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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Oct 1998
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jul 1998
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Apr 1998
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
The Study on the Seed Mixture for the Revegetation of the Cut-slopes
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 8~18
This study was to make a effective seed mixture types with Korean native plants by researching te seed timing of suitable woody plants and competitive germination results of various plants for the purpose of cut-slotes revegetation. The results are summarized as follows. 1. In field polystand experiment, comparative among severalcomposition combination for early coverage shows good condition. 2. In combination for early-coverage, mixture of native woody plants only seeded in May and June shows over 90% coverage. It was not inferior to the other mixture types. So mixture of Albizzia Julibrissin, Cymbopogon doeringii, Alnus hirsuta and Indigfera pseudo-tinctoria is able to use to mixture type. 3.In case of combination for scenic beauty, Rhus chinensis shows low germination in the mixture for scenic beauty. But 90 days after seeded in May, it recorded maximum 44 cm height, seeded in June recorede 18 cm height. 4. Lespedeza crytobotrya shows good elongation in the combination for early coverage and scenic beauty, but that effects on elongation of other plants. So, it demands close investigation about suitable mixing rate of plants. 5. Alnus hirsuta, Pinus thunbergii, Betula platyphylla, Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora have been rarely germinated. So, the mixture of these plants wasn't adequate to use for revegatation.
A Study on the Development of Masking Models for the Improvement of Amenity at Urban Small Green Spaces
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 19~33
The primary objective of this research was to develop optimal models for masking the road traffic noise with the sound of a waterfall at urban small green spaces. Noise levels were measured at 8 roadside green spaces in SEOUL and questionnaires were randomly distributed to 40 users for evaluating the noise at each site at the same time. College students participated in the experiment for the development of masking models and the developed models were tested by users at 2 green spaces. The major results are as follows ; 1. Traffic noises ranged from 65dBto 70 dB. Users' satisfaction with the noise became considerably low on the basis of 60 dB and it was highly related to noise level. 2. Noise was a main factor to depreciate the amenity of green spaces where its level was more than 60 dB and so it neds to be excluded or reduced the traffic noise at the process of design. 3. Masking effects kept constant independent of the spatial location of masker on condition that masker levels were equal. It was effective when masker was 5-10dB greater than noise level which was masked. 4. As noise level went up, satisfaction ratings about the masked noise became low but masking effects increased in proportion to its level. 5. It was proved that the models were valid through the field experiment.
A Land Capability Analysis in Kyungsan, Korea Using Geographic Information System
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 34~44
The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for land use in the future, which result from analyzing land use, obtained after studying on the natural environment by Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing. The results of this study are as follows : ·According to the classification of land-cover, agricultural land use is relatively prominent except for overall natural covering. According to the average value of Green Vegetation Index class, the average value of GVI is 3.0, and 45% of the regions have relatively good condition of floral state. ·With a view to natural environment, the survey shows that the altitude of 90% of the total areas is below 400m, and most of them are flattened or moderately-inclined area. Therefore, this region has a good condition to be used for development. · The area for the first class in preservation degree of natural scenery of Namcheon-Myun is 2.3% of the total areas. According to the results about unstable areas on all sides, unstable districs are distributed in so small-scale units that they will be safe from some damages drawn by developing activity. But we have to consider every aspects for the future development of them. In this study, the natural environment-variables are regarded firstly, and effective designation of the land with natural environment is researched too. However, to establish more practical developing plan, ecological and human variables should be regarded.
