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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Oct 1996
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jul 1996
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Apr 1996
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Jan 1996
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Landscaping of the Slope in Highway
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 1~12
In order to develope a road landscape that is in harmony with landscaping purpose, degree of sight occupation by slopes at road sides was measured and physical elements composing the slope scenery were visually evaluated and the results are as follows : In analysis of sight occupation ratio by perspective method, gradient of the slopes influenced more on the sight occupation than height did and the driving lane occupied 2 to 3% more proportion of sight than the passing lane. When there is slope at one side of the road, difference in sight occupation between the lanes was increasing with deceased height and with increased gradient of the slopes. In visual analysis of the slope scenery, negative image was increasing with narrow road, increased height and gradient of the slopes. In visual analysis of the slope scenery, negative image was increasing with narrow road, increased height and gradient of the slopes. Particularly, the effect of gradient was critical on scenery. The effect of the slopes was negative at 60
or more but positive at 45
or less gradient. This phenomenon was more conspicuous with wide 4 lane roads than wide 2 lane roads. Although direct comparison is difficult due to a great difference between Korea and U.S.A. in climate, land condition, road dimension, and public process of purchasing land, etc, it is desirable to treat road sides so that the scenery is in harmony with landscape around as well as emphasizing the regional characteristics, also giving friendly and comfortable image to drivers and nearby residents in addition to safety as can be seen in U.S.A.
The Influence of the Ratio of Greenery on the Visual Preference in interior Landscape
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 13~24
The purpose of this study is to suggest optimum level of the Ratio of Greenery within the frame of vision in the interior landscape design through the analysis of visual character and preference of the interior landscape. The concept of the RG was defined as the ratio of projected area of plants higher than 1.2M against background wall from eye level. 5 photography of Interior landscape space -- 10,20,30,40 and 50% of the RG-- were constructed by computer graphic techinques. Likert scale and semantic differential scale were used to analyse visual character and preference of the interior landscape space. The analysis results are as follows : 1. Factors that compose of the image of the interior landscape have been found to be the "evaluation ", "complexity". The mean value of semantic differential scale showed a significant difference according to RG. When the RG was 20~30%, "Harmony" and "stability" was strongly recognized than the other factors and the interior landscape made the interior space natural and intimate. But at the RG 40!50%, users felt "stuffy" and "too complex" by many plants, so it was not efficient the Interior Landscape. 2. The visual preference was significantly different according to RG. The mean value of the visual preference was increased as the RG was higher, it was the highest at the RG 30%. But over the RG 30%, the preference level was declined. 3. Based on these results, this study suggests that the optimum level of RG in the Interior Landscape is 30%.at the optimum level of RG in the Interior Landscape is 30%.
Is there an Objectivist Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature\ulcorner : A Critical Examination of A. Carlson's Theory
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 25~42
During the last two and a half decades, philosophical interest in the aesthetics of nature and environment has been gained momentum. One of the most coherent theories in this arena of debate has been developed over a series of articles by Allen Carlson. The purpose of this paper is to examine Carlson's theory critically and suggest an alternative aspect that remains untouched by his model. Briefly stated, Carlson's view of the appreciation of nature is that it is a matter of under standing nature under suitable scientific categories. His argument, based on the objectivist epistemology, is basically a disjunctive syllogism : a) The concept of appreciation, derived from traditional disinterestedness and Stolnitz's aesthetic attitude, provides an insight into the explanation of aesthetic appreciation of nature, and is objectivistic in the light of its object-oriented character. b) Nature must be appreciated as nature itself, and the natural environmental model is the appropriate loci of our nature appreciation. c) The paradigmatic form of our nature appreciation is order appreciation. d) There can be a correct and objective aesthetic judgment of nature, and