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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Oct 1998
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jul 1998
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Apr 1998
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Changes and Influencing Factors fo Townscape in Korea since 1945
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 1~14
The purpose of this study is to find out how the urban landscape of Korea, especially Seoul, changed during the last half century since 1945. The modernization of Korea, which had begun in 1960's after the chaotic period caused by Korean War, influenced the rapid growth of cities and the radical changes of its structures. But the Western-minded planning theories based on rationalism and positivism was directly applied in developing our traditional cities and consequently the modern urban landscape including urban pattern, architectural style, and commercial and residential landscape revealed disharmony, discrepancy and inconsistency in skylines, streetscape and so on. The findings are summarized as follows. 1. Because the urban structure and pattern changed in undesirable manner in terms of land use and traffic circulation, cities as a whole resulted in exclusive and heterogeneous landscape, and citizens lost their identity and felt alienated. 2. Because the architectural forms of important and monumental buildings which influenced the character of streetscape were not so successful in inventing contemporary Korean Style in true sense, we still have difficulty in creating the urban landscape of originality and legibility. 3. Because from the beginning of this era almost all highrise buildings were designed by modernism-oriented western architects, the commercial landscape of central cities did not evoke a sense of place, and after the introduction of postmodernism this tendency is ore striking even in everyday ordinary streetscape. 4. The newly formed residential landscape which was mainly composed of highly dense and highrise apartment, not only evolved very overwhelming and ugly visual impact but also exposed many social problems in living condition, neighboring and face-to-face contact. In conclusion, in ordr to define the 'Koreanness' of our urban landscape, we have to struggle to combine traditional architectural heritage and native townscape with Western shape, thought and theory, no matter how difficult it may be.
Vegetation Structure and Management Planning of Mountain Type Urban Green Space in Inchon, Korea : a case study of land area
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 15~27
The purposes of this study were to investigate vegetation structure and present management planning of mountain type green space using the green space changes during the 20 years, actual vegetation, and plant community structure in land area of Inchon, Korea. The actual vegetation area in survey sites was consisted of Quercus acutissima community, Robinia pseudoacacia forest, Pinus rigida forest, Q. mongolica-Pinus rigida community, P. rigida-Q. mongolica community, Q. monogolica community and so on. According to the classification by TWINSPAN, 61 survey plots were divided into 9 groups; Q. mongolica-Alnus japonica-R. pseudoacacia-P. densiflora, R. pseudoacacia-Styrax japonica, P. rigida-R. pseudoacacia-Q. mongolica, R. pseudoacacia-P. rigida-Q. mongolica-A. hirusta, Q. mongolica-P. thunbergii, and prunus sargentii-Zelkova serrata community. From this result, ecological succession trend of vegetation seems to be change from artificial result, ecological succession trend of vegetation seems to be change from artificial planting forest to native plant community which was dominated by Quercus spp.. This study area need to manage for the increase of biodiversity through the restoration of naturalness by ecological management of artificial planting forest and ecological planting of injured green space.
Model of Plant Management on Consideration of Plants Community Structure in Robinia pseudo-acacia Forests, Bucheon City
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 28~37
The purpose of this study was to develop a model of plant management based on Robinia pseudo-acacia forests structure in Bucheon city, Korea. For 38 plots were established in Robinia pseudo-acacia forest of Bucheon city. As a result, Robinia pseudo-acacia community was expected to the proceeded to Quercus spp. community. In addition, the diversity of Robinia pseudo-acacia-Quercus spp. community was analyzed higher than Robinia pseudo-acacia community. Based on the result of forest structure analysis, Quercus spp. community was selected as the goal stage of plant management for Bucheon forests and 22 species that were selected by the importance value analysis, classification and ordination analysis and the correlation analysis were chosen as the ecological approprite species. This study also suggested density control guide line for sucession promotion, which individuals numbers of Robinia pseudo-acacia might be reduced from 50 individuals to 23 individuals by selective cutting in order to keep 65% of total basal area.
