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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Oct 1997
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jul 1997
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Apr 1997
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Jan 1997
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Relative Importance of Quality Management Items through the Defect Analysis in the Landscape Construction Process
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 1~11
This study aims to estimate the relative importance of quality management items through the defect analysis in the landscape construction process. The RIQMI are decided by the defect coefficient and it's cause weight. The defect items in the landscape construction process were classified by 56 items based on the classification form of '96 landscape architectural construction standard and the cause pattern were categorized 4 types as design, material, construction, and environment factors. To analyze the defect coefficient and the aucse weight by defect, the researcher surveyed the questionnaires on the 103 engineers and the 31 experts on the landscape architectural construction. The result of this study are as follows. The relative importance by facilities pattern turn out to be much higher construction, material fator than design. environment factor in wood facilities, paving facilities, and steel facilities, the RIQMI is very high in timber crack, timber vending, faulty of timber against decay, welding faulty of steel facilities in material factor, and timber crack, faulty of timber against decay, finish faulty of steel facilities, welding faulty of steel facilities in construction factor.
A Visual Preference Study on Namdaemun and its Surroundings Using Visual Simulation Techniques
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 12~24
One argument of this study is that the policy to handle and landscape of cultural and historical property had to do with people's visual preferences. This study seeks to investigate people's visual preferences toward the landscape of cultural /historical property, specifically dealing with 'Namdaemun', which is the first class cultural property of Korea. People's visual preference was specifically examined into the four specific concepts : 'visual identity','harmony','beauty of the target property', and 'overall beauty'. Two objective variables, such as, 'distance' between the viewer and the cultural property, and 'height' of background buildings were considered possible predictors of the four visual preference variables. Photos of 'Namdaemun' were taken at three different directions and at three different distances. The photographed images of 'Namdaemun' were transferred ito the digitalized graphic images, where the height of background buildings was artificially changed and simulated. The simulated visual images were taken into the slides again. A total of 59 students of the Department of Landscape architecture at Seoul City University were sampled as subjects. A series of 17 slides were shown to the subjects four times. The subjects were asked to check their preference ratings concerning the four concepts on a 7-point Likert scale. The results found in this study were as follows : 1) In the results of ANOVA, it was clear that people visually preferred the view where the height of background buildings were lower than 15 floors to the view of more than 15 floors . 2) From the results of the path analysis, it was found that 'harmony','visual identity' and 'beauty of the target property' were direct predictors of 'the overall beauty'. The 'height ' of background buildings and the viewer's 'distance' were not found to be direct predictors, however, they demonstrated their effects on 'the overall beauty' through the other variable, which were direct predictors of 'the overall beauty'. In sum, the longer the distance and the higher the background buildings, the lower people's preference with the 'overall beauty'. These indirect paths, in turn, also explain why and how the 'height' of background buildings and the viewer's 'distance' negatively influence the 'overall beauty'. An implication from the these results is that when the height of background buildings were not controllable, there would be some other strategies for improving people's visual preference toward the historical /cultural view. To increase 'visual identity' of the cultural property, for example, changing colors of the cultural property or increasing the lighting level, etc., would be one strategy, since the increased 'visual identity' will, in turn, increase 'the overall beauty'.
Korean traditioinal village's spaces and human moving line system
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 25~34
As you know, there are a lot of our own traditional folk village exist in Korea, our country. Most people just know is that Korean traditional village is just happen make it and just continuously keeping this times type. But this village is not just make it but made by serious scientific sources such as, rule of locating streets. There are three very important reasons why I research this topic for my research paper. The first important reason is that Korean traditional villages have the pattern of human moving line system in accordance with hyung-kug. Hangae village that located on inclined ground named baesanimsu has the longer human moving line than Hanbam village that located on level ground. The second important reason is that Korean traditional villages have the smaller human moving line of the length and the amplitude as long as going inside villages. But the unit of the amplitude is the larger. Hanae and Hanbam village is the same pattern. The third important reason is that Korean traditional villages have the smaller human moving line of the length and the amplitude as long as having the larger gradient. Hangae and hanbam village is the same pattern. And Hanbam village hast he bigger human moving line of the length, the amplitude and the unit of the amplitude. In conclusion, by these three important big reasons, Korean traditional village is built by scientific sources. And now we can say that our old generation was very unbelievable genius. By these reasons we have to make sure when we make another city town and farm village planning. The meaning of making sure is that a person who have responsibility for making city have to make plan by scientific sources. It has to be not only theoretical but also think about real human life. It also fit on our traditional.
