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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Oct 1998
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jul 1998
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Apr 1998
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Market Segmentation and the Positioning of Resorts
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 1~17
Most of the tourist resort facilities in our country cannot be used in the winter season, and only a few spa resorts and sky resorts are available in the winter. To ameliorate this problem, various types of winter resort facilities have been constructed since 1970s and the massive development of winter resort facilities changed the resort market from a seller's market to a buyer's market. There has been however,few researches on marketing strategies for winter resorts, and there is a growing need for a rational method to maximize tourists' satisfaction and developers'profit at the same time. This research aims to develop a positining strategy to engance the marketability of winter resorts by classifying the resort market with the self-image types of users, and by analyzing the structure of the market, users' preferences, and locational factors. A survey was conducted with cases of Yong-Pyung resort, Mu-Ju resort, Alps resort, Bears resort, Back-Am spa resort, Su-An-Bo spa resort, and I-Chon spa resort. A list of questions in five categories -- similarity, characteristics, preferences, self-image, and personal characteristics of the respondents -- was constructed and tested. Among the 750 copies of questionnaire distributed, 700 were returned by only 378 were analyzed after screening missing or reckless answers. The statistical analysis of the data were conducted using techniques of correlation analysis, frequency analysis, factor analysis. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to group the cluster of self-image and a discriminant analysis were used to confirm this classification. The demographical characteristics were identified by frequency analysis, and resorts attributes were analyzed by oneway ANOVA analysis. Multidimensional scaling methods such as KYST, PROFIT, and PREFMAP were used for the positioning strategy.
Understanding Recreational Choice Behavior: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 18~29
This study was carried out to test the theory of planned behavior in recreational choices behavior. Lotte World was chosen as study area, and college students were selected by nonprobability sampling for two waves of data collection. The first wave of data were collected one weeks into the spring semester : intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were measured. To collect the data of the second wave, the same resondents were asked their behavior, one week data of the second wave, the same respondents were asked their behavior , one week prior to the final examination : whether they visited the Lotte World or not. Polychoric correlation among variables were calculated by the PRELIS because behavior was nominal variable. Then, weighted least square method was utilized to calibrate structural equation model by the LISREL version 7.2. Structural link effect on intention among three determinants : the direct effect on intention was 0.421 and the indirect effect via intention on behavior was 0.145, respectively. However, its effect on behavior was insignificant because actual control over 'visiting of Lotte World' was relatively high. A few comments were sugested on data collection, and inclusion of new variables was discussed for the sufficiency f the theory of planned behavior.
A Study on the Policies and Projects for the Creation of Areas for Close Contact with Nature in Japan
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 30~38
Nowaday special attention is being paid to the conservation of all species or ecosystmes of sites for public projects. Many environmental conservation policies and projects in Japan emphasize the coexistence of man with nature and close contact with nature. The objectives of this study was to investigate policies and projects for the creation of areas for the close contact with nature in Japan, to characterize change of techniques for the space creation over times, and to classify those policies and projects implemented by many government agencies. This study was mainly carried out by literature survey of laws, policies and projects related to environmental conservation pertinent to national scale. Major findings of this study can be summarized as follows: First, two most significant turning points for the environmental conservation in Japan were the establishment of the Office of Environmental in 1971 and the enactment of many laws influenced by the awareness of global environmental problems since 1990. Second, polices and projects for the creation of areas for the close contact with nature started in 1960s by the Office of Forestry, and focused on planting and development of simple facilities in forests. And the conservation of natural environment, ecological restoration and the expansion of urban green spaces, and the creation of biotopes and other areas for the close contact with nature in urban areas were the major characteristics of environmental conservation in Japan during 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, respectively.