Problems and Guidelines for Improvements of Munhwa-Maul with Special Reference to Mueur Munhwa-Maul and Umo Munhwa-Maul(a modern village) in Kyeongbook
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 45~51
This research is concerned with environment problems related to Munhwa-Maul where Korean government are financially much supporting in developing housing sites and constructing houses. The purposes of this research are to find out the problems and to present the practical guidelines in order to improve an environmental quality of Munhwa-Maul in which will be under construction in the near future. The method for finding out the problems are based upon the most atisfaction and dissatisfaction of residents with opened interview. Both Mueur Munhwa-Maul and Umo Munhwa-Maul are considered for this research because Mueur Munhwa-Maul is characterized with a modern village where is located far from the city while Uo Munhwa-Maul, near the city. Also, these Munhwa-Mauls have been firstly constructed. The interview participants are 34 persons in all. They are confined to Mueur Munhwa-Maul and Umo Munhwa Maul that have been firstly constructed in Kyeongook. According to the interviews, each 60% of both Mueur Munhwa-Maul interview participants and Umo Munhwa-Maul ones have shown the their most positive satisfaction in a new housing and facility. It can be seen from that these figures that housing environment including facility of both Munhwa-Mauls is surely improved and successful. On the other hand, 43.8% of Mueur Munhwa-Maul participants and 14% of Umo Munhwa-Maul ones have particularly shown the most negative satisfaction in a size of housing lot. Also, 15.6% of Mueur Munhwa-Maul interview participant and 44% of Umo Munhwa-Maul ones have stated the most dissatisfaction in a traffic convenience. The reasons showing these differences are likely that 90% of Mueur Munhwa-Maul residents are farmer while 85% of Umo Munhwa-Maul ones are not farmer. With this results the purpose of munhwa-Maul project that government has been supporting and the reality of Umo Munhwa-Maul could be never coincident. Therefore, it can be inferred that housing layout should be reconsiderd to be appropriate for agriculture and that the government should carefully consider the contributions of new housing lot to real farmers. In addition, we can say that Munhwa-Maul project should be firstly accomplished in the district far from the city rather than near the city.
A basic study on the historical description for the cityscape identity ; The image of cheongju in the archaic texts of geography
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 52~65
It has been recognized that the cityscate identity is a very important factor in a modern city. It is necessary to have a variable view to urban comunities for understanding the cityscape identity. We have investigated the contents of archaic texts such as the geography for tracing a cityscape identity to its origin in a city. Because it has been written about politics, economics and culture of a specific area in the geography based on deep interest to the city, we can look into the early image of the cityscape closely after searching of archaic texts. It is also significant to stdy with archaic texts of geography since these studies have a correlatio to the understand of an area and the keeping of historical conscious which are fundamental of cityscape identity. We have studieds on the area of Cheongju from the middle of Chosun dynasty to the end of this kingdom, since that many geographies were described those days. It was selected "Go-Reo-Sa" and "Se-Jong-Sil-Lok" Geography, "Sin-Jeung-Dong-Guk-Y대-Ji-Seung-Lam" "Dae-Dong-Ji-Ji" "Dong-Guk- Yeo-Ji-Ji", "Jeug-Bo-Mun-Heon-Bi-Go Yeo-Ji-Go", and "Taek-Li-Ji", as archaic texts of geography because these texts described in detail about city and gave a clue to speculate an image of city. The major results are as follows; 1) It was described about the cityscape in those archaic texts are metaphysical image, existing and usable elements of cityscape, lost resources of cityscape. 2) The metaphysical images are neither objective nor consistent in the each archaic texts. But the metaphysical image of old city suggests good insight for the application to the modern city image. 3) It is necessary to the careful onsideration about the existing elements. 4) There are variable programs about the lost resources of the cityscape, in accordance with the possibility of the restoraton. 5) The physical and visible factors and non-physical and invisible factors are equally important elements of the cityscape identity. Our research suggests that it is necessary to understand in detail how those factors of cityscape identity have changed with the changes of the times, and how those factors affect the modern cityscape identity.
A study on the occurrance real status of naturalized plants in urban green space
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 66~77
The purpose of this study is on identifying real condition of naturalized plants in urban green space. For this, Chollabak-do region was selected for case study. The occurring frequency and distribution status was investigated by field survey. The area of green open space, level of management and passed years after construction etc, were analized to identify the influence on occurrence of naturalized plants. The result is as follows: 1. In 18 sites, 145 taxa as weed species including naturalized plants were occurred. Average No. of occurring taxa is 22.7. Two families of plants, Graminae and compositae charged the most part. Also the rate of naturalized plant among them is 29.7%. 2. Naturalized species showing high occurring rate are 14 taxa of compositae, 5 taxa of Gramineae, Leguminosae and 4 taxa of cruciferae. These plants of previous four somatic polymorphism among all the naturalized plants. 3. The taxa number of naturalized plants were reducedby intensive management. But the rate of naturalized plants in extensively managed area was relatively lower than intensively managed one. Naturalizd plants were widely distributed in most of urban green space with being cognitioned as whole weed. 4. In origin of naturalized plants, the taxa from north America were 16 and the taxa from Europe were 16. Therefore the rate originated from north America and Europe charged high part as 68.2%. The rate of Annual, Biennial and Perennial were each 78.7%, 21.3%. The alternative of management for control aganist disturbance by Annual & Biennial required. 5. Multi-relations analysis shows 0.81 which is the relatively high interralation between the number of emerged axa and that of naturalized ones. 6. The number of naturalized species has no relation to the lapse of years after construction of open-space. Especially it was identified that weed control in the beginning of construction is very important. On the other hand the relation between Ys and Xp was Ys=1.784Xp+4.646.