A Study on the Improvement and Actual Conditions of Terrestrial Vegetation Part in Environmental Impact Statement
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 35~46
The objective of this study is to investigate actual conditions of terrestrial vegetation part in Environmental impact statement, and to prepare a proposal for the efficiency of Environmental Impact Assessment. 13 E.I.S.s made out during 1996.6-1997.5. have been chosen and analysed with respect to scope of survey, item of survey, method of survey, and result of survey. Actual conditioins of terrestrial vegetation part in E.I.S. are summarized as follows : 1. The mean number of total participants in drawing up E.I.S. is 26.0 persons, that of participants in terrestrial vegetation part is 2.3 persons. 2. In case of planar project, the mean of scope of survey is 16.1 times as large as area of project . In case of linear project, the scope of survey has been determined arbitrarily. 3. The most part of survey has been dependent on literature, and field survey has been practically neglected. 4. Results of survey mostly missed the point that E.I.A. pursues. And proposals are as follows : 1. Participants in terrestrial vegetation part in drawing up E.I.S should be increased. 2. It is necessary to subdivide scope of survey in view of difference between planar project and linear project. 3. As for item and method of survey, field survey should be specially reinforced. 4. Several sheets of map as results of survey should be included in E.I.S. The vegetation map, the D.G.N. map, and the planting map should be included and drawn by smaller scale as possible.
The importance of choice criteria in vacation destination decisions
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 47~55
A vacation destination was conceptualized to be chosen through a three-stage process consisting of an early consideration set formation, a late consideration set formation, and a final selection stage. Choice criteria were defined as an individual's belief toward the relationships between perceived attributes, expected outcomes, and the destination. And these criteria were assumed to be divided into benefit-related dimension and perceived risk-related dimension. Through two pilot surveys, 13 items which have 4 factors were identified. used on 4 factor structures, the benefit-related dimension was identified to be consisted of three sub-dimensions, "historic/cultural", "escaped" and "naturalness". A longitudinal panel survey was used to test the differences of the importance of choice dimensions through the choice process. The importance of benefit-related dimension was decreased through the choice process as hypothesized except "naturalness" factor. And as hypothesized, the importance of perceived risk-related dimension was increased.
A study on analysis of the structure of green space by the types of urban residential areas
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 56~65
This research was conducted to suggest some directions for desirable urban green space planning through 1) establishing a new classification system by examining the existing concept, problems and characteristics of green space and 2) defining the essence of green space environment and finding some analytical and evaluative methods through a clear establishment of functions, indicators of green space. In the research, measurements of the amount of green space was accompanied with measurements of green covered space, green volume, and the structure of greenery within the frame of vision. As result, three-dimensional measurement was possible, three-dimensional measurement was possible, which turned out to be more effective than the existing 2-dimensional measuring method. It is found that the ratio of green covered space is to proportional to the ratio of green volume in this study. Therefore in green space planning process it is desirable to consider the ratio of green volume all together.
