun Dynasty. The Confucian philosophies and the doctrines of Taoism in Taosim in palaces would be summarized as followings: 1. The composition of exterior spaces had been understood as a place for moral training and political morality in the world view of Confucious. 2. The view point on court circle with plants and trees had directed to the influences of beauty upon the human spirit, and it is clear in naming attitude. 3. The composition type of void and solid in palaces would focused on the completion of Confucian thoughts totally, and the method of a unit space is same. 4. The double symbolic ideas could be find out in the components of exterior space; one is Confucian in phenomena, the other is Taoism in meaning. This can be cleared in Pangji(方池), layout of natural features, and in planting methods. As a conclusion, the common spiritual base in landscape architecture of Korean old palaces can be understood as two major thinkings; Confucian philosophies and the doctrines of Taoism.
A Study on the Korean Native Woody Plants of Trees in the North American Landscape
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 95~117
This study was carried out to investigate Korean native trees in the America landscape through arboretums, the plant inventory of America, computer files for accessions from Korea, source lists of plants and seeds, and seed and plant nursery company. The results were as follows; 1. Korean native trees introduced in America and Canada were 119 species, 116 species were being cultivated in arbrids were being sold in nurseries, new cultivars were selected from 32 species, and hybrids were bred from 5 species. 2. Abies koreana, Malus baccata, and Stewartia koreana were being cultivated in many arboretums and sold in many nurseries. Also there were new hybrids as well as new cultivars. 3. 25 species including Albizzia julibrissin were being cultivated in many arboretums and sold in many nurseries. Also there were new hybrids. 4. Ilex integra and Ilex rotunda were being cultivated in many arboretums and sold in many nurseries. There were no new cultivars, but there were new hybrids. 5. 44 species including Abies holophylla were being cultivated in many arboretums and sold in many nurseries. There were no new cultivars or hybrids. 6. Populus tremula var. davidiana was being cultivated in many arboretums. There were new cultivars of 'Erecta', 'Gigas', 'Pendula', but no new hybrids. They were not sold by any nurseries. 7. 41 species including Abies nephrolepsis were being cultivated in many arboretums. But they were not sold by any nurseries. They didn't have any new cultivars or hybrids. 8. Diospyros kaki 'Kyungsan Bansi', Elaeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus, and Pyrus serotina 'Dankae' were not being cultivated in arboretums in America but some nurseries were selling those species as well as new cultivars. 9. Only 3 species (Berchemia berchemiaefolia, Carpinus eximia, and Chionanthus retusus var. coreana which are native Korean plants) were not introduced in America or Canada.
A Study on the Geometric Form of the Preliminary Plan "hanyang" in Early Chosun Dynasty
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 119~132
This study shows the characteristics of the early phenomena of the city plan Hanyang (old city Seoul). It consists of two steps. One is to search for the constructing principles of the geometric setting. And the other is to inquire and interpret the objects of beginning and ending points of that setting. The results based on geographic analysis and historical facts are as follows: 1) The city plan Hanyang shows a certain hierarchy:the major axis and the locations of the palace and the city set up in the prority. This priority made onto lower hierarchical plans such as the site plans of palaces and city wall. For example of the significant objects are Namdaemum (South Gate of the city wall) and Kwanghwamun (South Gate of the Palace). They are on the main axis, and became the basic points of the detailed city plans. 2) The palace palace on its major axis, right-angled minor axis, and 4 grade inclination to north. The four small city wall gates located on the base of four greater gates. 3) The geometric characteristics as constructing principle found on certain hierarchical order. Thus, the natural elements as mountains, had an important effect on the arrangement of major facilities and those main constructions made on lower - hierarchical settings. 4) These facts related closely to the philosophy of Jung, Do-Jon, the initiative planer of the Hanyang.
A Study on the User's Motivation and Satisfaction for Civic Garden
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 133~148
This study was carried out to provide behavioral data for its planning and management of civic garden through the evaluation of user's motivation & satisfaction. The civic gardens around Seoul were surveyed. The site are located in Kwangtan-myeon, Sudong-myeon, Wonsam-myeon, Nam-myeon, Buknae-myeon, and Jumdong-myeon, A total of 244 questionnaires were completed by mail questionnaires. The results are as follows: 1. 82 percentage of users are in thirties or fourties most of them have children who go to the elementary school. 50 percentage of users are just typical house wifes. 74 percentage of users graduated form university. 60 percentage of users live in lofty apartment buildings. 2. As a result from factor analysis, their motivations are categorized into four fator groups.: 'to experience nature', 'weekend recreation', 'nostalgia', 'to provide their old parent's sparetime'. And their satisfactions are categorized into eleven fator groups.: 'psychological/intellectual component', 'recreational components', 'instruction/management', 'facility'. 'vegetable cultivation', 'social contact', 'crowing', 'aesthetic component', 'family contact', 'the terms of lease', 'visition time'. 3. The user of civic garden can be divided into four user groups by their motivation. CLUSTER1 can represent the user group who have motivations for 'leisure, relaxation'. They are considerably satisfied with all other factor 'opportunity of meeting new person'. CLUSTER2 at the age of 41 to 50 have motivation for 'health, nostalgia'. CLUSTER3 at the age of 31 to 40 have motivation for 'harvest, experiencing nature'. CLUSTER4 at the age of more than 51 want to let their parents enjoy their sparetime. They are dissatisfied with accessibility, amount of cultivation area, crowding and overall farm management. 4. The regression analysis was employed with predicting the overall satisfaction. The results of regression analysis showed that 69% of total variances was explained by six variables: The most effective variable is 'whether visiting on weekend or weekdays', the visitors on weekdays are far more satisfied than weekend visitors because of traffic congestion, and crowding. The second source of satisfactions are 'psychological/intellectual components', they are satisfied with 'family contact', 'the terms of lease' and 'instruction in farming' are sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and finally 'aesthetic landscape' is the source of satisfaction. The second most important variable is psychological one. Even though the civic gardens were not well equipped, they liked the atmosphere of rural life, refreshness, nostalgia, satisfaction from cultivation plants, and sense of achievement.
