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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Oct 1995
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jul 1995
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Apr 1995
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Jan 1995
Selecting the target year
Theory in the Aesthetics of Landscape: A criticar neview of J, Appleton and S. Bourassa
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 7~22
Philosophers Of aeBthetics have tended to limit their Suhject to include only objects Of art. In contrast to art objects, landscapes include elements of both art and nature, and the aesthetic experiences of landscape are ordinarty ones. Thus, the theoretical alternatives, that cannot be like the traditional aesthetic dogma of art, must be explored. Jay Appleton's theory is the firsts attempt to develop a comprehensive theory of landscape aesthetics. He concentrates on the question 'what do we like about landscape and why do we like it ' He takes the assumption that the aesthetic experience of landscape is pleasurable or satisfying, and suggests the biologically oriented theory, called 'prospect-refuge theory.'Although his theory is stimulating and highly speculative, it depends on the 'aesthetic attitude' theory of Kantian thought. His theory can be criticized for its biologically deterministic nature and its reductionism To respond to Appleton's shortcomings, that is, to resolve the conflict between biological and cultural explanations of aesthetic experience of landscape, Steven Bourassa tries to combine biological, cultural, and personal modes in a comprehensive paradigm for research in landscape aesthetics. This tripartite paradigm seems to promise to be meaningful if helping to pose important questions as well as in. avoiding conceptual errors about aesthetic domain of landscape. However, Bourassa's theory fails to integrate such three separate kinds of moder In the final analysis both Appleton and Bourassa present same succeases in expanding the scope of aesthetics to embrace landscape. Most important for a theory in landscape aesthetics must be its ability to enlarge our awareness of the aesthetic domain and its sound logic and evidence to criticize our problematic beliefs about he aesthetic idea of landscape.
Development of Methods to lmprove the Reliability of ELECTRE
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 23~38
ELEECTRE is a less demanding and potentially Bffective multiattribute evaluation method for pre-editing proeedure. The method, however, was developed based on probabilistic mathematicsand its reliability has never'been emprieally tested. This article examined the reliability of ELECTRo under various conditions of linear and non-linear utility func- tions using a Monte-Carlo shnulation, and found the method eausea a considerably high rate of error. To enhance the reliability of ELECTRE, two ways of modi(ication - adjust- ment of threshold values of concordance and discordance matrices, and adjustment of the required nunlber of probably-dominant alternatives to eliminate a probably-dominated alternative - were suggested, and their effctiveness was also tesed by a Monte-Carlo simulation. The simulation result chows that these modifications cponsiderably improve the reliability of ELECTRE, and yet maintain a reasonably high level of efficiency. Through these modifications, ELECTRE can be used as an efficient and feliable pre-editing method. Ways to implement ELECTRE in the construction of plainning decision support systens were discussed. The impli(els combination of this method and other multiattribute evaluation methods will help to create more effective decision suport systems.
A Study on Estabilshing lndicies of National Park Management with Reference to User Satisfaction
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 39~50
This Study aims at identifying factor and variables which have significant effects on user satisfaction with recreational resources and facilities in Juwang National Park and there-by establishes indicies of planning and / or management of the park. To test the causal models of this research, the data was gathered by self-administered questionnaires from users in Juwang National Park. The analysis of the data was conducted in two phases. The first analysis dealt with exploratory gactor analysis which identified major factors involved in satisfaction with recreational facilities in Juwang National Park. The second analysis tested the fit of causal models of this research to the data using LISREL methodology. The factor analysis identified six significant factors in satisfaction with recreational resources, The six factors are convenient park facilities, natural landacape resources, linear park facilities, mineral springs and Buddhist temples, commercial and sleeping accommodations, rest areas and open space for passive recreational activity. The second phase analysis tested the fit of the causal model for satisfaction with recreation facilities to the data. The phase identified statistically significant causal links among overall satisfaction with the park, and other indigenous factors and exogenous variables. From these causal relationships, implications for future management of Juwang National Park were suggested.