The analysis of the foreign laws related to landscape architecture and a study on the reasonable application to the expected organic law for landscape architecture in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 66~88
There is no special law of Landscape architecture in Korea. So, examining the concept from the legal basis of LA with the viewpoint of a natural scientist not a jurist, this study was conducted to grasp the present condition of the name and the related text of the foreign laws in force which were connected with LA.. And those foreign laws were arranged in the name and the text and classified by nations of regional groups and it was considered to the mutual relation with lots of laws which are scattered with the various laws. Current domestic regulations to the various fields of LA are assembled with the many related rules. The governmental organization conducting those business is nonexistent up to now and it is generally known to except the dept. of LA from the office organization in Korea. Being at a disadvantage as mentioned above, this study was progressed under the necessity of the scientific basis for the expected organic law of LA proposed to establish it by every field of LA. Though feels inconvenience if the study for the items itself of LA had been proceeded prior to the study of laws relating to LA throughout the study, such a extensive study will be a subject to be attempted constantly hereafter by all part of landscape architects. The contents of the study are as follows ; 1. The present condition of the foreign laws connected with LA 1. The proposal & analysis of the problems and the solutions to the domestic laws connected with LA 3. The proposal of the reasonable application pklan in order to establish the organic law for LA. Among the items relating to LA such as engineer, contract, planning, design and supervision, construction, maintenance, plant and planting, open space, facilities, aesthetics and sight, park, land use and development planning, urban and regional planning, leisure space planning, environmental conservation and ecology, structural engineering of construction, administration, right and penal regulations, the laws dealing with the matter relating to LA directly or indirectly are prescribed dispersedly in the many other related laws and it is concluded to be impossible for the independent law of LA is likely to be establish with not only selecting and arranging the matter having closed connections to LA directly but also being recognized as the systematic equipment of the LA business. It was to be analyzed the present condition of the collected foreign laws relating to LA. After pointing out the problems to the domestic related laws being at issue, the remedies for it were presented through the questionnaire of the landscape specialist in which the supporting opinions to the recognition to the problems and the solutions were come to a major portion. Three types of application such as applicable, non-applicable, applicable after examination were presented to decide whether or not the foreign related laws were applied to the domestic one. The result of analysis shows that 42 statutes and 9 ordinances are applicable, 4 statutes and 7 ordinances are non-applicable, 1 constitution, 81 statutes and 48 ordinances are applicable after examination.
A study on the impact prediction in environmental impact statement
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 89~100
The purpose of this paper was to analyze the content of impact prediction in EISS, in order to find the degree of the acuracy of impact prediction . 30 EISS were selected as analysis objects through variance miximization strategy. Content analysis of the selected EISS was performed by 5 analysis items, such as quantification of measurement, range of impact area, time frame of impact, likelihood of impact, and explict characterization of impact significance. The results showed that the accuracy investigated by the 5 items was very low. In conclusion, 5 suggestions were proposed in order to improve the credibility of EIS as a scientific report. The 5 suggestions were : 1) impact prediction should be described by quantitative measurement; 2) In establishing the time frame of the impact and the referent populatioin influenced by the impact, the characteristics of the proposed action should be carefully considerd; 3) the significance of the predicted impact should be quantitatively described; 4) specific description should also be used in the likelihood or the probability of the predicted impact in a real world; 5) equal emphasis should be put on the three environment, including natural and social as well as living environment.
A study on the visual image assessment of interior landscaping plants
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 101~110
The purpose of this study was on suggesting what is the image and image formation factor of interior landscaping plants. For this purpose, the sixty interior landscaping plants were selected. Selected plants were classified into 9 groups by similar characteristics of plants, for example, leaf color and leaf pattern. Data analysis were performed by semantic differential scale method, mean score and multiple regression algorithm. The results are as follows, 1. Comparing with image assessment, group 9 got the highest score in all aspects. 2. Comparing with the image assessment of interior landscaping plants, the "impressive" image was obtained the highest score and "bright", "cool", "beautiful" and "fresh" were followed. 3. Multiple regression analysis was performed to clarify influence degree of the adjectives related to the beauty. The next adjectives were significant check points on assessing the beauty of interior landscaping plants. Also, Guzmania magnifical was investigated to have the most beautiful image with the results of preference analysis. Vriesea splendens, Cordyline terminalis Kunth 'Lilliput' and Peperomia sandersii were identified as considerably preferred plants. were identified as considerably preferred plants.