Uptake by Urban Popular Landscape Tree Species
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 38~53
This study quantified annual net carbon uptake by urban landscape trees and provided equations to estimate it for Ginkgo biloba, platanus occidentalis, Zelkova serrata and Acer palmatum, based on measurement of exchange rate for two years growing seasons from Sep., 1995 to Aug., 1997. The carbon uptake was significantly influenced by photosynthetic capacity, photon flux density and pruning. Ginkgo biloba showed the highest rate of net CO\sub 2\ uptake per unit leaf area and Acer palmatum did the lowest rate among those species. A tree shaded by adjacent building over the growing seasons showed net CO\sub2\ uptake per unit leaf area much lower than another tree of the same species less shaded. Annual net carbon uptake per tree was 19kg for Zelkova serrata, but only 1 kg for Ginkgo biloba and Platanus occidentalis with crown volume dwarfed from pruning. One Zekoval serrata tree annually offset carbon emission from consumption of about 32 liter of gasoline or 83 kWh of electricity. Strategies to improve CO\sub 2\ uptake by urban landscape trees include planting of species with high potosynthetic capacity, sunlight-guaranteed road and building layout for street trees, planting of shade-tolerant species in the north of buildings, and relocation of utility lines to underground and minimized pruning.
The Evaluation on the exiting greens of Hwasan Country Club by undisturbed Soil Core Analysis
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 54~61
The subsurface environment of the root zone area can set the stae for "do or die" of the turfgrass plant. The good condition of the greens is verified by their physical properties. Therefore, this study was carried to evaluate on the existing green of Hwasan C.C. by undisturbed soil Core Anaysis. We completed the ISTRC SYSTEM BenchMarking of the undisturbed core samples taken from Green #1, Green #5, Green #9-"Best" area, and Green #9-"Stressed" area for the Hwasan C.C.. It was also our understanding that the greens were in "good" to "very good" conditioni. THe exception might be Green #9-"Stress" area, which was the stressed area. The stressed area was confined to a ridge across Green #9. The organic content test results comfirmed the development of organic layering in depth 0-2.5cm. For the amount of compaction in the upper root zones and te development of the green's respective organic layers, the infiltration rates were high in Green #1, Green #5, and Green #9 "Stressed" area. The depicted aerificaton hole might be the probable cause of the relatively high infiltraton rate. Green #9-"Best" area had a tested infiltration rate of 18.75cm/hr. Either this area had not been aerified, or the undisturbed sample did not contain a aerification cavity. The water retention capacity of the undisturbed samples was good. When the greens were first constructed, the original root zone mix had been relatively low water retention properties. And the bulk density and the porosity of the undisturbed samples were good. In the result, all the greens were similar except for the infiltration. Thus, we supposed that Green #9-"Stressed" area might be ainly influenced by the amount of irrigation water and the configuration of the green's surface. There had been a reduction in the amount of irrigation water as the water retention capacity in the greens was promoted. Especially, it had gradually become more of a problem as the green had matured in Green #9-"Stressed" area. Because Green #9-"Stressed" area was a ridge area. The reduction in the amount of irrigation water might be the probable cause of the stress in Green #9-"Stressed" area. Our final observation related to the soil texture and the particle size distribution of the sand. Though and sand contant of all the tested greens were good, the gravel content of them exceeded ISTRC Guidelines. In particle size distribution of the sand, the very coarse and the coarse content of all the tested greens exceeded, but the rest was insufficient. The stability is a function of the material retained on the 0.25mm mesh screen. But, the content of all the tested greens was very insufficient. Though all the greens was serviceable, the coarse root zone sands, such as the sand in the tested greens, tended to be "unstable". Thus, we recommend using a topdressing/aerification sand which should be more in line with ISTRC/USGA Guidelines.;unstable". Thus, we recommend using a topdressing/aerification sand which should be more in line with ISTRC/USGA Guidelines.ines.