A Study on Conservation of the Natural Environment in Chosun-Dynasty, Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 51~65
Conservation of the natural environiment In chosun-Dynasty, Korea, is analysed on the basis of the of official records of the king's offices(Chosun-wangjo-sillok). In the popular ideologies of the dynasty, Seongleehak(philosophy of humanity arid natural laws) and Pungsu (geomancy) , the naturnal enviroment is defined as an entity con-sisting of Cheon (heaven) , San(mnountains) , Su (water), Geumsu (animals)and Chomok (plants) .the notion of Tacksi-Tackmul(being careful to take natural resources at the right time) was one of the Cheonmyung (eavenly decrees) . It was believed that violation of this principle resulted in natural disasters. Sasan(four mountains surrounding Hansungbu-, the capital city, now Seoul) , were strictly preserved according to geomancy practices. In areas other than the capital city, Sanlimcheontack (mountains, forests, rivers and ponds) were con-served for sustained production of building materials especially pinetrees for ship building, foods, firewoods, horses, and orter useful natural resources. Various conservation policy insturuments were adopted. Prunning trees was permitted only in October. Capturing fishes was allowed only after the spawning period. Protection areas were designated in Sasan, Seongjoesiplee (surroundings of the capital city) , Geumsan(protected mountains), Kangmujang(hunting and army training grounds), Sijang(firewood areas), Mokmajang(horse ranches) and Neungyuk(royal tombs) . Activities prohibited for conservation purposes included cutting timbers, burning, building houses or tombs, dumping wastes, farming and breaking up fresh land, grazing, hunting and trespassing. Positive actions for conservation were rituals to Heaven ennoblement of natural elements such as mountians or rivers, planting trees, Boto (supplementing soil on low ridges) , Josan (mounding) and making ponds. Boto, Josan and making ponds were to make ideal terrains for geomancy. Many government bodies and civil servants were engaged in the conservation activities. For example, Sanjik(forest keeper) was a special position with responsibility for forest management.
Studies on Planting Distrfbutien Status of Landscaping Plants in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 67~94
A total of 394 plant species in 74 families planted in home gardens, public building gardens, campuses of elementaiy, middle, and high schools, and universities, recreation areas, city parks, loeal and national ways, and highways from 1.21 local areal in Korea were surveyed- A comparison of the surveyed species to nation-widei.y growing species in those areas were studied. the results obtained were as follows : 1. The ratio of evergreen to deciduous plant species was 38.1:61,9 and that of tree:scrub:vine was 54:40.9:5.1. 2. The ratio of evergreen to deciduous plant species was 27.5:72.5 among total 276 land-scape plant species surveyed in Seoul and Kyongki-do province. The ratios were 32:68 in Kwangwon-do, 36.1:63.9 ill Chungchongbuk-do, 37:61 iii Chungchongnanl-do, 36.4:63.6 in Kyungsangbuk-do, 39.2:60.8 고 Kyungsangaaal-do, 35.7:64.5 in Jollabuk-do, 40.6:59.4 in Jollanam-do, and 43.1 :56.9 in Cheju-do. This results tell that more evergreen species are growing in the southern than in northern region in Korea. 3. Plants with 100% frequency in national planting were 8 species inclubing Forsythia koreana 91-99% were 6 species including Taxus cuspidata, 81-90% were 13 species including Magnolia liilflora, 71-80% were 10 speces including Buxus microphylla val, koreana, 61-70% were 13 species including Thuja occiduntakus, 51-60% were 15 species including Pius thunbergii, 41-50% were 15 species including Kerria japonica, 31-40% were 17 species including Cryptomeria japonica, 21-30% were 28 species including Viturnum awabuki, and below 20% were 267 species including Koelreuteria paniculata. 4 Uppermost north latitude of planting distribution of major temperature species was sum- marized as follows: Although it has been reported that Cryptomeria japonica is possible to grow in areas around -47, the result from this study shows that Cryptomeria japonica grows normally in Choonchun Seoul, Samchuck, and Kwangryeung, etc. , and is possible to grow normally in the areas with approximately -6
in an average temperature in January, where are -2
colder than the reported temperature, but locally warm Phyllostachys bambusoides is distributed to Mt. Kumkang and Mt. Sulak, and also planted in Seoul, Kwangryeung, and Chunchon.