the sources of guiding categories pertinent to it is natural science and natural history. In regarding nature as an environment and as natural, his natural environmental model is meaningful. Nevertheless, his stance results in some serious problems : a) The natural environmental model excludes certain very common appreciative responses to nature-responses of a less intellective, more visceral sort. Therefore, the arousal model with appropriate emotions might be one of our characteristic forms of nature appreciation. b) Even if we consider the scientific knowledge as an objective source of our nature appreciation, this gives rise to the question of whether the natural science can be objective or not. Is there an objectivist aesthetic appreciation of nature\ulcorner Does aesthetic appreciation of nature need to be science-based\ulcorner
Studies on the Use Characteristics and Visit Motivation in Recreation Forests
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 43~51
The main purpose of this study is to obtain information on users' socio-economic characteristics, pattern of main use activities, and visit motivation in recreation forests. From June to September in 1994, respondents were selected 548 adults more than 18 years old from 6 recreation forests which were classified 3 recreation forest types as 2 recreation forest in national forest, 2 in public forest, and 2 in private forest. Analysis of data was conducted through frequency and factor analysis. The most of noticeable characteristics of users were rather 30's age group, high education level, company workers, city residents. The major preference activities in recreation forest were resting, enjoying green shower, and walking. In 24 items of visit motivation, resting, releasing stress, enjoying in a cool forest & valley, and contacting close to nature were high preference, while buying special product, and contacting close to nature were high preference, while buying special product, having enough and to money, observing wildlife, and training body & mind were low preference. The remarkable difference in 3 recreation forest types didn't present. Eight dimensions of motivation were classified through factor analysis.
A study on the international trends in problem solving on the national parks
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 52~61
Almost every national parks in the world have problems in their own way. The centennial history of national park itself was that of problem solving. Various attempts and testing have done. A successful example of national park is, however, hardly find out till today except for several western countries. Internationally, the socio-economic approach has become a main stream. However, this approach has resulted into a natural degradation of large-scale as well as in the Third world countries and Korea. The other stream in this area has cultural aspects. The way which decreasing socio-economic conflicts and pursuing solutions by the cultural approach to the problems gives good consequences in the national parks of western europe. The different settings like Korea which have amounts of cultural differences, in contrast with U.S.A. the birthplace of national parks, this way should suggest new possibilities too.
A Study on the Artistic Development of Rogert Smithson as Means of Investigating His Conceptualization of a Modern Landscape Aesthetics
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 62~73
A Study on the Characteristics of Visual Aspects in MAISAN Provincial Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 74~85
The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of viewing aspects based on formal aesthetics and psychophysica approaches of the MAISAN provincial park for landscape management. Two methods are applied in this study. First, according to the field study with map the quantitative analyses of the viewshed area, visual section and scenery types were achieved, herein the visual landscape characteristics is found. Second, based upon visual preference evaluation of the relationships between the viewing aspects and visual preference scores to landscape slides were measured by questionnaires. The main conclusions obtained by the research are as follows. Visual area of MAISAN has a quite wide viewshed though itself is surrounded. The preference for the visual terminal were change by its characteristics to the visual corridors, view points, viewing types and viewing distance. Especially, the regression analysis between visual preference and viewing distance indicated Y=-3.20X\sup 2\+18.64X+20.64. In this case, viewing distance 794m from O\sub p\ is more important point for visual experience. The viewing types B·C and famous view A obtained a high visual preference score. A visual terminus are viewed along an entire RouteA, so revealed by its evolving spatial containment as to exact the full potential of its changing perspectives. Also we conducted the degree of visual influence by the shade in visual area at MAISAN and clarified viewing vantage Route and point in LSH being necessary for landscape preservation.