Study on Environmental Deteriorations of Trail and Use Impacts in Moaksan Provincial Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 39~50
The object of this study was to examine and analyze the environmental deterioration of three major trails and around peak area of Moaksan Provincial park in 1996. Trails are mostly made up at ridgeline and the slope of them is gentle. Mean trail width is 3.6m, and total length of branch trails is 982m in survey area. The environmental deterioration is derived from trail extension. Maximum eroded depth and cross-section area loss are 89cm and 14,050cm2 respectively, and gully erosion type appears at many sites. The environmental deterioration of trails is very heavy at the sections from Khui to Moaksan peak and from Moakchong to ascent part around the peak. The entire width, branch trail, maximum depth, cross-sectional area loss and surface roughness, as the indexes of trail conditions, are significantly greater at the more heavily used trails. Amount of erosion is influenced by eroded depth, longitudinal slope, runoff influence and entire width in descending order as well as the amount of use. Safety and protection facilities on the trail such as stone and soil stairs, rope handrail, stone channel and soil ditch work are built, but they are very deficient. Bared lands about 4,900m2 and fill slopes are caused and formed by recreation activities and constructions around peak area. It is required to carry the recess system and to conserve and rehabilitate the destroyed trail sites and bare fill slopes as soon as possible, before the environmental deterioration becomes critical because of increased used amount in consequence of construction of recreation parks.
A Study on the Actual Conditions and Consciousness of the Managers in the Interior Landscape of Coffee Shop
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 51~60
The purpose of this study was investigating the managers' consciousness on the interior landscape in coffee shop, the actual measurement of the space size and greenary spaces of coffee shop for grasping the actual condition of interior landscape. The coffee shop was made and object of this research was 100 cases in the center of Taegu city. The major results of actual measurement of the ratio greenary and spaces are as follows; 1. The ratio greenary spaces in the indoor plants was account for 2.06% of the coffee shop area. 2. The managers recognized that the spaces area of the interior plantscape were narrow comparison with whole spaces area about the interior landscape. 3. A major arrangement type of the interior landscape was the dispersion type. 4. A major plants used for the interior landscape were foliage plants and also most of managers prefered foliage plant. 5.Generally, managers were high interested in the interior landscape but the experience knowledge and investment in the interior landscape were not sufficient.
Exploring a New Planning Paradigm for Urban Landscape in Korea : An Aesthetic Approach
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 61~81
This paper is to explore a new planning paradigm for urban landscape-not a new paradigm for urban landscape planning- in the light of environmental aesthetics. This is an endeavor to construct an alternative to the philosophical absence in the landscape profession. The landscape has been conceived of visual -oriented urban scene, and this notion is one of consequences of subject-object dualism in Western modernity project. In contrast with this convention, the authors consider urban landscape as the aesthetic field in which an experience of urban landscape actually works in human ordinary life and experience. To acquire an aestetic experience in this aesthetic field, we need to replace the doctrine of disinterestedness with engagement and contemplation with participation. This concept of participatory engagement with landscape can be translated in specific and concrete ways into urban landscape planning, replacing the traditional panoramic landscape with engaged landscape. The authors approach the urban landscape from the vantage point of an aesthetics of engagement by developing the four environmental situations : the sailing ship, the circus, the cathedral, and the sunset. They may serve as useful guides in cultivating and beautiful urban landscape to replace the forces of vulgarity and monotony that depress the modern city. What is beautiful urban landscape\ulcorner What makes the urban landscape beautiful\ulcorner Finally, the authors suggest identity and amenity as practical concepts of urban landscape planning for an aesthetic experience.
Effectiveness of Mass Communication Program for Managing Visitors' Depreciative Behavior in National Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 82~88
The purposes of this study was : 1) to describe the theoretical background of Clean-up Time Movement managing visitors' depreciative behavior ; 2) to test the effectiveness of a mass communication program, Clean-up Time Movement in National Park. This study employed a field experimental design (Multiple time-series design) in Naejangsan National Park. This study evaluated the differential effectiveness of the self-developed Clean-up Time Movement Program to reduce littering behavior between Control groups (Those who not received Clean-up Time Program) and Treatment groups (Those who received Clean-up Time Program) by weighting trash gathered in a litter box and scattered around picnic ground. The results showed that the Clean-up Time Movement Program was more effective to reduce the total trash and the trash degree per a person in Treatment groups than Control groups. It seemed to effective in managing depreciative behavior through the mass communication program in National Park.