Development of a CAD Based Tool for the Analysis of Landscape Visibility and Sensitivity
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 78~78
The purpose of this research is to develop a CAD-based program for data analysis of digital elevation model(DEM) on the aspect of landscape assessment. When handling DEM data as a visual simulation of topographic landscape, it is basic interest to analyze visible area and visualize visual sensitivity distributions. In reference with landscape assessment, more intuitive and interactive visualizing tools are needed, specially in area of visual approach. For adaptability to landscape assessment, algorithmic approaches to visibility analysis and concepts for visual sensitivity calculation in this study were based on processing techniques of entity data control functions used in AutoCAD drawing database. Also, for the purpose of quantitative analysis, grid-type 3DFACE entities were adopted as mesh unit of DEM structure. Developed programs are composed of main part named VSI written in AutoLISP and two of interface modules written in dialog control language(DCL0 for user-oriented interactive usage. Definitions of camera points(view points) and target points(or observed area) are available alternatively in combined methods of representing scenic landscape, scenery, and sequential landscape. In the case of scene landscape(single camera to fixed target point), only visibility analysis in available. And total visibility, frequency of cumulative visibility, and visual sensitivity analysis are available in other cases. Visual sensitivity was thought as view angle(3 dimensional observed visual area) and the strengths were classified in user defined level referring to statistical characteristics of distribution. Visibility analysis routine of the VSI was proved to be more effective in the accuracy and time comparing with similar modules of existing AutoCAD third utility.
Economic Valuation of Yeido Park: Application of Double-Bounded Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation Method
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 90~103
The purposes of this study are to estimate the economic value and reasonable entrance fee of the Yeido Park, which is under construction in Seoul, by conduct the face-to-face interview. A total of 645 daults were selected by two stage cluster sampling. The senario was designed to meet the requirements for doubgle-bounded dichotomous choice CVM, and distributed with the photograph to epict and compare the current and suggested conditions. A donation vehicle and entrance fee were utilized to find the possibility of strategic behaviors and protest zero, and to make the data estimatable tfor interval censored survival analysis. Date was calibrated by the survival analysis to eleminate the 'fat-tail problem'. Weibull distribution was assumed as a baseline distrubution. The mean WTP of donation and entrance fee was ￦5,281 and ￦783, respectively. The economic value of this park was determined by aggregating the mean value, giving a total WTP for the population of ￦36,861,645,000. This economic value was composed with the use value and existence value. The calibrationi of the Weibull proportional hazard model showed that nearness to the park, age, intention to isit the park, and educational attainment were significant independent variable to influence an amount of donation.
Function of Home Energy Savings and Carbon Emission Reduction by Urban Vegetation- Case of Chuncheon-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 104~117
Rising concern about climate change has evoked interest in the potential for urban vegetation to help reduce the level of atmospheric CO\sub 2\, a major heat-trapping gas. This study quantified the functio of home energy savings and carbon emission reduction by shading, evapotranspiration and windspeed reduction of urban vegetatioin in Chuncheon. Tree and shrub cover averaged approximately 13% in residential land. The effects of shading, evapotranspiration and windspeed reduction annually saved heating energy by 2.2% and cooling energy by 8.8%. The heating and cooling energy savings reduced carbon emissions by 3.0% annually. These avoided emissions equaled the amount of carbon emitted annually from fossil fuel consumption by a population of about 1,230. Carbon emission reduction per residential building was 55kg for detached buildings and 872 kg for multifamily buildings. Urban vegetation annually decreased heating and cooling energy cost by ￦1.1 billions, which were equivalent to annual savings of ￦10,000 savings and carbon emission reduction due to tree plantings in the wrong locations, while windspeed reduction had a great effect. Plantings fo large trees close to the west and east wall of buildings, full tree plantings on the north, and avoidance of shade-tree plantings or selection of solar-friendlytrees on the south were recommended to improve the function of building energy savings and carbon emission reduction by urban vegetation.
The Study on the Important Factors of the Amenity in Multi-Family Housing Estates
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 118~133
The residents, living in multi-family housing, prefer to have healthy and natural outdoor environmental for better human and environment quality. Thus, providing the high qulity of amenity has become a popular word in site planning and housing developments field. However, the scope and definition of amenity have not yet clearly identified and it becomes and issue in planning and development field. The purpose of this study isto examine and to evaluate the amenity and its implicationi for site planning so that analysis methods such as to interview and survey with residents were carried out. The results of this study are summarized below; The amenity of residential environment means total environmental quality to the residents in a broad sense. Abundent green environment would be very important factor to increase the amenity of residential environment so that the expansion of green field would improve the quality of multifamily housing. The expansion of green environment and biotope was the most important factor to increase the symbiosis system between residents and outdoor environment. And the amenity should be conformed to the certain standand of environmental quality and the high quality of amenity would be increased significantly in the future for residental developments. Thus, it should be accomplished by preparing practical methods in means of discriminative strategy products planning principle.
The Image and Visual Preference for Urban Setting : Focused on Outdoor Spaces of Urban Office Buildings
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 134~142
THe purpose of this study is to suggest the major determinants of visual preference in the outdoor spaces of urban office buildings. For this, the spatial image was analyzed by the factor analysis algorithm. The level of visual preferences was measured by a slide simulation test, and these data were analyzed by the multiple regressioni. The result of this study can be summarized as follows; Factors covering the spatial image were found to be 'mystery','changeability','coherence' and 'legibility'. T.V. was obtained as 58.4%. Outdoor spaces of urban office buildings were classified into four groups by the multi dimensional scaling method. As for the analysis of imageability in each spatial type, the factor scores of measuring high values were different for all types. Type II, IV obtained higher rank of visual preference and type III, I obtained lower. For all types, the factors of visual preference were found to be 'mystery','changeability','coherence' and 'legibility'. The visual preference determinants of urban setting focused on outdoor spaces of urban office buildings may be the major factors which must be considered in planning and designing as the functional basis for the quantitative analysis.
A Study on the Salix's Biotechnical Application
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 143~151
To develop restoration technologies of natural environment, which is destroyed through the urbanization, industrialization, and the increase of leisure industry, the development of environmental restoration material and those application is greatly needed. Concerning this current issue, an experiment has been conducted to test and an experiment has been conducted to test and analyze the conditions of nutritonal propagation of willow cutting, which is known as a plant with rapid propagation and good growth capability under bad soil conditions and its wide ecological amplitude. 24 various kinds of willow cuttings -2~6 cuttings for each species -were placed into the earth for 57 days and measured the lengths and the diameters of willow cuttings, the possibility of root formation, the total number, and the total length of new shoots and roots. 23 among 24 willow cuttings tested were showing a great growing capacity and a number of new shoots and roots were observed in a relatively short time. This proved that salix is an adequate plant material for quick environmental restoraton . Besides, those willow cuttings could be classified for different site conditions through comparing the ratio of the underground part to the aboveground in total length. The results are as follows; S. dependens, S. matsudana, S. babylonica are the most suitable species for quick vegetaton and S. gracilistyla,S. myricoides,S. alba 'sercia' for erosioni control.
A Study on the Groves for making enclosed Village in Rural Human Settlement Circle
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 152~161
The purpose of this study was to identify remained real state of groves of enclosed village in human settlement circle. That was practiced in case of Chinan-Gun region which traditional elements had well been conservated. 48 village groves were found by site survey, reference and interview in Chinan-Gun region. 27 groves of 48 village groves were clarified as complementing village grove by classification of grove character. It was identified through survey that many were partially destructed by development and human use. The results of this study showed general, socio-behavioral characteristics, characteristics of forest state and vegetation structure of complementing village groves. Length, area, form, type, motive, location, relationship of those were analyzed to identify general characteristics. Facilities, human behavior and ownership of those were analyzed to identify socio-behavoral characteristics. Dominent species, appearing rate, height, width, density and biodiversity of upper trees were analyzed to identify forest state and vegetation structure. Interrelation of each factor were analiged and comparative review with previous studies was achieved.