Privacy ; Concept and Estimation Model in Outdoor Space Design
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 95~109
All human spatial behavior and psychological stress are affected by the 'Privacy'of each space. This Paper deals with the theoretical review of 'privacy'concept and establishment of 'Privacy Model' that can be a useful design tool. 'Privacy Index(Pl)' model of 10 point scale, which is based on 'Hierarchic system of Privacy' in urban spaces by Chermeyeff and Alexander(1963), was established as a hypothetical model in this study. And'Activity Suitability', based on each hierarchy of primacy level, was investigated at each site to construct the validity of 'Privacy Model'. Total 67 sites were investigated by on.-site questionnaire in 3 types of outdoor spaces, (Park), (Campus), and (Garden) respectively. The major results are as follows; 1. The P7rivacy level of earth spaces, distributed from
and (Groun Private> spaces are dominant In
spaces are dondnant 2, Privacy level, based on
, showed higher privacy level than that of
. This means the criteria of each privacy level should be modified for more specific space. The
could be derived from the (Activity Suitability) of each space. 3.The cognition of privacy level. by user group, showed no significant difference in dach group by sex, age, education, and job, respectively
Studies on the Morphological Characteristics of Wild Yellow Chrysanthemun in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 111~122
12 populatiDns of Ch indicum L. and it's variation antogenous in Tforea were selected throughout the country and their morphological characteristics were studied in this paper. The results are as follows. 1) The mean of the plant height is 97.3cm. Ch. indicunl is 76.5cm and Ch. boreale is 116. 6cm in height. The number of nodes is 58 on the average. The color of the stem is generally black-red in the case of Ch. indicum and is green for Ch. boreale. 2) The leaves of Ch. inficum are smaller In size and thicker than chose of Ch. boreale, and it has a stipule. This fact enables us to distinguish one species from the other, however, the Gyukpo-population of Ch. indicum has a large leaf, and Byunsan-population of Ch. boreale has a stipule so that the above fact is not an exact criterion on which to base one classification. 3) The size of the capitulum is 24.9mm for Ch. indicum and 15.6mm in the case of Ch. boreaje so that the difference between species is admitted. It was confirmed hat the size of the capitulum has positive correlation to that of the pedicel and has egative correlation to the number of flowers, so that of inflorescence, Ch. indicumhas corymb, and Ch. boreale has crowed corymb or umbel-type.The number of ligulates is 19 on the average, which no the difference being founnd between species and populations.4) The cluster analysis of morphological characteristics showed that Ch. indicum wasdivided into two groups, which was shown thought to be due to the difference of speciesbetween Ch. indicum and Ch. boreale. However, it could not be shown that their morphological characteristics explain a geographical relationship between populations
A Study on the Facilities Distribution based on the Choice Model of the Outdoor Leisure-Facilities in a Neighbourhood Unit of the Megalopolis Citizens. -In terms of the Comparison of Choice Models and the Limitations of Use Areas between the Megalopolis-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 123~139
The megalopolis citizens are reevaluating the expectant value and the perception of leisure aceording to increasing the level of their incomes, The leisure of citizens is increasing in the aspect of quantity and quality of life nowadays In the site planning of leisure, the concrete understanding about people's choice of a leisure site will be the most important thing, not only for the aspect of improvement of the quality of life but also efficiencies of the land use The purposes of chi study are firstly, to find out the factors which are influenced on a choice of Outdoor leisure facilities in neighbourhood unit and to Compare the Characteristics Of Choice models between the three metropolitan areas, secondly, to predict a limitation of use areal according to the change of a needed time based on the metropolitan's standard choice model For the choice model establishment this research used Logit Model which has been used in the field of the traffic, the tourism and the economics. This research made the results which find out the influencing variables with needed times, the accessibility and the percentage of facilities. The lindtations of use areas come out the results which are predicted according to the change of needed times as a most influencing factors. The range of each preferred leisure facility is about 956 meter distant in the neighbourhood park about 644 meter distant in the pocket park about 604 meter distant in the recreation center, about 628 meter distant in the tennis court about 974 meter distant in the private hob by facility and about 528 meter distant in the library from the apartment unit The recreation center and the library are nearer facilities than the other facilities. But these facilities are surveyed to be more or less influenced by an interesting progran, a context of events and the level of useful facilities, etc.