Environmental Aesthetics as a Landscape Architectural Theory
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 89~106
This essay addresses the role of environmental aesthetics in landscape architecture : how can environmental aesthetics enrich landscape architectural theory and practice\ulcorner It begins by criticizing the predominant notions toward theory : theory as an instrumental design method, theoretical vacuum in modernism of landscape architecture, and the intimate relation of theory and practice in 18th-century England. It suggests that the expulsion of theory in landscape architectural academics and profession is nothing but an inappropriate bias. In the second place, the essay explores a remaining question : why environmental aesthetics is a part of landscape architectural theory\ulcorner I would argue that environmental aesthetics can transcend the man-nature(subject-object) dichotomy, one of heritages of Western modernity project. Here, landscape architecture meets environmental aesthetics, and both can intermediate between theory and practice. For landscape architecture is (and ought to be) a device of embodied communication, creating symbolic settings wherein an interconnection of man and nature can occur. Finally, this essay examines the aesthetics of engagement that Arnold Berleant claimed recently. This theory of aesthetic experience has a possibility of making corrections some improper conventions in landscape architectural creation and appreciation : disinterested contemplation, visual-orientedness, decoration-denteredness, and so forth. I would conclude that environmental aesthetics can be a significant theory which can correct misconceptions in landscape design and appreciation and, further, can lead contemporary practice. As the great mediator between man and nature, between theory and practice, environmental aesthetics has a profound role to play in the realm of landscape architecture, and vice versa.
Evaluation of the Present Managerial Conditions Based on the Established Social and Ecological Impact Standards and Some Suggestions
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 107~122
Visitor Impact Management (VIM) framework was developed in the United States to help recreation resources management to be more systematic and effective. It consists of a series of steps from examining problems and their causes to planning and implementing management strategies in order to solve the problems. This study was conducted to find management problems in Moodeung-san Provincial Park and suggest some alternatives based on VIM framework. Data were collected by on-site survey and a mail-back questionnaire in August of 1996 in Moodeung-san Provincial Park. Out of 1173, 519 respondents (44.2%) were used for the study. According to the study results, there were differences between users' perceptions about the present use of the park and the users' personal norms about the use of the park. That is, while 46% of the respondents considered the park should be used as 'the place for calm and meditiation,' only 19% of the respondents considered the park had been used as 'the place for calm and meditation.' Three social indicators (the number of users, the number of seeing others' inconsiderate behaviors, and the crime) and four ecological indicators (littering, human waste, trail conditions, and water quality of Moodeung-san valleys) were selected for the major managerial indicators of the study area. Generally, five out of 7 selected indicators were in worse conditions than the evaluative standards, Five indicators which were evaluated as in worse conditions include two social indicators (the number of users and the number of seeing others' inconsiderate behaviors) and three ecological indicators (littering, human waste and trail conditions). Two other indicators such as water quality of Moodeung-san valley and the crime were identified to be important for users' recreational experience. More concerns and systematic investigations on these indicators are needed. This study discussed some management strategies to solve the identified problems, and introduced how mangers may make use of these information for recreation resource menagement in the park.
Plant community restoration and make a ecological landscape for a Wolmyong park in Kunsan city
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 123~140
The flora of Kunsan Wolmyong park was 77 families, 168 genera, 240 species, 2 subspecies, 35 varieties, 1 formae or 278taxa. Using the Phytosociology method, 12 plant communities were recognized ; Alnus japonica, Pinus densiflora, Pinus thunbergii, Pinus rigida, Castanea crenata, Quercus acutissima, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Alnus hirsuta, Quercus serrata, Aluns firma, Liriope platyphylla and Reynoutria communities. Similarity between different communities was low for most of the cases except for Pinus densiflora, Pinus Thunbergii and Pinus rigida communities kept comparely high with ond another. Species diversity was analyzed by species richness(SR), species diversity index(H') and evenness(J'). Castanea crenata, Robinia pseudo-acacia and Alnus firma communities were higher in SR, H' than the other communities. But Pinus rigida, Quercus acutissima and castanea crenata communities were higher in evenness than the other communities. To investigate the plant community structure and to establish restoration counter plan of a Wolmyeng Park in Kunsan City. As a remedial approach, following is propesed. first, Establishment of an adequate planting plan and development of slope stalilization method by planting native species. second, Sellection of adequate species by planting experiments for pioneer species, native species, and dietary species. third, Landscape planting zones should be managed artificially, the others be managed with ecological approach.
