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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Oct 1999
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Aug 1999
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Apr 1999
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Jan 1999
Selecting the target year
An Assessment Model on Sustainability of Local City
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 1~12
This study aims to find basic data for using the quantitative assessment of the sustainability and establishing the systematic index of the planning for local cities to consider the environmentally sound and sustainable development. The research designs to review professional responding to surveys preceded by separate questionnaires and interviews from book reviews, and suggests to make an assessment model of the sustainability for local cities. The research found consequently as follows. Firstly, the research survey items were decides totally 52, grouped 9 assessmental issues and distributed under 4 assessmental domains for the sustainability from the references of book reviews. Secondly, the research result concentrated on the followings from the professional responding to surveys. 1. A most influent factor is the distribution of animals and plants in a nature domain. The next influent factors are the ratio of mass-transportation systems, the numbers of the species of animals and plants, the acreage of conservative forestry, the numbers of reused water resources, and the usage number of water supply, orderly in the nature domain. 2. A most influent factor is the usage number of synthetic detergents in a pollution domain. The next influent factors are the volume of waste water, the number of registered vehicles, the degree of soil pollution, and the charge of development imposition, orderly in the pollution domain. 3. A most influent factor is the acreage of athletic facilities, in an urban domain. the next influent factors are the acreage of recreational facilities, the number and acreage of cultural assets, the number of cultural facilities, the acreage of landscape conservation area, the charge of cultural asset management, orderly in the urban domain. 4. A most influent factor is the number of waste disposal facilities in a participation domain. The next influent factors are the capacity of reused waste, the usage of synthetic detergents, the ratio of waste water disposal, orderly in the participation domain. 5. A most contributed influent domain to the assessment of the sustainability for local cities is the urban domain. The next influent domains are nature domain, participation domain, and pollution domain, orderly in the contribution of the assessment of the sustainability. But, the pollution domain is little relationship with the sustainability. Therefore, it is clear that the abundant greens and the improved level of culture are dominant influences on the sustainabiligy, as like improving the ratio of roadside trees, the acreage of parks, and enlarging the number of cultural facilities.
Resource Characteristics Affecting Recreation Suitability of Natural Recreation Forest
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 13~22
The purpose of this research is to examine resource characteristics affecting the overall recreation suitability of natural recreation forest. On the basis of resource-based approach, we had constructed a conceptual framework for this research and found one dependent variable of the overall recreation suitability and eight independent variables, representing characteristics of recreation resource. After questionnaire surveying of 690 visitors from 10 among 72 natural recreation forests in Korea. We have analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression method. We have found that 1) physical factor of recreation resources turned out to be statistically insignificant and the direction of relationship between independent variable and dependent variable is the same as that of dependent variable, 2) noise, sound and smell turned out to be the most important variable in terms of magnitude of independent variable and wild life turned out to be the next important variable, and 3) noise, sound and smell turned out to have aboutn 3.3 times greater thant that of landscape, judging from the absolute value of standardized regression coefficient. The research findings can be used for planning and designing of natural recreation forests based on recreation suitability of forest resources, and will provide pertinent guidelines for management of recreation resources of natural recreation forests. The approach and method of evaluating recreation suitability employed in this research provide us valid and reliable results and will be highly useful in other resource-based recreation development. We suggest that the differences in recreation suitability between private and public recreation forests and the relationship between user-satisfaction and recreation suitability of natural recreation forests must be examined in the future research.
Function of Microclimate Amelioration by Urban Greenspace
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 23~28
This study measured transpiration rate of urban trees and albedos of urban surfaces, and examined the function of microclimate amelioration by urban greenspace. Transpiration rates of trees were highest in July and August of growing months. Transpiration per unit leaf area for the two months was 300-350 g/
/h for Platanus occidentalis, 210-270 g/
/h for Ginkgo biloba and Zelkova serrata, and 130-140 g/
/h for Acer palmatum. Surface albedos were 0.09 for asphalt paving and 0.68 for white wall, which reveals that light-colored surfaces are better than dark-colored ones to lower the heat build-up. Due to lack of evapotranspiration, concrete surfaces were, at t midafternoon maximum, 8
hotter than grass ones, though the albedo of concrete paving was higher thant that of grass and trees. Summer air temperatures at places with 12% and 22% cover of woody plants were, respectively, 0.6
cooler than a place with no vegetation. To mitigate the impacts of urban heat islands, required are minimization of hard surfaces, light-coloring for building surfaces, and greenspace enlargement including more plantings.
Development of Green Network Plan Using Bird Habitat Evaluation Model -A Case Study of Seoul, Korea-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 29~38
Present green space planning of Korea pay little attention to biodiversity conservation in urban areas. The quality of urban wildlife habitat has been deteriorated severely due to fragmentation and isolation of urban open spaces. The application of ecological corridors to urban green space planning and management can greatly enhance the bird habitat of Seoul. The objectives of this study were to evaluate bird habitat potential of existing urban parks of Seoul, and to investigate methods to develop ecological corridors for wild birds. This study consists of three parts. The first part is to construct bird species/habitat relationship model. The second part is to evaluate 207 urban parks of Seoul with the model. Based on the relative potential for bird habitat, urban parks of Seoul can be classified into cores, nodes, and points of the network. Outcomes of this part can also be used to enhance the quality of bird habitats by identifying limits or weakness of existing green spaces for bird habitat. The final part is to develop three green network plans; north-south network, the Han river network, and a district network for Kangnam-Gu.
Effects of Microtopography on the Development of Riparian Vegetation in Stream Corridors
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 39~49
Urban streams have, recently, been straightened and widened to alleviate flooding problem. As a result, the stream have been modified inadvertently for ecological functions and microtopography. In this study, we investigated riparian vegetation and microtopography of the tributaries of Han River before and after the monsoon rain in summer. The purpose of this study was to relate the stream microtopography to the distribution of riparian vegetation. The stream microtopography was investigated for its scale and pattern. