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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Oct 1999
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Aug 1999
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Apr 1999
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Jan 1999
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Principles of Law for the Establishment of the Landscape Architectural Organization within the Government Office
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~10
There is no official landscape architectural organization in the current government organization in Korea. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the landscape architectural organization which will carry out the works of the special landscape architectural interest and create the new services with other interested government offices. The contents of the study are as follows; 1. A legal basis for the establishment of the landscape architectural organization is the demand for the introduction of the landscape architectural organization which has 5 types(urban planning, architecture, land register, land surveying, civil work) of the special groups to official organization by changing the 1 article of the Official Appointment Regulations. 2. Theories of law of equality for everyone(the Constitution of Korea : §11(1)), the rights of having pleasant residential life(the Constitution of Korea : §35(3)) and the national duty of employment increase(the Constitution of Korea : §32(1)) are reviewed to provide the legal reason of establishing the landscape architectural organization. 3. With the addition of new landscape architectural organization, it could expand the areas of landscape architects by adding of new landscape architectural subjects into official examinations for government employees. Also it is necessary to exempt the test for those who have licenses and to give additional points in evaluation their works at the end of year to the people who have licenses. 4. The reasons for the creation of new landscape architectural organization into the present official organization are acquired from the derivation of 23 present regulations referring to the landscape architects, the existence of the landscape architectural administrative departments belonging to the Metropolis of Seoul, and the favorable result of the questionnaire on the establishment of the new organization. Hereafter the lawyers should be cooperated with landscape architects to initiate the related principles of law, and it is necessary to analyze each text of the related laws in detail to establish the landscape architectural organization by means of the joint studies.
Visual Preference Predictors of interiors in the Informational Approach: its physical attributes and the relationships between these attributes and preference
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 11~18
The objective of this study are to figure out the physical attributes of the three predictors in the Informational Approach: complexity, coherence, mystery and to investigate the relationships between these attributes and the preference exploratively. Visual inspection of the scenes relative to their rated levels of the predictors revealed the existence of relationship between these variables and the physical attributes. The following are the summary of the relationship between three predictors and the physical attributes: (1) The level of complexity was associated with the pattern of physical attributes which were the amount of facility, line, shape, color plant and arrangement of the visual elements. (2) The level of coherence was related with the regular arrangement of the visual elements. For example, there was certain pattern founded the color, shape, texture was applied to the various space repetitively and symmetrically. (3) The level of mystery had the relationship with the physical attributes of screen, spatial definition, distance of view, physical accessibility, radiant forest, the depth of space.
The Effect of Plants and Waterscape Facilities on the Thermal Indoor Environment
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 19~28
This survey is to investigate the effect of plants and waterscape facilities on the thermal indoor environment and to provide basic data for proper plant cultivation to enhance indoor landscape. The survey of the measure of comfort on the indoor environment for the residents of Taegu shows that the measure of comfort on the thermal-environment, which consist of temperature and humidity, has more negative responses than the measure on lighting . are . sound environment, which consists of air freshness, lighting condition and sound environment. The experiments on the effect of the amount of leaves and the distance of plants on the indoor thermal-environment are made. The experimental results illustrate that, as the capacity of a plant becomes greater and the distance from the plant shorter, the falling effect of temperature and the rising effect of humidity on the top of the plant are taken higher than on the side of the plant. When the same amount of leaves is set up, the distance range of the rising effect of humidity becomes wider than that of the falling effect of temperature. The investigation of the effect of waterscape facilities on the indoor thermal-environment shows that temperature and humidity of the space with installed waterscape facilities are lower and higher than without facilities, respectively.
A Study of the Effective Weed Control by Herbicides in a Nursery and Forests(I) -Weed Control in a Nursery for Silviculture and Landscape Architecture-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 29~38
Three kinds of soil surface applied herbicides and three kinds of foliage applied herbicides were used to study weed control effect, appropriate concentration, phyto-toxicity against trees and economical efficiency of weed control on trees, Pinus thunbergii, Picea abies, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Quercus accutissima, and Fraxinus rhynchopylla in a nursery. The results were obtained as follows; 1.The control effect of the soil surface applied herbicides showed that the three herbicides; Alachlor, Pendimenthalin and Simazine were alike in their holding effect of weed development, and the sensibility of weed spp. on the herbicides was different. The mean control effect was 58~89%. 2. The weed control effect of the foliage applied herbicides demonstrated that Paraquat dichloride was the best of 84~95% and followed by Glufosnate ammonium and Glyphosate. Especially when the half of its standard amount was treated, the effect of Paraquat dichloride was higher than the other herbicides. 3. Generally, the weed control effect became better as the concentration of the herbcide getting higher. As the concentration of the herbicide got higher, the restraining effect of weed development was continued for a long time in the soil surface applied herbicides, while the weed control effect appeared earlier in the foliage applied herbicides. 4. As the result of the soil surface treatments, 20% of short seedings of Fraxinus rhychopylla treated with twice amount of standard Alachlor died and the rest seeding showed low growth. In the other treatments, there was neither harmful effect of herbicides on the seedings nor growth decrease of them compared to those weeded by men. 5. When treated with foliage applied herbcides, leaves were partially of and discolorated in most treatments. About 0.4~6.2% of Fraxinus thynchopylla, which had short seedings died, and there was no difference in growth with the other treatments. 6. The herbicides showed better economical efficiency over 68% than weed control by men. Especially, Alachlaor of the soil surface applied herbicides showed the highest efficiency(77.6%), while Paraquat dichloride of the foliage applied herbicides was the best(70.3%)..
Carbon Uptake and Emissions in Urban Landscape, and the Role of Urban Greenspace for several Cities in Kangwon Province
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 39~53
This study quantified carbon uptake and emissions in urban landscape, and the role of urban greenspace in atmospheric carbon reduction for several cities of Chuncheon and Kangleung in Kangwon province. Mean carbon storage by trees and shrubs was 26.0 t (mertric tons)/ha in Chuncheon and 46.7 t/ha in Kangleung for natural lands, and ranged from 4.7 to 6.3 t/ha for urban lands (all land use types except natural and agricultural lands) in both cities. Mean annual carbon uptake by trees and shrubs ranged from 1.60 to 1.71 t/ha/yr for natural lands, and from 0.56 to 0.71 t/ha/yr for urban lands. There was no significant difference (95% confidence level) between the two cities in the carbon storage and annual carbon uptake per ha, except the carbon storage for natural lands. Organic carbon storage in soils (to a depth of 60 cm) of Chuncheon average 24.8 t/ha for urban lands and 31.6 t/ha for natural lands, 1.3 times greater than for urban lands. Annual carbon accumulation in soils was 1.3 t/hr/yr for natural lands of the study cities. Annual per capita carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption were 1.3 t/yr in Chunceon and 1.8 t/yr in Kangleung. The principal carbon release in urban landscapes was from transport and industry. Total carbon storage by urban greenspace (trees, shrubs, and soils) equaled 66% of total carbon emissions in Chuncheon and 101% in Kangleung. Carbon uptake by urban greenspace annually offset total carbon emissions by approximately 4% in the study cities. Thus, urban greenspace played a partial important role in reducing atmospheric
concentrations. To increase
uptake and storage by urban greenspace, suggested are conservation of natural lands, minimization of hard surfaces and more plantings, selection of tree species with high growth rate, and proper management for longer healthy tree growth.
Landscape Drawing as a Text: Practical and Theoretical Approach
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 54~63
The Landscape drawing is used as main media in landscape design process like the language in daily life for human. Designers input many intentions and meaningful words in design process through landscape drawing. The common purpose of landscape drawing is to represent reality effectively, even though it has variable visual forms and materiality. The representation in landscape drawing in metaphorical as well as visual and functional. But current tendency is inclined to use landscape drawing in a functional aspect for visual representation and the landscape drawing is utilized straight-forwardly rather than metaphorically for clear communication. Such recognition on landscape drawing results from the difficulty to accept the symbolic aspect of the drawing. The difficulty makes the utilization and the interpretation of landscape drawing stay at conventional level in following visible factors. For the sake of solving the difficulty this study considers landscape drawing as the text that contains readable objects and symbolic words. This study presents layer-methods for reading a landscape drawing as a text; situational and contextural reading, iconological reading and reading the subject of drawing.
Development of Sustainability Indicators for Suburban Housing Estates in Korea Rural Areas
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 64~78
Recently, new concept and paradigm of 'Environmental Sustainability' is taking a growing interest in environmental planning and design. This study is to establish the environmental sustainability principles, based on the concept of ESSD, and to develop the evaluation model of environmental sustainability for korean rural housing estates. A sustainability indices system, which is composed of 5 principles, 16 categories, an 37 estimation items, was finally established. Five principles of environmental sustainability for rural housing estate were. 'Sustainable Land Use', 'Interdependence of Men and Nature', 'Ecological Principles and Diversity', 'Efficient use of Energy and Recycling', and ' Minimizing Environmental Pollution'. And weighting values of each indicators, such as estimation items, categories, and principles, were estimated, based on the result of AHP etc. The questinnaire survey was conducted for experts of four related major fields. Finally, the validity and reliability of the sustainability indices system were verified.
An Evaluation for Regional Identity of Urban Parks and It's Utility -focused on the new towns in the Capital Region-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 79~89
Recent expansion of urban parks has been partly successful in terms of providing urban outdoor recreation space. Unfortunately we paid very little attention to the importance of providing regional identity to urban parks until recently. Thus one of the most important tasks of the contemporary landscape architects of Korea is to investigate ways to improve regional identity of urban parks. This study is aimed at evaluating how well the current urban parks have realized their own regional identity. To test the effectiveness of the concept of 'identity', the identity items were created, while a research model was developed by using such variables as in urban park identity, park satisfaction, belongingness to the region, and residential satisfaction. In order to test the model, the causations were analyzed. Meanwhile, the scales to evaluating identity were reviewed by means of the unstructures group interview, and were finally determined as 10 items; culture, uniqueness, symbolic, historic nature, homogeneity, harmony, difference, public benefit, nativeness and traditionality. Data from three new towns in the capital region-Bundang, Ilsan and Sanbon-were collected, and their central parks were referred to a questionnaire survey. The data were processed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and path analysis. It was found through this survey that subjects 'sentiments regarding the sample towns' regional identity differed slightly. Residents of Bundang felt the strongest amount of regional identity, followed by those of Ilsan and Sanbon. In addition, the most important scale on regional identity is 'park satisfaction', followed by 'belongingness to the region' and 'residental satisfaction'. The path analysis was conducted to interpret the causations in a more detailed and comprehensive way than correlation analysis. As a result, it was proven that the regional identity affects 'belingingness to region' through the intermediated variable 'park satisfaction', while affecting ' residential satisfaction' through the intermediate variables 'park satisfaction' and 'beligningness to region'. In other words, although the regional identity of a park does not directly affect 'belongingness to region' or 'residental satisfaction', it has indirect effects on them through intermediate variables.
Landscape Characteristic and Its Background of the Fallingwater Design by Frank Lloyd Wright
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 90~100
The Fallingwater, one of Wright's best designs, is known as a good example of "Organic Architecture". Its landscape characteristics are harmonious relationship between architecture and landscape, adaptable siting, composition of spatial and visual structure, floating spaceness, interlocking of water and house, dramatic approach, and vernacular material use. This characteristics had begun from the Prairie architecture, but also had influenced by the culture and art of the Far East. He was open to foreign cultures. Staying in Japan for years, he had travelled China, too. In this process, he might be exposed to Korean art and culture which were under Japan at that time. Comparing the front image of the Songkwang Temple to that of the Fallingwater, their compositions between architecture, water, and landscape are so similar to each other. They are also close to each other in terms of spatial structure. Therefore the landscape characteristics found in the Fallingwater design are more similar to Korean landscape architectural characteristics than Japanese ones. Therefore we are going to suggest the hypothesis that Wright is influenced by Korean landscape design in the design of the Fallingwater. Considering his impact upon the design world, it will be significant if the concept of Korean traditional landscape design is placed behind his design of the great architecture.hitecture.
A Study of Types and Forms of Branch-road in Traditional Korean Villages
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 101~109
The purpose of this study is to analyse types and forms of branch-road in traditional korean villages. To do this, this study has selected and measured 87 branch-road cases of five traditional villages. An analysis of the case study has revealed the following results : 1. Branch-roads have four formations : 3 way, 4 way, multi-way and others. 2. Branch-roads comprise 64 percent of 3 way, 18 percent of 4 way, 8 percent of multi-way and 9 percent of others, respectively. 3. Topographic conditions have mostly affected the formation of branch-roads. 3 way of branch - roads are easily found in flat village. 4 way are multi-way of branch-road are found in semi-hilly and hilly village 4. 3 way of branch-roads have three types: T-type, Y-type, and y-type. 5. T-types are easily found in flat village, but Y-type and y-type are found in semi-hilly and hilly village. 6. Each angle of T-type is 171,99,90, respectively. It has turned out 8 degree is slightly deviated form the square. 7. Y-type of branch-road has an asymmetric form, comprising 145, 128, 87 degree of the angle, compared to 150, 150, 60 degree of symmetric one. 8. Average angles of y-type that are mostly found in hilly village are 175, 113, 72. Angle differences from each spot are 62 and 41 degree. It is assumed that 39 degree is a slope of least effort to walk. 9. 4 way of branch-roads have not only "＋" type but various types of K, Y and Y, Y and y, T and y and a foot of bird. 10. It is assumed that multi-way of branch-roads, mostly found on the middle and bottom of the hilly slope, has naturally formed to connect up and down, left and right.and right.
A Study on the Characteristics of the Form and the Preference of the Main Gates of Universities in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 110~121
The purpose of this study is to focus on the characteristics of the form and preference of the main gates of universities. The gate of a university have both functions and artistic design aspects. Fifty-two universities selected for this study were placed all around country except for Je-ju island. The following two research methods were used for this study. 1) an analysis of form character through a classification of the types. 2) and analysis of preference to the gates through a side show. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Main gates of universities were classified by covered-type and uncovered-type in existence of cover. And they were classified by eighteen types in detail. 2. Visual preference have been analyed by using the regression, the result is as follows: Y=-0.357+0.630 X
;complex) 3. The gate of Chung-Ang university(Ahn Sung campus) is the highest of all the universities at the average of preference 4.32 through result of slide show. Covered type has a higher preference than uncovered type. This has a good modification and decoration in front side type of main gate.
A Study on the Management Plan of Water Environment of Ferns in the Interior Landscape
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 122~131
Indoor environments are usually less than optimal for the growth of ferns, especially in regards to the water condition. These studies were performed to investigate responses involved in causing growth of ferns and presume management plan against the water deficit under indoor conditions. The effect of air humidity and soil moisture on the ferns was examined in Adiantume raddianum and Selaginella kraussiana. Results of experiments are as follows; 1. Under a low humidity condition, having a 25-50% RH. ornamental value of ferns decreased much more than under a 90% RH. Under a low soil moisture, such as sand treatment, ornamental value of ferns also decreased. 2. Leaf chlorophyll content, water content and stomata situations increased as air humidity and soil moisture went up. 3. Even if air humidity and soil water were not enough for ferns growth, the extending of irrigation cycle was helpful. 4. Under extremely low air humidity conditions, some water management, namely, using water holding soil or extending of irrigation cycle was desirable. Other methods of increasing air humidity, including water instruments such as ornamental pools, waterfalls, or fountains, grouping plants together were also helpful. But spraying water on leaves increased injury to ferns growth because of excess evaporation from the leaves. Though these studies, we learn that ferns are susceptible to water condition such as air humidity, soil water and water management. If other environmental factos are maintained with optimal conditions, water condition plays an important role in ferns growth in indoor environments.