A study on the ideological structure of palace space in Josun period
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 141~157
It has been general view to Josun palace space that the Kyongbok palace, a main palace, is arranged with symmetric geometrical composition principles and, unlikely main palace, sub-palaces such as Changduk, Changkyong and Kyonghee palace are placed in organic structure adapted to natural land form. With that view, there are no common factors to be considered between these palace, main and sub palace, in composting principles of the space. In this study, because of same ideological period, although there is external difference of that palaces, that common ideological principles are projected to these two palaces types through compositing space is assumed. On this hypostasis, this study has been focused on finding the ideological principles projected to these palace space commonly. As result of study, some of them are considered as common principles; Firstly, they are arranged in the text of contents through the way of naming to building, enterence and so on. The second point is ; it is viewed that the Oheung and symmetric arrangement method based on Oheung are used in compositing of palace space. The third is ; through analizing central space of Kyongbok palace, it is analized that oneness composition principles, which are based on the theory of Umyangheong, are projected to different palace space commonly.
A Study on the Method for Establishment of Quantitative Target of the Urban Greenspace - in the case of suwon city
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 158~170
In this study, we divide greenspace in Suwon city into three parts, that is, the conservation part, the maintenance part and the creation part by considering the quantitative aspect of greenspace and the present targets. To do it, two steps are taken. Firstly, assuming that the target year is 2007, the final target of greenspace area is established by combining targets presented in present state survey, the evaluation of resident perception and the future population estimates. The target of greenspace area in present state survey is 7,887,062
and that of greenspace area demanded in the evaluation of resident perception is 8,242,419
. Demand of greenspace area based on population estimates is 4,227,513
. When the greenspace needed in the city is added, the target may be more than 8,242,419
which is demanded in the evaluation of resident perception. Outcome of the present state survey, 7,887,062
, is considered to be enough to accomodate the greenspace area demanded in the evaluation of resident perception and the population estimates. Therefore, targets of greenspace in Suwon City was established based on the area of greenspace analyzed in the present state survey. Secondly, the target of greenspace is divided into three parts, that is, the conservation part, the maintenance part and creation part. And the methods to attain the target are presented. In order to set desirable targets of urban greenspace, it is necessary to combine the outcome of present state survey, the resident perception, the population estimates and the various urban conditions. If the results of this study are applied to the urban planning or other related planning, the urban ecosystem will be protected and the biotope will be created.
Land Use and Greenspace Structure in Several Cities of Kangwon Province
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 25, issue 4, 1998, Pages 171~183
The purpose of this study was to analyze urban greenspace area and vegetation structure by land use types for both Chuncheon and Kangleung. Natural and agricultural lands were predominant in the study cites, as 75-80% of total area. Residential lands accounted for about 10%, and commercial and industrial lands(including transportation), 5-10%. Only 10-20% of urban residential and commercial area was covered with greenspace. Woody plant cover was 12-13%, and tree density was 1.5 trees/100
for urban lands(all land use types except natural land) in both cities. The tree-age structure was largely characterized by young, growing tree population, and species diversity within a diameter class decreases as the diameter classes get larger. Urban lands of both cities had quite a similar species composition of woody plants (similarity index of 0.65). Street trees in Chuncheon were intensively pruned annually to protect the above ground utility lines. Some strategies were explored to solve problems found in the existing greenspace structures. They included increase of biomass and greenspace area through minimization of unnecessary impervious surfaces, creation of multilayered and multiaged vegetation structures, relocation of above ground utility lines and avoidance of intensive tree pruning, and establishment of greenspace proximity and connectivity.