Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Oct 1995
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jul 1995
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Apr 1995
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Jan 1995
Selecting the target year
Application of Hybrid Conjoint Analysis to Improve Competitive Power of Theme Parks in Seoul and Its Suburbs
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 1~16
This study was carried out to suggest method which can be used to improve competitive power of theme parks. The characteristics of Hybrid Conjoint Analysis were described and its usefulness for identification of specific types of service theme parks have to provide was tested "Lotte World, " "Seoul land," and "farmland" were selected as study areas, and .7 attributes with 3 levels were utilized for analyses. Master design with 81 profiles was constructed to meet the requirement of ′Compromise Plan 1,′and data was collected by in-personal interviews on the study areas. Respondents were grouped by cluster analysis, and their characteristics were analyzed by discriminant analysis. Then, part-worth of each attribute . was estimated by stagewise estimation model Calibrated model of each group did not show part-worths of attributes clearly because both main effects and 2-way interaction effects were included in the models. Therefore, calibrated models′ coefficients were used to calculate utilities of all possible combinations of attributes levels. The results showed that managers of theme parks have several options for providing a new service: the combination of attribute levels with the highest utility is they however, they can choose the other combinations with next highest utlities is they can not afford it. Several suggestions were described to cope with the problems when Hybrid Conjoint Analysis is applied to landscape architectural study.
A study on the Visual Impact of Pavilions In Natural Landscapes
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 17~28
The purpose of this thesis is to suggest basic objective data for landscape planning and design through the quantitative analysis of the visual impact of pavilion situated in natural landscapes. For this, naturality and visual preference scores of landscape s1ides were measured by questionnaires, visual volumes of pavilion in the natural landscape were evaluated using the Mesh analysis and images structure was analyzed by the factor analysis algorithm The results of this thesis can be summarized as follow. Landscape slides No. 27 and 9 were ranked more highly for naturality, and slides No.22, 28, 6 and 4 were ranked more highly for visual preference. Factors covering the spatial image of the natural landscape were found to be the evaluation, the tidiness and the space volume. By using the control method for the number of factors, T. V., were obtained as 59.0%. For all experimental landscape slides, the factors of evaluation and tidiness were found to be the main factors determining the naturality and visual preference. The naturality and actor scores and the visual preference and factor scores were found to exepress the regression relation.
A Study on the Creation of Parks in North Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 29~43
In this study on the creation of parks in North Korea, which is closely re]toted to the developmental stages in North Korea, park construction plans are investigated according to the following periods: 1) from the Liberation of Korea in 1945 to the outbreak of the Korean War, 2) from the end of the Korean War to the 1950's, 3) 1960's and 4) 1970's and 1980's Major North Korean parks are also presented and common characteristics of park-making in North Korea are analyzed in the following way : 1) the character and function of the parks, 2) the development of landscaping, 3) the creation of unique North Korean parks. This study was conducted through archival research of North Korean documents and it may be limited due to the intrinsic problem of reliability that the documents have, and also to an impossoble on-the-spot survey. However this study is of value because it presents North Korean parks, as yet unpublished in South Korea, and it can be used as valuable information for further study and especially for the planning of parks and green space system in preparation for a probable unified Korea. For a profound stuffy, broader and more accurately detailed North Korean documents must be obtained and opened to the public. A comparative study on the principles of spatial composition and design elements of the parka in South and North Korea mutt also be conducted so as to find a model for the Korean park for a future unified Korea.
A study on landscape space of pavilions in The Sang-iu Region of Chosun Dynasty
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 44~62
This study investigated the landscape space of Chosun Dynasty pavilions in the Sang-ju Region. Five renowned pavilions were selected for study by Phenomenological and IDRISI (4.1) S/W. The results were as follows ; Pavilions were erected for studying cultivating moral sense admiring the view relieving illness and commemorat memoring people. A total of 248 pavilions were erected in the Sang-ju Region between 1392 and 1895 AD, most of them duing he golden age from 15001670 AD. Pavilions and open space were composed in harmony with nature borrowing natural landscape features. Landscape characteristics were analysised with IDRISI(4.1) S/W; pavilions were ma711y located at the bottom of a mountain with stream The Inner garden was formed by a fence and Lagerstroemia indica or a few trees. The Outer garden was formed by mixed stands of Pinus dentsiflora, Zelkowa serreta, Acer formosum and well conserved natural vegetation
A Study on the Conscious Structure of Park & Open Space Managers and Administrators - ln the Case of Seoul -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 63~70
This study is executed to find out necessities of park & open space management, its policy, its administrational structure, and personnel management. To get objective and basic materials for this study, conscious structure of practical level members in Seoul is analyzed by means of questionnaire sheet and ANOVA analysis. It is important to consider various related factors ; quality upgrading of management of park & open space, improvement of productivity, intensification of user service, and orientation of self administration. As a result, we should restructure the park system and policy in order to enhance recognition toward the necessities of park & open space. And we could suggest regional specialization of district autonomy area as an alternative strategy.