Development of a GIS Method for the Automatic Calculation of LS Factor of USLE
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 162~177
Conentionally, LS factor for the USLE suggested by Wischmeier has been computed manually on topographic maps based on one dimensional approach. But outcomes of the equation could be severely affected by the convergence and divergence of surface runoff at complex terrains. Thus the objective of this research are to develop a method to automatically compute LS factor based on the multiple flow algorithm, and to test the accuracy of this method by comparing outcomes of this method to previous measurements or estimations of soil erosion. The program for the automatic calculation of LS factor was developed by utilizing Fox Pro 4.5, and outcomes of the program is designed to input to IDRISI. The accuracy test of LS factor was carried out by comparing the actual measurements of soil loss at two test sites in and around of Suwon. The calculated volume of soil erosion at Buju mountain, Mokpo, was also compared to the outcome of a previous research based on the LS factor calculated by the conventional onedimensional approach. The outcomes of this research are as follows. First, the computed L based on the multiple flow algorithm for concae slopes are greater than those of convex slopes,. Second, the estimated soil loss based on this method at the test site in Mokpo is much greater than the outcomes based on the conventional one-dimensional approach. It can e concluded that the application of this automatic calculation method of LS factor can improve the accuracy of USLE and facilitate soil erosion prevention methods.
On the Matter and Form of the Chumsungdae
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 178~188
In this paper, I tried to interpretate the matter and form of Chumsungdae, which has been mainly assumed as an facility for astronomical observaton of ancient Shilla dynasty, located on Kyongju, Korea. Basically, I took the thoughts of the place and the theory of cognition on landscape as a research tool, and the research was undertaken through the surveying the physical surroundings of chumsungdae and studying the references related to a myth, thoughts, and a tale of shilla era. This research was anticipated to find out the various symbolic meanings and functions of Chumsungdae and its place, which is somewhat different from the view of scientific uses of it. The matter and form of the Chumsungdae realizes the archetypal form of the well and meanings of petition for agricultural abundance, leading to a wishing for political stability of the nation, especially an authority of a reign of the queen, named Sun-duk who is the first one in Shilla Dynasty. The chumsungdae was located on the very sacred place surrounded by the tumulous and Kyerim forest which was birth and death place of the founder and king of a family of Kim. It does mean that the Chumsungdae was very scared work, and made place with combination of meaning above mentioned and natural environment. Finally, this paper suggested the neighboring area of the Chumsungdae be restored with the forest as an archetypeof old picture and environment of Kyerim.
The Determinants of Theme Park Users' Satisfaction; Everland
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 189~198
This study explored the effects of expectatioin, performance, and disconfirmatoni on satisfaction of theme park users. Everland was chosen as the study area, and 260 users were selected by the nonprobability sampling. In expectation disconfirmation paradigm, expectation should be measured before purchase, and performance, disconfirmation and satisfaction should be measured after purchase. An entrance survey was done to measure expectation, and an exit survey to measure performance, disconfirmation, and satisfaction. Maximum likelihood method was used to estimate structural equation model by the LISREL 7.2. Performance had the most significant effect on satisfaction among three variables. The satisfaction of theme park users depends largely on it, therefore, the consideration of visitors' performance should e essential for managers.
The Observationi of User Behaviors of the Urban Plaza using Time-Lapse Record-A case study of Chungryangri Station Plaza-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 199~212
The ultimate goal of this study can be summed up as follows: First, the utility of Time-Lapse that observes and records people's behavior will be shown and its merits and demerits will be discussed through comparing with other data-collecting methods such as the naked- eye observation, and the specific way in which Time-Lapse can be put to use will be suggested. Second, analysis of use behavior boserved in the plaza of Chungryangri station by Time-Lapse will be made, on the basis of which suggestions will be made concerning planing, designing, layout, and management of the station plaza. Time-Lapse can observe and records the plaza of Chungryangri Staton through 6 different ways of recording in Time-Lapse: 30 seconds, every minute, every two minutes, second every five minutes, every one tenth of a second, and every one fifth of a second, and these different ways of recording were analyzed through comparison from one to each other to check their respective utilities. And also analysis of tracks of pedestrians, density, and use behavior of users were made, according to which the way in which Time-Lapse can be utilized was examined. Several useful results obtained from this study are shown as follows. First, Time-Lapse made it possible to continuously observe for a long time using minimu efforts, and a single tape which is able to cover from 12 hours up to 25 days is useful for observing variation of behavior in space with the passage of time and seasons. Second, among six ways of recording, the recording every one tenth of a second and every one fifth of a second are useful for finding the tracks of pedestrians, the number of users, the member compositions, the time spent in one place, and manner of use. And besides the moving direction and its purpose can be recognized in a short time, which makes it possile to see where crossings of moving directions occur. Third, the recording every thirty seconds, every minute, every two minutes, and every five minutes are useful for analyzing the density in space as well as for finding the number of users and frequency of facilities use. In particular the recording every thirty seconds made it possible to keep the track of pedestrians' walking, and to observe even slowly moving motions such as cleaning. But when the recording interval exceeds one minute, this was not possible. Fourth, time-lapse has advantages over the naked eye observation in several respects. Time-lapse can measure observed behavior and density in terms of number, and locate the position of users. Time-Lapse, if accompanied by other methods such as interviewing and question that can examine psychological aspects like satisfaction or the purpose of use and be a useful device for space studies.