A Study on the Method of the Landscape Evaluation by GIS; Focusing on the scene of Cheju Island
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 62~72
The purpose of this study is to suggest objective basic data for environmental resource planning through the evaluation of the visual quality by GIS. For this, Landscape information system have been made up of topographical and superficial information and landscape values of Cheju Island have been evaluated by using Grass 4.1, degree of visual preferences have been measured mainly by questionnaires and finally these data have been analyzed by using the correlation. Result of this study can be summarized as fellows, in the landscape value, remarkable views play a role as the dominant landscape information. Also, LCPs including various, successive view or a lot of visibility amount have high Landscape value. Therefore, it is important to management landscape which can preserve values of landscape elements through the creation of visibility area. In the visual preference, remarkable scenes play a part as a dominant factor. Also, LCPs including a wide field of vision or successive view have high visual preference. Therefore, it is proved that the visual preference is related to a field of vision and remarkable scenes. Finally, these data have been analyzed by using the regression, in order to verify the method. The result is that a R\sup 2\ is 0.715. It means that correlation is significant at the 0.01 level. In conclusion, the results of this study reveal that visual preference has been evaluated by aesthetic variables and landscape values have been evaluated by GIS. And visual preference and landscape values are closely correlated. In other words, it is possible to evaluate the aesthetic value by physical variable. The method of evaluationi is used in Cheju Island, and it will be possible to apply this method to other places. And this method can be applied to other places by special quality and landscape informatioin system, made up of landscape elements. Also, it will be possible to keep up management and applicatioin that is evaluated by GIS and computer program. Recently, there is a tendency tat visual and aesthetic approach, based on planners' experiences and intuitioin is gradually changed to the scientific approach, based on a objective data. Therefore, it is important that the measuring system is based on objective data which are concerned with a special quality of landscape. It is also significant that the environmental planning is based on a spatial image of physical environment and major landscape elements.
A Study on the System and Process of the Construction and Management for the Royal Garden and Landscape in the Late Choson Dynasty
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 73~90
The construction and management of the royal garden and landscape were the most significant project in Choson Dynasty. The kind of the royal garden and landscape were the rear garden of the palace, the groves of the royal shrine and orchard, etc. As the important project of the country, these constructions were controlled by the administrative system without division into the fields of engineering, building and landscaping. The purpose of this study is to investigate the administrative system. In particular, this study is focused on the construction and management of the royal garden and landscape in Hanyang from the 18th century to the late 19th century. This study is based on the analysis of historic documents and a survey of the relics. The results were summarized as follows : 1) The administrative system of the construction and management of the royal garden and landscape was composed of the government offices under Industry Board as a permanent organization - Yongjosa, Santaeksa, Chunchonsa, Songonggam, Changwonso - and Togam as a temporary organization. In addition to these organizations, there were Revenue Board, Ceremony Board, Military Board, which served as supporting organizations. The control of the construction and management of the royal garden and landscape was held by decision makers, executors of works and management. 2) The general process of the construction and management of the royal garden and landscape included Sangji and Kyuho다 as the first step; In case of buildings and facilities, according to former examples and drawings, the most of the planning and design was already fixed. In the case of landscape, those things aimed at construction according to the existing lie of the land. The works in the 2nd step; This process was divided into the construction of facilities and planting. In case of construction of facilities, those works were done by Togam and Songonggam. The high cost works were carried out through Togam and normal repairing works were completed by Songonggam. In case of planting, those works were carried out through Chunchonsa and the military. The management in the 3rd step; This process was done by two parts like the process of works. In case of facilities, management was done 효 the officers of Pongshim. In case of groves of newly - planted trees, this management was done by Tongsanbyonlgam and Tongsanjik who served cultivation and harvest of fruit trees as an expert.
A study on rating system of some shrubs for pedestrian control ; concentrate upon the density of branch
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 91~100
This paper is to study on rating system of some shrubs for pedestrian control with concentrate upon the density of branch. It was usd that Hibiscus syricacus L., Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora Nak, Ligustrum obtusifolium S. et Z., Callicarpa dichotoma Raeusch., Rhoododendron mucrionulatum Turcz., Syringa vulgaris L., Weigela subsessilis L. H. Bailey, Cercis chinensis bunge, Forsythia koreana Nak., Euonymus alatus Sieb, Chaenomeles speciosa Nak., orbaria sorbifolia var. stellipila Max., Deutzia parviflora Bunge, Kerria japonica De Candolle, Prunus tomentosa Thunberg ex Murray, Purunus grandulosa for. albiplena Koehne. Shrubs are invesitgated ito the density of branch, the power of sprout, height, a rate of growth, hardness of naturalizaton, crown width and existence of thorns. Shrubs belonged to high group of rating system for pedestrian control were Euonymus alatus Sieb, Purunus grandulosa for. albiplena Koehne, Chaenomeles speciosa Nak., Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora Nak., Prunus tomentosa Thunberg ex Murray, Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz., Hibiscus syricacus L., Ligustrum obtusifolium S. et Z., Syringa vulgaris L., Weigela subsessilis L.H.Bailey.