A Study of Design Trends in Contemporary Korean Landscape Architectural Works*
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 71~92
This study Is about the situation of contemporary landscape architecture design in Korea. The conceptual framework of interpretation for landscape architectural works is formulated to define the design trends of today′s professional works The study′s analytical method is composed of the survey of attitudes questionnaire, the analysis of design composition techniques and conclusions drawn from the comments of contemporary landscape architectural critics. Among 975 members of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, 318 professionals responded to the survey questionnaire. The survey revealed that landscape architects in Korea are concerned about the profession′s reduced contributions to the sharping of the built environment. However, they are optimistic about its future. Ten top design works were selected from the surveys′ answers and were analyzed for the design characteristics which could best represent the trends of the last thirty years. Several design critiques and comments about the professional works were cited to reinforce the outlined "-ty" of the contemporary design phenomena. The study identified the following distinguished design trends of contemporary Korean landscape architectural works They are as follows: Themelessty, Powerity, Traditionality, Monumentality, Non-contextuality and Over-designity. These trends identify the overall prevailing conditions of Korean landscape architectural design over the past thirty years.
A Study on the Aesthetic Preference for Rural Landscapes: urban and rural resident differences
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 93~103
The changes of rural landscape are currently spread everywhere and are rapidily being processed both in quality and in quantities of changes From such aspects, it is urgent to control the land scape change, and is required to know what is valued or preferred in rural landscape, This study was conducted to investigate preferences and differences of the responses between urban and rural residents to rural scenery. As a method, color-slide surrogates for rural landscape settings are shown to urban and rural residents, For a given 52 scenes of rural landscapes the respondents judged the familiarity, orality, and preference along a ten point scale. The following facts are found: 1) Refponses to certain types of landscape settings are influenced by the place of residence of the respondents. The urban residents highly rated natural components of the rural landscape. In contrast rural residents preferred the scenes with visible sign of development 2) The relations among the estimation of preference, familiarity and rurality in rural landscape were deeply correlated. When the rural lands(:ape is adequately ref resented as 'familiarity' or 'rurality' well the landscape is more preferred 3) It is found what is valued or preferred in rural landscape : Readjusted agricultural land, big tree, grassland hi dominated visually were preferred in rural landscape. The implication of this study is that successful planning of development or management in rural area will occur only when these different needs and values are acknowledged and accommodated.
A Cross-cultural Comparisons for Landscape Preference on Korean Traditional Garden
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 104~112
The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-cultural comparison of landscape preferences among Korean, Japanese and Western groups, and to get some clues to be used in judging this cultural influence. Moreover this study suggested fundamental data for design theory of modern landscape architecture. The results were as follows ; Natural factors including vegetation, water and rock, structural factors and spatial factors could be significant variables on Korean traditional landscape. The mean preference scores for both landscape element and landscape space were significantly different(p(0.01, p(0.05) with the Korean most perferred, the Western in the middle, and Japanese least. There were both differences and similarities in landscape preference among Korean, Japanese and Western groups.