Determinants of Tourist Satisfaction Process - Focused on the Everland Visitors-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 213~224
Theoretically and practically, it is very important to understand the way which tourist satisfaction is operated. The purpose of this study is to identify interaction among the determinants of tourist satisfacton process. A model of tourist satisfactioin process is developed based based on the confirmation / disconfirmation which is originated from consumer behavior literature. Three elements of the model include 'expectation','performance', and 'discrepancy between expectation and performance'. 340 questionnaires were delivered to find Everland visitors' perceptions of the determinants of tourist satisfaction. LISREL 8.14 was used to analyze the interaction among the determinants. The results are as follows : 1) 'expectation' has indirect effect on tourist satisfaction while 'performance' and 'discrepancy' has direct effect on the tourist satisfaction, 2) two precedent variables such as 'expectation' and 'performance' have indirect effect on the satisfaction through 'discrepancy',3) among the three determinants it is found that 'performance' is the most effective determinant of tourist satifaction, and 4) the model which was composed from the aspect of 'travel cost' was more effective to describing tourist satisfacton rather that from the aspect of 'service quality'.
Selectioni of the Important Evaluation Items for Development of Environmental Sustainability Indics of Housing Estate
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 225~236
The purpose of this study is to identify the important evaluatio items for developing the environmental sustainability indices of housing estate. In this research, the principles of environmental sustainability were established on the concept of ESSD, and twenty-two evaluation items were explored on the basis of questionnaire of experts, the twenty-two items are ranked in order of iportant level and it is a appeared that 'development density' is most iportant evaluation item. In conclusion, twelve important items were selectd; 'development density', 'preservation of natural forest and topography' , 'amount of green area', 'reduction of water pollution','reuse of wastes','garbage discharge','reduction of air pollution','distribution of land use','rainwater infiltraton and preservaton of underground water','site planning for energy saving','separated collection of wastes','access to natural forest andwaters around housing estate'
A Study on the Urban Fringe Landscape Environment Model -The Analysis of Change in Land Uses of Chonan City using Landsat TM Data-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 237~248
Landcover has been largely influenced by human activities, especially in recent days. The analysis of the change of land use by urbanized development is useful for determining development plan hereafter. This study aimed to the quantitative analysis about the urban sprawl within 12 years from 1985 to 1996, at Chonan, and for extracting the characteristics of change. For this purpose, this study performed land cover classifications using Landsat TM data . A hybrid classification method was used to classify satellite images into seven types of land cover. Road network digitied from 1:25,000 topographic map was rasterized and overlaid on the landcover map. A result of this study showed that area of forest and paddy decreased due to urban sprawl. Especially from 1993 to 1996, the change of land use progressed rapidly because of merging a city and a country in Chonan. The size of patch in forest had been smaller and irregular form. It is a general progress that size of patch in forest had been smaller and irregular form. It is a general progress that the forest have changed the paddy and bare land paddy and bare land have changed low-density urban or high-density urban. This explained how urbanized Chonan was and applied the suggeston of plan in landuse with the result of this study.