Analysis on Visual Preference Elements of Riverscape Axis
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 101~109
Recently, improvement of the quality of urban riverscape environment has been emphasized not only by landscape architectural field but also by various professionals in planning and ecology. Regarding to this current movement, the aim of this paper is to highlight major visual elements of riverscape axis as a case study of Shinchon River in Taegu City to suggest some basic guidelines for arranging riverscape in urban area. The study was mainly based on Repertory Grid Development method which was developed in Japan. The method is consist of three steps such as decision of element landscape in study area for slide photos, selection of evaluation items for interview and obstraction of proper evaluation factors. The major findings through this study are as follows; 1) The 12 major visual elements which possibly improve riverscape, based on abstraction of proper evaluation factors, are Dunchi, surface of the water,, equipment of river, buildings near riverside, river vertical and horizontal facilities like bridge, fine view, riverbed, water plant, naturalness, water's edge line, harmony and street trees by order. 2) Total numbers of adjective which describe 12 common factors are 25, such as clean, open, stable, quiet, comfortable, friendly, bright, natural etc. In addition, Dunchi was described 337 times by various adjectives, surface of the water was 200 times and arrangement of river was 146 times which is similar result with the order of 12 influential common factors. 3) Therefore, Dunchi, surface of the water and equipment of river are three most important factors which could create better riverscape. These three factors implies us how we supply good quality of urban river environment for the urban residents.
A Study on Development of the Perception Types toward National Park-An Investigation on the Perceptioni Types of Interest Groups our National Parks-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 110~117
It is essential to get full social supports of our national parks for the achievement of long-term goals of our national parks. Thus the main objective of this paper is to identify major perception types of interest groups of our national parks. The research method is greatly indebted to Hofer. Two stages of questionnaire surveys were carried out to identify perception types related to national parks and the statstical analysis of perception types. The findings of this study are as follows. First, eight types of perception on national parks were selected through the statistical analysis of ten preliminary perception types; nature preservation, appreciation of scenic beauty, culture, recreation, research, education, ethics, and economy. Second, three or four phrases relevant to eight perception types were identified. Third, it could be concluded that perception types identified through this research are significantly different from those commonly perceived on national parks and natural landscapes in western countries.
The urban biotope mapping and a building of biotope information system as a specialized tool of urban ecological landscape planning
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 118~132
There are numerous plant and animal species which are adapted to the conditioins of the urban environment. The objectie of landscape and nature conservation in cities can be considered as the perservation of these organisms as the basis for a direct contact between urban dwellers and the landscape elements. However, after 1980 in Korea, green and biotope oases started to develop in the center of the urban area, from which the surrounding population benefited, at least indirectly. Thus urban biotope mapping and biotope informatioin system as a specialized tool of urban ecological landscape planning will make clear the orientation for the preservation of species and renaturalizing measures. The results are as follows : 1) Biotope types in the study area were separated to 21 biotope. 2) The written description of the biotopes took place on the computerized forms. The basis for the uniform inclusion and description of all biotopes surveyed was a codeplan. Additional details were included on the urban biotope mapping. 3) The evaluation of the mapped biotopes was completed to the following aspect, namely " species diversity and biotope conservation value" and "nature experience value". 4) UBM and BIS represent an important basis for decision aid for the city administration within the context of the ecological urban and landscape planning process. 5) The methodology of UBM and BIS in this study area could be extended to whole urban area.to whole urban area.
Comparative Review of the Village Groves and Seaside Groves in Chonbuk-Do Province
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 133~142
This paper reviews the difference between the selected village groves and seaside groves in Chonbuk-Do province. In Chonbuk-Do province, village groves were principally found in the east mountainous region and seaside groves were found only in the south seaside. The village groves were located in the roadside and village entrance, but seaside groves were located in the front of crop land for the purpose of windbreak. The planting motive of village groves was historical and cultural background, but that of seaside groves was protection of cropland and village from strong wind. The form of village groves was various, but that of seaside groves was linear and rectangular. Both were small scale in comparison with other province. Both were formed on the slopeless land. In ownership, the rate of seaside groes owned by the slf governing body is higher than village groves. Billage groves were almostly owned by village. In vegetatioin structure, both were one class forest composed of only tall tree of upper class. Principal dominent species of seaside groves in upper tree was Pinus thunbergii, but those of village groves were Pinus densiflora, Carpinus tschonoskii, Zelkova serrata etc. Seaside groves were not growing normally in aspect of height and breast diameter of tree in comparison with village groves. The planting density of seaside groves was 3.7 times higher than village groves in Chonbuk-Do province.