Studies on Seed Mixtures for Slope Revegetation of the Road
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 113~123
This study was conducted to find out appropriate rates of seed mixture of both native and foreign plants in order for stabilization of early afforestation and proper vegetation on road slope. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Characteristics of germination : After seeding, 2 weeks for both Lespedeza bicolor and Lespedeza cuneata, and 4 weeks for both Arundinella hirta and Zoysia japonica were needed for vigorous germination, and 1-4 wee17s for 3 cool-season grasses were spent for gradual germination. 2. Plant height : There was no difference between Lespedeza cuneata and Lespedeza bicolor in plant height by 7 treatments. As mixture rates of cool-season grasses were lowered, plant height of Arundinella hirta became longer. Descending order of co81-season grasses for plant height was Tall fescue, Perennial ryegrass and Creeping redfescue. 3. Number of tillers : The number of tillers tended to increase in the experimental plots where competition was low. 4 Ground cover rate : Ground cover rate was the highest in Mixture IV (96.7%) and was fluctuated from 13.3% on Sept. 13 to 45% on Nev. 3 in Mixture III. Descending order of gronud cover rates in 7 treaments was Mixture IV, Mixture III. Mixture II, Mixture Ⅶ, Mixture V, Mixture Ⅵ, Mixture I, and Mixtur III when measured on Oct. 13 5. Visual assessment: High preferences were observed on Mixture IV and Ⅶ In sun the best seed mixtures were Mixture IV and Ⅶ. It meant that (1) either mixture of 70% the native plants with 30% cool-season graaes or (2) mixture of 80% the native plants with 20% cool-season glasses was best for this study.
A Study on the Characteristics and Historical Development Pattern of "DAE(A Kind of Eminence)" in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 124~136
This study was conducted to find the distinguished pattern of Korean 'Dae'. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to define how the pattern of 'Dae' has been developed and what is the characteristics of the pattern of Korean 'Dae'. The summarized results are as follows; 1. The types of 'Dae'(rock in the nature, a 'Dae' built artificially, a structure) were identified in the era of the three kingdoms. And in the era of the three kingdoms, 'Dae' was regarded as: a mysterious place related with a king, the place where concrete activities of a specific person had occurred in there, and a mountain peak 2. in the era of Koryo , artificial aspect of 'Dae' were emphasized. In addition, the activities occurred in the 'Dae' took concrete shape by kings. 3. The characteristics of the pattern of 'Dae' during Chosen Dynasty are: 1) A type of huge flat rock(27.6%), a type of mounts고 peak and a type of cuff(24.1%), a type of fantastic rock(15.5%), a type of stratified rock(6.9%) were shown 2) The main activities on 'Dae' were play , observation, and rest 3) In the viewpoint of the locational characteristics, 'Dae' were found in the mountains, at the top of the mountain peaks, on high hill, on cliffs, at the riversides, and on the beaches, etc. 4. With consideration on change trend of the number of'Dae' according to literature(time) , the biggest geographical distributions of 'Dae' were shows in Hamkyungdo in noddle of 15th century (Saejongsillockjiriji), in Kangwondo in the middle of 16th century (Sinjeongdonggukyecjiseongram), in Chunrado in middle of 17th century(Donggukyeojiji), and in Kyungsangdo in middle of 18th 19th century(Yeojidoseo, Eubji) 5. Through the whole period of Chosen Dynasty, the geographical distribution of 'Dae' had much in Kyungsangdo and Pyungahndo.
A Research on the Youth Facilities Management with Importance-Performance Analysis
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 137~147
This research is a preliminary study to improve the criteria of youth facilities which regulated in Youth Fundamental Act, with the method of Importance-Performance Analysis on youth facilities management. Evaluation inquiry had been made, and were collected from the youth facility managers who attended The Korean Youth Facility Managers' Seminar held on 24th Nov. 1994 at Pakdaljae Youth Center. The results are as follows; 1. Keep Up the Good Work : indoor facilities in community area, and outdoor facilities and accommodations in natural area are resulted in high in Importance and. Performance. They need to be operated constantly. 2. Concentrate Here : Counselling room, hobby room and outdoor meeting places in community area, and care room in natural area are perceived high in Importance but low in Performance. They need to provide proper leaders and equipment. 3. Low Priority : Care room, forest and outdoor facilities in community area, arid forest and folk playground in natural area are low in both Importance and Performance. So, it is considered that they are not necessary ones in both areas, but some outdoor facilities are so essential in natural area that they need to be provided properly. 4 Possible Overkill : Courtyard and library in community area, and outdoor facilities in natural area are low in Importance but high in Performance. They need to improve their importance through the development of applicable activity programs.