A Study on Resident's Environmental Cognition of Distinctive Outdoor Space in Apartment Estates
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 249~257
This study was to evaluate residents' environmental cognition, satisfaction and needs of distinctive outdoor space in apartment housing estates. Distinctive outdoor space of 75 apartment estates throughout the country were investigated. And the residents of 16 apartment estates were asked how they cognize disticntive outdoor space qualities, and what activities they prefer in apartment's outdoor space. Thre important factors were extracted in residents' cognition of distinctive outdoor space qualities. First factor was naturalness of the greenery, second factor was outdoor activities especially related to fitness and exercise, and third factor was design of street furniture. Residents' satisfaction degree of distinctive outdoor space tended to increase as high as the occupied housing area. Places with water, tree shades, pedestrian way, greenery with flowers, playlots, fitness places and entrances of the estates were evaluated high in the order named. And places full with greenery, places related to fitness and exercisem, playlots were prefered by the residents.
A Study on the Actual Conditionis and Improvement Plan of Interior Landscape in the Subway Stations
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 258~266
The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual conditions, to find problems, and to present an improvement plan of interior landscape in the subway stationis. Moreoiver, it will presume the possibilties to develop the subway and ways to utilie underground space effectively. The results are summarized as follows A light intensity was recorded 0-100 Lux as the lowest light and 500 Lux below as the highest in 61 subway stations. An average temperature of 12
and an air humidity of 38% were recorded over a 4 month period from January to April, but includes a drastic variaton between -8.5
. Soil acidity of pH 7 below and soil moisture of 1-2 wet degree were apeared in subway stations mostly. Plant forms consisted of artificial flower & flower. Plant species were recorded at a total of 54 species and appeared in the order of Araucaria heteropylla, Ophiophogon jaburan, Aspidistra elatior cv. 'Asahi' and Hedera helix. Plant height was, for the most part, below 0.5m. Plant species that was fined of conditions were Palm, Camellia japonica, Araucaria heterophylla as a high plant, dracaena fragrans, dracaena deremensis cv. Wakneckii as a middle plant, and Ophiopogon jaburan, Hedra helix, ytomium falcatum, Aspidistra elatior cv. Asahi as a low plant. It used to water materials such as small pool, small cascade, water cycles and natural materials such as natural rock, small rock, sand, bark and animal materials such as squirrels, birds, goldfish as an object for plants in the subway stations. From these actual conditions, First of all, It must make up physical environments such as light, temperature humidity, soil for plant growth, and is important to chooce suitable indoor plants and draw up systematic management in the subway environments. Also, it change plants frequently and uses variable objects for subway stationi individuatism, Moreover, indoor plants with strong environmental adaptation abities such as shade tolerance, drought tolerance and cold tolerance need to develope variable species possibly. If these improvements occur, utilization and amenity of subway stationis will increase, according to the use of interior landscape.
Capability Brown and His Landscape Gardening Style-with reference to the character in design and aesthetics-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 267~277
The background of this study is to provide meaning of landscape history and to find out landscape origines which were strongly concerned with the nature through breaking out the form of conventional adapting elements from an exterior. And the purpose of this study is to review Brown's philosophy as picturesque landscape architectur and to provide useful Brown's characteristics to contemporary landscape by epitomizing his design elements. Brown estiablished a foundation of the English landscape garden of the eighteenth century. And the concept, the beauty of nature, is considered as a beginning point of modernism study. The study of the Brownian style as profoundity theme is conversion view to the development of the history of garden. These days, the restoration of the Brownian style at the public or garden design in England is based on the nature recourse of the original character of human. And also his style can be understood to seek the progressive transformation as to perfectly known the possibility of the place, to get clues to the solutions, and to be able to iprove the quality of environment. Therefore, Brown's efforts for seeding the essence of landscape architecture escaping from Englands old-fashioned landscape design skills might be considered in high worth.
A Study on the Use of Halophytes on the Reclaimed Land in Landscape Architecture
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 278~287
The halophytes are considered less important in our field, as the land reclamation executed continuously by public or individual. So this research is to use plants more active on the reclaimed land and to verify their utility in the aspect of the landscape planning, design and complementaton. This research is performed at the construction site of Incheon International Airport in Youngjong-do located in West-sea of Korea. Following proposals are the major conclusions drawn from the research:1. The halophytes to be used in the vicinity of the water reservoir in orer to improve the ground for the introduction of new plants and prevent the water contaminatioin. 2. The halophytes to be used as a gound-cover which protects major structures nearby from being damaged by the salt content in the air. 3. Thd halophytes to be used as a unique and panoramic landscape element. They have various colors which change throughout a year. 4. Thd halophytes to be considered as a outdoor recreation resource. The halophytes planted area may be utilized as picnic area, outdoor event plaza, ball game ground, rough in the golf cource and etc. Additional usage of the land include the future rearch site for sea fronted ecological studies and pasture for cows and other livestock.