A Study exotic formation appearing in the Waterscape of the Sunam Temple at Mt. Chokye
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 143~154
This study was carried out to investigate and analyze the waterscape of the Sunam Temple on Mt. Chokye over which controversies had been actively raised, especialy of its Japanese impacts, comparing the phenomena arising from it with those of Korean and Japanese traditional temples. And then the identity of the Sunam Temple was clarified in itself. It is concentrated on what exotic formation are found in waterscapes of the Sunam Temple and how they can be proved via what factors. The obtained results were as follows : 1. Two curved ponds located in the western part of the Iljumun gate have a specific features not visible in any other Korean traditional temples, serving as an object of interest. Such ponds with curved form in the Sunam Temple had an affinity to those of stroll-style garden in Kyoto area. 2. The winding waterway along with curved ponds in the west of the Iljumun gate was introduced into the Sunam Temple. Therby, it was an exceptional phenoma hardely found in the traditional temples of Korea. This study was a typical one, as found in the stroll Japanese temples. Especially, the swinding waterway found in both the Kinkakuji Temple and the Ginkakuji Temple designated as object temples of comparison in the present study.
Landscape planning and conservation for cultural -historical places to improve landscape experience-focused on Kyoung Ju city-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 155~165
Cultural-historical places, due to their strong symbolic sense of place shared in various people, have important impacts on people's cognitive and emotional reactions. Especially, the visual characteristics of surrounding areas of cultural -historical places directly influence the way the places are perceived, because they function as a visual background of the places. This study examined how the visual characteristics of surrounding landscape of cultural-historical places nfluenced the perception of the places. The visual characteristics of the surrounding landscape was minipulated by a computer simulation in the two aspects; quality and scale. The quality of the simulated landscape was divided by two kinds : natural and artificial . The scale of the simulated landscape was classified by three kinds : 1/3 of the middle ground, 2/3, and 3/3. Specifically, in each photo simulation, simulated natural or artificial background was introduced up to 1/3, 2/3 or the full height of historic monument. After a computer simulation, people's cognitive and emotional reactions to the simulated slides were investigated. The results showed that the quality of surrounding landscape have a great impact on all the cognitive and emotional reactions investigated. On the vontrary, the scale of surrounding landscape was found to habve an impact on partial reactions, such as all the emotions, part of the cognitions, and visiting preference only. The results revealed that the visual characteristics of surrounding landscape should be considered as the crucial elements in planning of cultural-historical places. Based on the study results, several suggestions were made for the landscape planning and conservation for cultural-historical places and historic cities.
Influence of Load Limitation on the Roofspace Planning of Existing Buildings
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 166~180
In a city where the greenery always lacks landscaping roofs of existing buildings offers a way to solve the problem. But the most serious problem that poses is the matter of load limit. At present most existing buildings have the loading capacity of 200 kg/
or less on their roofs. If the natural soil is used the loading capacity is easily surpassed because it simply is too heavy. To alleviate this problem it is realized to introduce the light weight artificial soil. The specific gravity of light soil is 0.65 whereas the natural soil is 1.8 when wet. It is three times lighter than the natural soil, thus eases the burden to the roof. The next problem to be confronted is the plant species to plant. It is possible to plant trees but they soon outgrow the loading capacity by weighing 8 times heavier in 10 years. Therefore shrubs and perennials are suggested to be planted because they don't weigh much even when they reach the mature height. The last problem is the stress put on roofs by the weight of the users. By some unexpected event the crowd gathered on a weak roof can cause the structural damage or even the collapse of the roof. The avoid the possibility of collapse a plaza or big pocket should not be designed in a roof garden because they hold crowd. By following the suggested means the old roofs of existing buildings can turn into the urban oases in the sky.