Actual Vegetation and Plant Community Structure of Urban Forest in Kwangju Metropolitan City
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 148~156
This study was conducted to investigate the actual vegetation and plant community structure of the urban forest in Kwangju Metropolitan City. Thirty eight plots in the urban forest were set up by the clumped sampling method. The degree of green naturality, 6 that is artifical planting area covered 10.9% in Kwangju Metropolitan City and Pinus densiflora community covered 48.7% of the actual vegetations of urban forest. Canopy height, Diameter of breast height (DBH) and No. of species in urban forest were 13.5m, 21cm and 24 species, respectively. The soil conditions and community structure of the urban forest were differenced by location of urban and suburban area. The plant communities divided into six groups which were Quercus acutissima community, Q. acutissima-Robinia pseudo-acacia community, Pinus rigida Community, P. rigida-P. densiflora community, P. densifrora-Q. acutissima community and Q, serrata-P. densiflora community. Successional series of the urban forest in the surveyed area were proceeding from P. dinsiflora to Quercus species. The species diversity of plant were high in natural plant community but low in artificial plant community. Tree density in the canopy layer varied from 600ea/ha to 2,800ea/ha.
Walkability on Ramps by Gait Analysis
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 157~166
To investigate walkability of ramps, walking patterns of 18 healthy adults,12 aged 20 to 26 and 6 aged 68 to 76,were studied at free,rhythm constrained walking up or down ramp using goniometer and footswitch Ramp inclinations were set 4,8,12,16,20 degrees. The results were as follows. 1)The step length of subjects were decreased significantly in12
′or 16′free downramp walking. With regard to step length, some subject groups walked abnormally in 16" or 20" ramp walking 2) The step width of subjects were increased significantly in 12" or 16" ramp walking. 3) The cadence duration of some subject groups were increased in 12" upramp walking. 4) The double stance duration and double stance ratio of some subject groups were increased significantly in 8",12", or 16"upramp walking. 5) The maximum knee flexion angle of stance phase were increased in 12" ramp walking. 6)Most temporal parameters and spatial parameters of gait were increased or decreassd greatly between 4" ramp and 8" ramp or between 8′ramp and 12′ramp. But statistics significancy were not recognized 7) The results suggest that ramp inclination less than 8′(14%) -12′(21%) is desirable for the normal gait the ramp inclination must not exceed 16" -20" in unavoidable circumstances.
Ecological Design of Estuarine Environment
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 167~181
An Ecocomplex is proposed for ecological design of the estuarine environment of Han River, which is designed upon an alternative mamagement concept of estuarine environment. The concept reveals interrelationships among estuary, delta region and urban inland with inputs/outputs and feedbacks among them. The Ecocomplex emphasizes an integration of wastewater treatment with aquaculture, agriculture and recreation, and carries out ecological treatment, recycling, and harvest processes. A module of wastewater treatment pond system is employed in the Ecocomplex, which treats a flow of 3,786 ㎥/day and is composed of a four-facultative-pond series. Treatment ponds stabilize wastewater discharged from the urban area, and concurrently produce algae for commercial or recreational fish farming. Effluent from treatment and fish ponds is reused for agricultural production. Through the waste-algae-fish-vegetable-recreation processes, wastewater from the urban settlement is recycled back to the urban ecosystem. This resource-conserving design approach can maintain a sustainable urban ecosystem, managing an estuarine environment more naturally, healthly, and economically.
A Study on the Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Pergola Facilities in Neighborhood Parks
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 182~194
The major objective of this study was to develop recommendations for improving the design of pergola facilities located in neighborhood parks. The study employed the following methods : Physical measures and questionnaires. Physical treasures were taken of certain environmental attributes such as pergola sizes, structures, materials, etc. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to pergola users on the same day on which physical measures were scheduled. All data were collected in 1994 during the season of pergola use, September 3 to October 9. The major findings are as follows; 1. Of the 508 respondents to the question about use motivations, approximately 32% were a shady place, 18% seating arrangements suitable for conversation, 15% unconsciously, 13% a lack of bench in the park, 9% good view, and 13% other. 2. Regression analysis indicated that the best predictors of pergola user' satisfaction were : harmony with surroundings, accessibility, aesthetics of pergolas and benches, function of benches, and climbing plants. 3. Pergola design needs to be developed because pergola users were less satisfied with their pergola than with the park.