A Study ort the Facilities Distribution based on the Choice Model of the Outdoor Leisure-Facilities in a Neighbourhood Unit of the Megalopolis Citizens. - in terms of the distribution of Outdoer Leisure-Facilities -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 141~156
This research is executed to find out the boundary of use by the conscious of local residents and to get the basic materials for the distribution of outdoor leisure-facilities. The map of use distribution of the outdoor leisure-facilities in a neighbourhood unit is made by applying a concept of the probabilistic contour line based on the choice model of outdoer leisure-facilities in the city of Seoul, Taegu an\ulcorner Kwangju. The results are listed as follows. 1) The use of outdoor leisure-facilities is influenced on the accessibility by the physical obstacles of streets and hills, etc. 2) The limitation of uses applying the model of choice probability are different according to the accessibility, the percentage of utilities and the arriving range based on the questionnaires which are surveyed the choice of outdoor leisure facilities of the residents of Seoul, Taegu and Kwangju. 3) The distribution of outdoor leisure facilities is decided by the limitation of use with the conscious of local residents.
A Study on the Characteristics and Transformation of Location of Seowon in Chosen Dynasty
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 157~173
Seowons were first established during the Koryo Dynasty and contain primate shrines for the service of ancestors and ancient sages. Seowons were located in a scenic or rural place some distance from a residential area. The direct motive for building the Seowon came from the need for transcendental concealment and evasive retirement which developed as a result of oppression of scholars The indirect motivations were the development of loaming in an idyllic natural settings and the creation of a beautiful natural environment. he purpose of tai study is to investigate the characteristics and transformation process of the location of Seowon in the Chosen dynasty. The results of this research are summarized as fellows : 1. Seowons were in hilly areas with good geographical features including a nice view of the mountains and waters. Beowons were also built on the relation place of an ancient sage and of destroyed Buddist temples. 2. The location patterns of seowon in the Choson dynasty underwent three stages with the change of time Political and social phenomena influenced the transformation of the location patterns Research in this area is at an early stage. The present study was confined to an examination of 7he characteristics and transformation process of the location of seowons. However, it is hoped that this study will offer meaningful guide for further research
Toward the Directions of Landscape Study from the Review of Literatures and the Analysis of Composition of Taek-li-ji
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 175~188
Most of studies about Taegni-Ji were searched in the field of geography and history. These are relrealed the conflictin respects of the structure and contents of Taegni-Ji. This study reviewed these studies and searched for limits and inquiries. Thus the parts of overlooking in them were dealt with and interpretated in terms of the characters of the contents and structure of Taegni-Ji. This book is regarded as the subjects of traditional evaluation of landscape. Tractional landscapes were related to Pung-su in many sides. So the contents specialty related to Pung-su which refered used in Taegni-Ji were discussed through the system of Taegni-Ji. As a result the terms of Pung-su used in Taegni-Ji must be researched which were specific term or not. Those studies are bibliographical review. Taegni-Ji contains of many apparent view of rural landscape thug they will be carried to field survey. Research in this area is at an early stage. The Present stuffy was confined to an examination of the characteristics and transformation process of the location of seowons However, it is hoped that this study will offer meaningful guide for further research.
An Examination of Japanese Modes Expressed in American Spatial Design
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 1, 1995, Pages 189~214