A New Perspective on Land Art : Towards a Artistic Discourse in Landscape Architecture
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 181~193
Land art has always ben considered as a similar but distinctly separate field from landscape architecture. Landscape architechs look to land art for inspiration and new concepts, but has always hesitated to define their field as an "art." But as more and more design projects for social spaces are being commissioned to artists, especially land artists, the distinction between the two fields are starting to blur. "Art or Social service\ulcorner" has been a question that has been asked in the field of landscape architecture throughout the 20 th century. By reviewing the concepts behind various land art projects, this paper seeks to undermine several misconceptions that has prevented landscape architects from wholeheartedly embracing land art as a expansion of their own field. Land art, as a new form of sculpture, sought to create art forms that were not looked at but experienced from the inside. Land art challenges the principle of the picturesque and the pictorialized view of nature. Land art was influenced by a new interest in prehistoric art, and sought to reestablish communication between the artist and the public. Also, land artists acknowledge the social responsibilities of art and presents the concept of art as a community activity. As can be seen by the concepts behind the works of land artists, the dichtomy of the artistic and social aspects of landscape architecture can be reconciled, and land art can serve as a model for a expanded field of landscape architecture.dscape architecture.
A Study on Improvements of Local Governments' Planting Regulations in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 194~206
In 1977, Local governments' planting regulations for the development projects were established in accordance with the revised building law in Korea. A landscaped area, planting densities of trees and shrubs, a percentage of evergreen plants, minimum tree size and species were prescribed in the planting regulations. But the clauses for an excessive planting density and a high ratio of evergreen trees that the regulations includes, have been gradually in the way to a creative planting design, and raise a problem of poor growth of trees an a disordered planting landscape. Therefore, in this study the present planting regulations of 124 local governments throughout the country were analyzed and compared with 13 foreign local governments' of 4 countries ; Japan, the United States of America, Canada and Singapore. And the linitations and characteristics of the regulations are drawn as follows ; 1. The regulations focus on controlling the green spaces and plantings by quantitative methods such as controlling the number of trees and the landscaped area, which are inadequate for estimating the crown coverage of mature trees, and which areinadequate for estimating the crown coverage of mature trees, and implementing the function of polantings and the use of green spaces. 2. Minimums of tree densities are higher than those of foreign countries, especially higher about 10 times to 100 times than those of the United States of America. 3.Excessive number of evergreen trees and fruit trees should be planted under the present planting regulations, that results in constricting the creativity in planting design. 4. An article for using specific tree size, 2.0ms over in height makes it difficult to use a wide variety of different sizes of trees. And there is no incentive measures when larger trees are planted. To enhance the quality of green spaces and plantings, it is needed that the function and locating of green spaces and plantings have to be emphasized, and the planting density should be concerned about the mature tree size. The incentive measure to use various sizes of trees is also needed, and the regulations to use excessive number of evergreen trees or fruit trees should be loosened.
The Growth Patterns of Major Landscaping Trees by Site Conditions in Two Apartment Complexes
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 207~218
A site survey in two apartment complexes and a nursery experiment were carried out in this study to provide basic data of the long-pending growth characteristics of major landscaping trees, such as Picea abies, Pinus parviflora, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Magnolia denudata, Acer buergerianum and Acer palmatum. According to the main results, the survival rates were very low, reflected by the average survival rate of the four species was 95% at the nursery site. And, it was presumed that the site conditions of two apartment complexes for tree growth were very inferior to those of the nursery site, taking into consideration that the increment percents of growth factors of the tree species at the nursery site were relatively higher than those of the apartment complexes. The distribution patterns of the current growth factors of trees showed a normal distribution. The regression equation of breast diameter on diameter at root collar showed especially high predictability. And, it was thought that the most critical limiting environmental factors on tree growth at the apartment complexes were found to be alkaline pH caused by excessive Ca, high percent base saturation, insufficiency of available moisture content, bad drainage due to inferior soil texture, high soil hardness, lack of organic matter and shortage of cation exchange capacity in soil.
A Study on the Optimum Planting Density of Urban Public Park in Seoul-In Case of the Munjung-Family APT. Complex-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 219~228
This study was investigated a optimum planting density of urban public park in seoul. Eight species commonly usd as landscape plants were selected. The survey was conducted to measure hight and width of the trees by five years interval. The results are summarized as follows. The average annual growth rates of the trees after planting were 7.4% in height 11.7% in width. Faster grown trees than average growth rate of the survey tres wee Metasequoia, glyptostroboides and Acer buergerianum, While the slower grown trees were Pinus koraiensis, Ginkgo biloba and Zelkova serrata. The average grown trees were Pinus strobus, Pinus densiflora and Acer palmatum . The planting density of survey area was 0.20tree/
. The optimum planting density was kept until five years after planting, however overcrowding density was found beyond five years after planting. This study also found the density of ten years after planting reaches about 3 times of optimum density.