A study on the Damaged tree by the Inferior Drainage in a Prepared Housing Site
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 195~204
This study is focused on the groping for the alternative ways in order to prevent the various bad factors caused by the Inferior environment on the planted trees. In the reclaimed paddy field which is planned to make a housing site, for example, we are trying to catch the problem about the special feature of the unharmonized drainage. And the survey gives the suitable way of planting trees. This survey was carried out in the three different area and could notice some phenomena : There are a few different conditions for water supply int\ulcorner the soil according to the height of the land-filling from the original ground and the slope of the planting area. And the imporant factor of the drainage effect is not the soil texture itself but the depth of the filling land. As a result of this survey, the study shows the economic alternative for reducing the demage of the planting trees which is due to drainage system
Noise Attenuation by Vegetation
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 205~212
The effects of noise attenuation among bare land, grassland, dominated broad-leaved (Quercus acutissima Carruth) and dominated coniferous forest (Pignus rigid Mill.) were studied For this study, the field experiment was carried out at playground, orchard grass, and school forest in Yeungnam University, Kyongsan. Sound levels of 500, 630, 800, 1,000, 1,250, 1,600, 2,000, 2,500 and 3,150 Hz, respectively, were projected into the vegetation, and the transmitted levels of sound were recorded at the distances of 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50m, respectively, from the sound source. Both dominated coniferous forest (Pignus riged Mill.) and broad-leaved forest (Quercus acutissima Carruth ) are the more effective than grassland in the rates of attenuation. It is expected that dominated coniferous forest will be the more effective to attenuate sound love교 than dominated broad-leaved forest. In the low frequencies such as 500 and 630 Hz, grassland showed the more effective to attenuate sound levels than forests, while in the high frequency such as 3,150 Hz, the forests are the more effective to attenuate sound levels than grassland The present results suggested that it is the more effective to establish the tree belt for a sound barrier, with dominated coniferous tree species in the upper layer and herbaceous vegetation in the lower layer.
Perception of Public Safety of Night Users in Neighborhood Parks
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 213~222
To increase the night use level, this study was analyzed perception of users about the public safety, and extracted main variables which were influencing public safety. The public safety was evaluated by the actual (on site) and nonactual users (off site) and the Delphi method. The night users of female and the elders were relatively more than male and the young respectively as compared with day. Walking was predominant in approaching means. In public safety ratings,
vuknerability to violence
varied accoding to sex, income, education, marriage, job, age.
were important variables in satisfying users at night.
Lack of surveillance,
harassment of other person
rowdy behavior in poorer visibility
fear in lower intensity of light
vulnerability to violence
stood high , so it is required guarantee of security guard to enhance the park use at night Although the ratings between field and indoor evaluation were somewhat different the variables had so similiar rant
A Basic Study on the Yuarye of Ji Cheng
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 23, issue 2, 1995, Pages 223~241
Ji Cheng's great work on garden design, the 'Yuanye'(Craft of garden), written in 1631 and originally published in 1634 is the first surviving manual on landscape gardening in the Chinese tradition. This study aims at investigating not only Ji Cheng's life, achievements companionship and design activities, but also the xylographic copies, literary style, and framework of Yuanye in their historical context in order to provide the bases for further study, Ji Cheng was exellent in poetry and painting. And he constructed Dongdiyuan in Changzhou around 1623, Wuyuan in Yiaheng in 1631, and Yingyuan in Yangzhou around 1634 But no poems, paintings, and gardens designed by hi shill exist Therefore his design phi philosophy is able to be interpreted only by his work, Yuanye. After publishing, Yuanye fell into obscurity for several centuries in Chlna. It was redescovered and reprinted for the first time in 1931. Yuanye is composed of prefaces and main text The main text is divided into 'the Theory of Construction' and 'on Gardens', and the latter also into 10 sections. In this text Ji Cheng explains the aesthetic principles underlying garden design and the appropriate emotional response to various efftcts Especially, he emphasizes the importance of basin the garden design on the taxi ting nature and features of landscape and making use of natural scenery. The literary style of the book is highly mannered, and there are so many poetic descriptions and Ji Cheng's native Jiangsu dialects. So the translation of the original text is very difficult After this, the major design concepts of Ji Cheng's landscape gardening theory and whole network of these concepts have to be studied.