An Approach to the Analysis of Landscape Heterogeneity in Seoul Metropolitan Suburbs
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 288~296
Natural or human disturbances cause landscape changes, which may be measured by the degree of heterogeneity. In a 16km
19km area, divided into 100m
100m cells, of Seoul city and its suburb, land covers are classified into 6 groups in aerial photos and land use maps. The degree of heterogeneity is defined as the number of cells that surround a central cell but have different land cover from the central cell divided by 8. The value of the degree of heterogeneity is between 0 and 1. Major findings are 1) Both urban and natural areas have low degree of heterogeneity, about 0.15~0.17. 2) Suburban area under heavy pressure of development and urbanization has highest degree of heterogeneity, about 0.25. 3) The peak of the degree of heterogeneity moved about 4.5km outward in 22 years. 4) Outer suburban area has lower degree of heterogeneity as the area is a greenbelt or forest. 5) The results show the areas with higher degree of heterogeneity which may need landscape management plans, and natural areas with lower degree of heterogeneity which may need landscape conservation plans. A landscape change model may be built for a specific city when this technique is applied to multiple sectors of the city, and the model may predict future landscape changes of the city.
A Study on the Landscape Planning Evaluation on Apartment Artificial Ground
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 297~311
Landscaping on artificial ground is currently served as a means to imposing a greenery benefit on high-density and high-rise apartment sites. It functions as a sub-hierarchy in apartment planning such as ornamental element from the past. Major parking space tends to be allocated on the basement area in response to the required parking regulation. Therefore, competitive relatioinship between the parking and greenery space I limited outdoor of apartments leads to the development planning strategy and technology of artificial ground. This study aims at evaluating landscape planning on artificial ground of apartment complex through several approaches such as site survey, plan drawing analysis, and interview with related field experts. 15 survey apartment sites including Bundang Model, Shindaebang-dong, Pyoungchon Hyundai Apartments have been selected for conducting the research. Main results of this study are summarized below : First, scattering allocation of artificial ground between apartment building units is a dominant plan layout type among the survey sites. Even though unifying allocation type has an advantage to maximize underground parking space, it has a difficulty in maintaining proper soil ground base for nurturing plants. Therefore, underground parking space should be planned by unifying allocation type placed separately from apartment units. This plan type can provide a balanced planting between soil and artificial ground on surface level. Second, It is strongly recommended to integrate the whole planting base which involves architectural structure, drainage, and water proofing above the planting design. When considering that process as a professional subject dealing with natural material such as trees and shrubs, those tasks should be directed by landscape architectural divison and landscape architect. And planting area for artificial ground has to be specified in initial phase of architectural design. This step provides an opportunity to make a proper decision on structural load, drainage, and water proof design as an integrated part of the management.
A Study on the Visual Simulation Methods : The Effects of Sounds and Videos
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 312~320
The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the validity of various visual simulation methods with or without sounds and videos of the landscapes The landscape evaluation through such media as color slide, color slide with sounds, video and video without sounds are compared with on-site evaluaton of the landscape. The results are as follows : ·Video can generally convey the feelings for the real landscapes better than traditonal mathod, i.e., slide without sounds. ·When the sources of sounds are dominant in the view, there are great differences in responses among 4 different media and video can convey the feelings for real landscapes on site most successfully. ·There are slight differences by landscape types ; in mixed landscapes, there are higher correlations between the on-site estimaton and estimations through media ; in natural landscapes, video can reflect the feelings for real landscapes on site better. ·There is little difference between two shooting methods, fixed shot and pan shot. These results suggest that traditional visual simulation, with slides or photographs, could not reflect the real landscapes in certain situations and the visual simulation method with sounds and videos should be used in such situatios to represent the real landscape better. Especially, when the whole and comprehensive evaluatio of the landscape properties is important, the visual simulation with sounds and videos should be used. And simulation techniques with sounds and videos should be further developed for practial applications.