A Study of Ecological and Growth Characteristics of Korean Mountain Ash(Sorbus alnifolia) for Landscape Woody Plants
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 229~239
This study investigated ecological and growth characteristics of Sorbus alnifolia for usage of landscape woody plant. The results are obtained as follows: 1) The results of investigate the native Sorbus alnifolia vegetations in Seoul and Kyonggi-do are as follows. From the investigation of canopy and understory, Pinus densiflora, Pinus rigida, Quercus mongolica Quercus dentata and Quercus aliena grow well in natural habitat of Sorbus alnifolia. While Rhod. mucronulatum, Symplocos chinensis, Corylus hetrophylla and alnifolia. While Rhod. mucronulatum, Symplocos chinensis, Corylus hetrophylla and Lindera obtusiloba are commonly found from shrub structure in the habitat. These structure pattern of natural setting would be applied for ecological planting design. 2) The Mt. Rabong area, which locates near a heavy factory district and is considered as environmental dteriorated area has the lowest soil acidity range among three investigated area. Sorbus alnifolia grows in where contains low soil acidity and inorganic nutrient. It might concluded that Sorbus alnifolia be tolerates to air pollution. 3) From the investigation of good specimen tres, the oldest good specimen trees of Sorbus alnifolia have grown in Seoul and Kyonggi-Do for 130 years with 15m height and 12m width. Most of good specimen trees are over 50 years old with 10~15m height, 4.5-12m width. These growth shape and form could be recommend that Sorbus alnifolia would be used as street tree and landscape woody plant in urban park.
Analysis of the Change in Pattern of Seoul Forest Patch to have used Landsat MSS Data
Lee, Jong-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 240~250
This study is to have attempted to analyze the characteristics of the change in forest landscape pattern of Seoul for 18 years by grasping it through satellite image data on the forest area in Seoul where a rapid change according urbanization and industrialization is going on. On the basis of Landsat MSS data- satellite image data, this writer analyzed the change in the number and size of patch and the mean edge length of each forest land, and the index of patch shape by each year from a landscape -ecological point of view. The results are as follows; First, in the pattern change of the forest patch of Seoul, the highest patch fragmentation area is the forest of the Yangchon-gu district where is decreasing it forest area by 654ha, 511ha, 495ha, 402ha each year from its total size of 742ha in 1979. Second, the change tendency shows that the average forest size decreased at 552.58ha in 1983, 435.03ha in 1988, 396.23ha in 1992, and 379.96ha in 1996. And analysis showed that even in the number of patches, the forest fragmentation phenomenon was presenting by the increase of development disturbance. Third, the mean edge by year was longest at 23,385m in 1979, but it is decreasing continuously. This shows the regular and artificial uniformity of forest landscape by disturbance-effect increase of the built-up development and shows low portion against edge effect by the time-series change like 1979>1983>198>1992>1996. Finally, in the analysis of a shape index indicated by ratio of size and edge, total averages were 2.56, 2.33, 2.17, 2.14, 2.14 each year, so that it is considered that the disturbance and ecological health status against forest landscape can be grasped according to being examined as 1979>1983>1988>1992, 1996 by the time-series change of the landscape.
Analysis on Accuracy and Indigenity of Landscape Plants Species in Planting Design and Construction
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 251~258
The purposes of this study was to investigate accuracy and indigenity of landscape plant species in planting design and construction at housing complex and offer basic data for improving precision of planting construction. The scientific name of landscape plant species was described in planting drawings at only two sites among twelve survey sites. According to analysis on indigenity of plant species in planting drawings, it was found that the component ratio of foreign species was the highest and the component ratio of native species at public housing complex was the lowest. The component ratio of landscape plant species in planting construction was severely differed to that of planting drawings. Also the component ratio of cultivar was higher than that of planting drawings due to planting of sevveral cultivars for one species in planting drawings. In the result of accuracy analysis on landscape plant species in planting construction, it was found that mean ratio of inacccurate species was 33.2% at public housing complex, 29.6% at local company housing complex and 26.4% at nationwide company housing complex. It was found that several cultivars were planted for one species in planting drawings. The representative species which were planted by several cultivars were Camellia japonica, Rododendron spp., Prunus spp. and Magnolia spp. and so on. In order to promote the precision and speciality of planting design and construction, scientific and cultivar name of plants should be described in planting drawings.