A Study on Spatial Characteristics of Microtopography of Stream by Topographic Names
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 111~123
In order to understand the spatial forms of stream, this study aimed to typify stream microtopography through the collection of common names of topography determined by fishermen and to describe stream landscapes by using these typology. The seventeen stream microtopography names were sorted out and divided into three types : the streamside space which includes Kaeul-jari, Hapsu-mori, Cholpyok-jidae, Kyekok-jidae and Korpuri, stream plate which includes Youl, Mulgol, So and Ungdongi, and streambed materials which includes Ampan-jidae, Pawi-jidae, Dolpat-jidae, Chagal-jidae, Chanchgal-jidae, Moraetop, Kamtang-padak and Suchodae. The spatial characteristics of stream microtopography landscape were described according to the comparison of landform, the support of fishing, accessibility, viewpoint and eye-catching degree. The tipification of stream microtopography and their symbolization will offer a rich vocabulary to describe diverse spatial forms of stream.
Geometric Figures of Picturesque Gardens (1):
Dagram in Muskau Park, Germany
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 124~130
In some cases of the English landscape garden style in Germany, for example, Worlitz, Branitz etc., including Mu나며, I have found out invisible geometric figures, that must be on the basis of landscape gardening. Particularly the Muskau park. The church of the village "Gerg", outside of the park, and the "pucklerstein" are the bases of this diagram. Above all, I am convinced of my hypothesis of √2 diagram, while I can also understand, out of my analysis, the relations and descriptions of the park in the book of the gardner, Hermann Fust von Puckler-muskau, "Andeutungen uber Landscahaftsgartnerei". Finally, I wish to discuss, how to do the phenomena, 'picturesque motif and geometric figures of the English Landscape Garden.
Chung Yakyong's View of Nature and the Meanings of His Garden, Tasanchodangwon
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 131~142
As a study on a traditional garden with historical value, the objective of this study is to comprehensively understand the internal meanings of the garden in a designer's personal perspective. Tasanchodangwon was designed Chung Yakyong who is a scholar of Practical Learning in late Chosun Dynasty. Considering the features of him and basic approach of this study, the internal eanings of the Tasanchodangwon was approached with the focus on the view of nature of him, and through general review of physical components of the garden. Additionally the meanings of the garden were also reviewed in his personal situation. The result of the study may be summarized as followings. First, according to the view of nature of Chung Yakyong, his intention to enrich life practically by building separate structures for education for his residence, creating lake by having water supply, and creating vegetable garden relates with the view of nature in Primary confucianistic perspective. In addition, the place served as a ground to support Chung Yakyong's attitude to become a man of virtue, Second, his preference to enjoyu tea culture allowed an opportunity for him to accept circumstance positively and discover the self. Components related to farming reflects his Practical Learning. The man-made rock mountain in the pond is a specific technique for Yi-Jing. And third, literatures authored by Chung Yakyong show that internal meaning of Tasanchodangwon is to pursue an utopia. This is closely related to solving his conflicts felt in reality. In short, Tasanchodangwon is a form reflecting the spiritual world of Chung Yakyong, and through interaction with his life, served as a ground to culture his mind.
A Pedestrian Oriented Streetscape Design of "Ducksugung-Gil", Seoul -Adapting the Shared Street Concept for Traditionial Streetscape Improvement-
Kim, Sung-Kyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 143~154
The fundamental concept of shared street is integration of traffic and pedestrian activity as a positive principle for street planning. Shared streets have been very successful in several countries in terms of reductions in traffic accidents, increased social interaction and children's play, and a high degree of satisfaction by the residents. This paper proposes the concept of shared street to solve traffic problem without reorganizing traditional street structure and without disturbing traditional function of street as a living space for residents. And this study examines detail concepts and techniques of the shared street and applies them to a pedestrian oriented streetscape design of "Ducksugung-Gil," Seoul, which was one of the most important streets in Korean modernization history.n history.