A Study on the Anthesis and Flower Color Characteristics of Deciduous Woody Landscape Plants
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 149~160
We investigated the seasonal changes flower color of 163 deciduous woody landscape plants in the Suwon region from January 1, 1992 to March 20, 1993. The results were as follows; 1. By the month of anthesis of woody landscape plants, only one plant of Hamamelis japonica flowered in February, 15 species in March, 48 species in April, 63 species in May, 23 species in June, 12 species in July, and one plant of Hydrangea paniculata was flowered in August. 2. The flowering period was about 220 days from February 24, 1992 that Hamamelis japonica was anthesis to October 5, 1992 when Hydrangea paniculata was deblossomed. 3. By the flowering period of woody landscape plants, 81 species continued for 11 days through 20 days, and Rosa spp., 118 days, Hibiscus syriacus 'Yungkwang', 80 days, Largerstroemia indica, 65 days, and 6 species continued for 41 through 60 days, 10 species were 31 through 40 days, 43 species were 21 through 30 days, and 20 species were for less than 11 days. 4. The woody landscape plants flowering before leaf spreading, Hamamelis japonica, Abeliophyllum distichum, Prunus mume 'Hwahyangmi', Prunus mume 'Baekkaha', Lindera obtusiloba, Cornus officinalis, Prunus armeniaca. The others were plants with leaves spreading white flowering; Forsythia ovata 'Tetra gold', Forsythia ovata, Corylus hetrophylla, Rhododendron mucronulatum, Magnolia denudata, Forsythia koreana 'Seoul Gold', Forsythia koreana, Magnolia stellata, Acer negundo 'Elegans', Magnolia kobus, Forsythia viridissima 'Bronxensis', Prunus yedoensis, Prunus leveilleana var. pendula, Prunus persica for. albiplena, Prunus tomentosa, Prunus persia, Magnolia liliflora, Prunus glandulosa for. sinensis, Cercis chinensis, Poncirus trifoliata. 5. In terms of flower color based on KBS standard color number, 83 species were white, 44 species wer red, 21 species were yellow, 12 species were violet, and 3 species were green. 6. In terms of the flower color by month. Hamamelis japonica was yellow February. Flower colors in March were : yellow-7 species, red-3 species and white-5 species. Flower colors in April were : White-21 species, red-19 species and yellow-6 species. Flower colors in May were : White-36 species, red-16 species. The white flowers in June were 16 species. Flower colors in July were : white-4 species, red-4 species. 7. The white flower color of woody landscape plants of trees was 35 species. The red flower color was 18 species, yellow flower color was 5 species, violet flower color was 2 species, and green flower color was 3 species. Also the white flower color of woody landscape plants of shrubs was 48 species, red flower color was 25 species, yellow flower color was 17 species and violet flower color was 10 species. 8. The new 'Cultivars' of woody landscape plants are needed to introduced the development of planting design. 9. Present data of illustrated books of plants should be checked by new data that was studied in this research.
An Empirical Study on Visiters' Motivation for Hot Spring Resorts
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 161~176
Leisure motivation is an important concept in the study of leisure behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine visitors' motivations for hot spring resorts in Korea. The data were collected by questionnaires survey in three hot spring resorts in 1994:Suanbo, Paikam, and Chuksan. The findings of this study are summarized as follows: The eight motivation factors extracted by factor analysis such as; 1)"intellectual needs", 2)'escaping everyday life', 3)'closing nature', 4)'recognition or status', 5)'interaction with others', 6)'health', 7)'family vacation', 8)'hot spring bathing'. The three resorts showed significant deferences in the motivation of visitors. Visitors of Suanbo have high motivation for 'intellectual needs', 'interaction with others', and 'thealth', and visitors of Chuksan for 'closing nature', 'family vacation', and 'hot spring bathing'. This study has proved first, psychological(pushing) factors are more important than pulling factors of resorts, second, in pulling factors, natural sceneries were more important than medicinal properties of the hot springs. And this study found several important implications for predicting visitors' demand in hot spring resorts.
A Study on the Structure of Vegetation in Deokyusan National Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 177~185
To investigate vegetation structure and succession of forest in the Deokyusan National Park, field survey was performed from July to September, 1992 and the results were as follows; The forest vegetation of Deokyusan National Park was classified into four communities by the factor of altitude. The successional trends of tree species by DCA ordination seem to be from Pinus densiflora to Carpinus laxiflora and Betula schmiatii and also, Quercus spp. through Cornus walter and Platycarya strobilacea to Q. mongolica, Abies holophylla and Taxus cuspidata. The diversity indices seemed to be affected by the factors of altitude. Especially, evenness showed several difference according to altitude. Comparing vegetation structure of lower layer for the recess system and one others, more number of species and species diversity were observed.
Ecological Management and Planning of Estuarine Environment
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 22, issue 4, 1995, Pages 186~202