Effect of open space on the temperature drop -on Syakujii park of Tokyo in Japan-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 259~268
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of open space on temperature chang. In open space, lower temperature zones were formed, while high temperature zones were developed around urban areas. In forests and on water within open space, marked temperature reduction was recorded. The 10 % increase of the ratio of green space within fifty meters around the observation point decreased 0.33~0.43
from the maximum temperature and 0.20~0.
from the minimum temperature. The increase of ten trees in the area decreased 0.33~0.49
from the maximum temperature and 0.20~0.23
from the minimum temperature.
A study on the visual preference prediction of interiors
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 269~282
The visual preference of interiors focusing on lobbies was investigated as a function of six predictor variable on the base of the Informational Approach: complexity, coherence, mystery, spaciousness, brightness, plant. The Common Fcator Analysis of preference ratings yielded six common factors which helped to account for 22.3 percent of the variance in preference response to the scene. Among these factors, the factor defined as 'bright with many plants' was the most preferred and the factor defined as 'simple and closed' was the least preferred. The environmental attributes reflected in six groups of scenes were colour, resting place, window and the six predictors. In the commercial building scenes, complexity, spaciousness, coherence, brightness and mystery out of six predictors accounted for 74 percent of preference variance as the significant contributors. In the business building scenes, three predictors which are brightness, complexity, spaciousness accounted for 84 percent of preference variance. 'The amount of plant' not only influenced the preference indirectly through the intervening variable, complexity, but also was moderately correlated with brightness. The overall pattern of the resulted confirmed the usefulness of the Informational Approach to predict the preference in interiors focusing on lobbies.
A Study on the Visual Resource Management for Soraksan National Parks and Adjacent Area
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 283~292
The purpose of this study is to suggest visual resource management methods for the national parks and adjacent areas, where visual impacts by high rise buildings such as hotel, condominium, etc. become serious problems. In this study Soraksan National Park has been selected as a case study for landscape management planning. The results of this study are as follows: 1) Comprehensive landscape management planning for National Parks and adjacent areas is necessary to solve visual impact problems by high rise buldings such as hotel, condominium, etc. 2) It is suggested to investigate visual resources and conceptual landscape management ideas, to select landscape control points and lines, landscape management areas, and to prepare building height control plan for proper landscape management plan. 3) In case of Soraksan national park, the landscape management plan includes three landscape management areas : Landscape preservation area, General landscape management area, and special landscape management area. 4) In the part of special landscape management area, it is necessary to introduce landscape impact assessment system to more effective landscape management.
A Theoretical Study on the Wildlife Passage for Connecting Fragmented Habitat(I)- In the case of Wildlife Passage Types and Design Process
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 293~307
This study has been divided into two parts, 1) literature review and 2) a case study. Based on literature review and case studies found in Korea and abroad, this study aimed at classifying wildlife passages and establishing their development procedures in order to establish a theoretical ground for the development of wildlife passage as a way to link habitats that have been fragmented by the construction of roads and other developments. The results of the literature review are as follows : 1) Impact of road construction on surrounding ecological environment is found in various aspects. Along with damage of habitats as direct impact, decrease of biodiversity and simplification of species due to limited breeding and movement are cited as possible indirect impact. 2) In order to lessen the impact generated from fragmented habitats, various types of wildlife passage are being developed in Europe and are showing positive results. 3) In Korea, interests on animal passages have been rising recently. The ministry of Environment and local authorities are establishing development plans for the passages. However, practical materials on the usefulness of adoped methods are not available.4) In order to create an effective wildlife passage, decisions have to be made first on basic factors of planning and designing such as ecosystem rehabilitation methods and surveys on wildlife movement routes and habitat environment. Based on this, in a planning and designing stage, the location and type of a passage, size and measures to attract animals and prevent a collision need to be finalized. This should be followed by a series of process of maintenance, management and monitoring after the development. Based on the results of a theoretical study to develop an wildlife passage, Part 2 of this study deals with the results of an experiment through a specific planning and design that includes a process of ecological surveys, site selection, type selection, ecosystem infrastructure, planting design and construction details on an actual study area and presents them as a model project.