A Phenomenological Study on the Ecological Restoration Design of Human Environment
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 155~176
Today most landscape architects and scientists have approached ecological restoration, only in a scientific way or on aesthetic way so as to deal with the complex phenomena of a site easily. However, 'the real world' as well as 'ecological nature' as it is can not be totally dealt by the scientific approach which is quantitative and reductioinal. ince a site to be restored has the character of 'place' where man 'dwells', it must be designed and built as total phenomenon. In terms of Martin Heidegger's interpretation of "revealing", we might find out how to overcome the dilemma of the 'modern technology'. To the point of the phenomenological integrity between 'modern technology' and 'art', we can reveal 'sense of place' on a site. The phenomenological approach, which is related to the characteristics of the site, implies something more than scientific since it focuses on the development of site-specific data without wasting extra data for ecological restoration. Bodily experiencing a site with the perception, man discloses the site's nature and he also analyzes it in a scientific way. Therefore the phenomenological approach might be a clue of constructing ecological restoration as well as construing the identity of landscape architecture.
Effect of Varied Elevations of Kangwon Province on Growth and Flowering of Hibiscus syriacus
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 177~185
Hibiscus syriacus were surveyed to study the growing temperature, relative humidity and growing responses shown at different elevations of Kangwon Province, and results of the assessment are summarized as follows 1. Growing responses as represented by leaf length, leaf width, shoot length, number of flowers and flowering duration, were decreased as the elevation increased, while the degree of defoliation was increased. 2. The important factor determining the growing responses to the elevation was the maximum and minimum temperatures, particularly those of July, August, and September. 3. The aphid occurrence on Hibiscus syriacus decreased as the elevation increased. Leading factor determining the population was relative humidity which increased as the elevation increased.
A Study ion the Location and the Spacial Compositional Characteristics of Jaesil in Chosun Dynasty
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 186~198
Although Jaesil are historical products which is related to our traditional culture, they have not been studied extensively. This study deals with the location and the spacial compositional characteristics of Jaesil, a traditional building special functions in culture. The summarized results are as follows : 1) Jaesil wee constructed in 15c~20c. Jaesil in Kyungpook province were built by the intelligent classes in 17c~18c, while Jaesil in Kyungnam province were built by the rich farmer classes with economic power in 19c~20c. 2) The functions of Jaesil were the following : It was used for the purpose of worship, school, temple. The main function in Kyungpook province was worship, while the main functions in Kyungnam province were worship and school. 3) The relationship between Jaesil and villages were as follows : Jaesil in Kyungpook were located in the mountains apart from villages and their main elements of landscape were valleys or rivers . While Jaesil in Kyungnam was located in the residental spaces and their main elements of landscape were an artificial pond or no water landscape. 4) The plane form of Jaesil, Which was constructed specially 'The ㅁtype' of Jaesil were common in Kyungpook province and tis type expresses the enclosure and centrifugal force. While 'The 一type and 二type' were common in Kyungnam, and this types expresses the poenness and practicality.
A Study on the Visual Preference of Pergolas and Shelters
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 199~209
The purpose of this study is to find major factors which are influential in visual preferences of pergolas and shelters. 33 pergolas and shelters were selected for the study by slides test method. Major findings of this study are summarized as follows. 1. In the degree of visual preferences, pergolas and shelters which are traditional Korean ones in harmony with surrounding environment, and provide sculptural effects, unique images and shade, obtain relatively high scores. 2. The result of factor analysis showed that [dimensions] of visual preferences factors for pergolas and shelters were composition and use and place. 3. The result of regression analysis indicated that the best predictors of visual preferences for pergolas and shelters were atmosphere, aesthetics of form, harmony with surroundings, unique image etc.