A study on old trees as they relate to the organization of space in Pusan -Attaching importance to the growth environment and arrangement form in space-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 86~98
This study is intended to revaluate old tree, five of the shot of the Natural Monument and 66 shot trees under protection in the city at present. The study covers distribution, management of usage, investigation and research into various matters relating to the situation of old trees in Pusan. Because 60% of the old trees selected for protection is on private land, citizens have difficulty gaining access to them. Also space for growth is impinged on by various urban facilities. Some trees have problems of growth because the land is covered with cement and asphalt. As regards space for old trees, many places have been destroyed due to the lack of protection fences and the failure to establish a guidance board. Only 40% of the space has been set aside for rest. In these places the establishment of rest areas, benches and handy chairs is needed. And there are 20 holy places where people observe religious ceremonies. As for space security necessary for old trees according to trunk width, the minimum trunk width and availale area needed are more than 1:1.5, but less than 30% have the necessary space. The growth of many old trees is threatended because of the small apace for growth. The prescription of the boundary space is divided between inside and outside. This indicates the domain nature and space rank of the old tree. It can be classified into five forms for research purposes. The elements for prescription of critical space outside are connected with the security of space, and the elements relating to inside space portray the conditions for sensitive growth according to the institution and the ground conditions. The open and closed nature of old tree space has some connection with the relationship between usage and the intimacy of the user. Most of the spaces for old trees can't be used or are difficult to gain access to, so it is necessary to secure enough space for them. The 18 places, despite having easy access, are near farmland, hills or forest. So the intimacy factor is low, and the security of space of the old trees is not generally sufficient. Henceforth, it will be necessary to have security of area for old trees as well as maintenance control to protect them. Also the space should be used as a communal and recreation are in the city. It is the time to construct a landscaped area which people can easily approach, a place with a secure entrance where they can play, rest and converse.
A study on the outdoor space as places of environmental sculptures installed in accordance with "1%law" in Seoul
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 99~116
It is clear that so called 1% law " in Korea has been established to enhance the quality of urban environment. However, after more than 10 years of its enforcement, environmental sculptures installed in accordance with the "1% law" are even being called as "sculptural pollution". This research was a part of a study on the environmental sculptures for the enhancement of the quality of urban environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate problems inherent in the outdoor space as places of environmental sculptures installed in accordance with "1% law". The following facts were found from the analysis of the relationship between 223 environmental sculptures and their surrounding environment from the viewpoint of spatial organization through field surveys. 1. 88.3% out of 223 environmental sculptures were located on ' 'public space' on study sites 2. 69.1% were placed on 'green' 3. 80.7% of 'green' were either 'point' types or 'line' types 4. 85.2% were under 5m in the longest dimension. The implication of this study is that "1% law" in Korea has been applied to only buildings in private sector where most outdoor space area in unadequate physical and spatial conditions to install diverse forms of environmental sculptures. Further studies must be carried out to install environmental sculptures in public open pace as an alternative by amending "1% law".
An Essay on the Picturesque and the Landscape Garden
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 24, issue 2, 1996, Pages 117~133
The etymological meaning of 'the Picturesque' is "after the manner of painters." It had begun to be used from the end of Classical era and become popular in Romantic era. The concept of the Picturesque in the Classical era is an allusion to the Classical paintings, history paintings or ideal landscapes. As the idea of these paintings was the Beautiful Nature, the most crucial of the Classical Picturesque were that a painting should represent some significant human action; that all the parts of this painting should contribute to the whole; that verbal commentaries were needed. The influence of the Picturesque on the garden design can be summarized as the invention of 'the Landscape Garden.' In the Landscape Garden, human action was central and formal and painterly techiniques were used to highlight human action. The subjectivization of concept of of the beauty resulted in the cult of the Picturesque. In the controversy by Price and Knight, the Picturesque and its influence on the garden design was contended variously. Price criticized the monotonous gardens of Brown's and named "roughness, sudden varitation and irregularity" as the three hallmarks of the Picturesque. Knight contended " that the Picturesque consisted only in a manner of viewing things with an eye and mind educated in the principles of painting" and "that gardens should reproduce as fully as possible the qualities that made the pictures of Rosa or Hobbema delightful."res of Rosa or Hobbema delightful."quot;