A Study on the Utilization of Interior Lanscape Plant through the Investigation of Image -Focused on the Tall Trees-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 210~221
This study was conducted to investigte the visual preference and response between introduced and native trees for utilization of the south native trees in interior space. 1. The intensity of illumination was below 500lux at 24 buildings of interior spaces surveyed. Generally the temperature was 24~
, and humidity was 60~70%. 2. Total number of introduced tree species were 9 familiar, 16 genus, 18 species, especially palm genus were the largest tree among them at these surveyed interior spaces, but native trees were only 2 species. The introduced tree of 2 to 3m in height was 46 percent, and the case of 1.2 to 2m was 42 percent. 3. The mean of visual preference was the highest at Rhapis excelsa and howeia belmoreana, and followed with Neolitsea sericea, Daphniphllum macropodum, Listsea japonicum. In the mean of visual preference for selected tree groups, native tree was not different as compared with introduced tree. 4. Visual image factor of the native and introduced trees at interior spaces was classified by individual factor and emotional factor. These 2 factors were shown 66.5% total variance. The native tree was strongly recognized on individual factor, as
, and introduced tree was also strongly recognized on emotional factor. 5. In the analysis of visual preference and image, a difference between the selected groups of the introduced and native trees were not shown significant, and the introduced trees were similar to the native trees on the visual image. This result was as follow There was an analogy between Cinnamomum camphora, Ligustrum japonicum and Ficus retusa, Ficus benjamina. There is an analogy between Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii, Cinnamomum japonicum and Ficus retusa, Ficus benjamina. There was an analogy between Elaeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus, Fatsia japonica and Rhapis excelsa, Howeia belmoreana. There was an analogy between Neolitsea sericea, Daphniphyllum macropo여, Listsea japonica and Rhapis excelsa, Howeia belmoreana. There was an analogy between Elaeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus, Fatsia japonica and Dracaena fragranse, Ficus elastica, Monstera deliciosa.
A STUDY ON THE ANALYSIS OF THE RIPARIAN VEGETATION NATURALITY AND VIEWSCAPE IN URSTREAM
;Amada Takaaki;Ichihara Kouichi;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 222~233
Riparian zone occupies not more than 5% of the total watershed area and can be considered in between the terrestrial and aquatic ecology as that does not fall under both of them. Unlike to common terrestrial plant that can e seen on other land, the riparian vegetation that exist in riparian zone can be classified into various groups because of their peculiar living form. The recognition of importance of terrestrial environment has considered the importance of natural river due to which even today, the movement throughout the world to retrograde the river development is taking place customarily. In this research, noticing the actual condition of the river management reality, the original capacity of river landscaping of Han river has been quantified grasping the actual condition of riparian vegetation from distribution area surveying and analysis. The objective of the research is to find out the river retrogression and maintenance methods based on the ecological environmental quality around the river by maintaining the river plants having high natural capacity and river planning method based on the harmony between conservation of river environment and use of riparian zone.
A Study on the Preference of the Hedge Planting Pattern
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 3, 1997, Pages 234~245
This study aims to clarify the preference of the hedge, on focusing the height, density, width of the hedge, which gives limited dwelling space continuity with outer space, promotes the naturality to dwelling environment, and plays an important role as green space in city. For this, it is performed statistical analysis by field survey, by classifying the hedge as planting pattern, and synthesizing the photograph. Therefore, the results of this study are as follows : 1. In the preference of height of the hedge, when only the hedge is composed, 1.5M is preferred, and when the hedge with deciduous tree, with needle-leaf tree, 1.25M is preferred. 2. In the preference of density of the hedge, which are perfect density, in case of the hedge, which are almost density, in case of the needle-leaf tree, are preferred. 3. In the preference of width of the hedge, 0.4M is preferred. 4. In the preferential factors of the hedges, the preference of the hedge is mainly influenced by density. As the result of multiple regression analysis of visual preference as the height, the density, the width, and the regression equation are as follows : Visual Preference = 0.094+0.412(density)+0.370(height)+0.177(width)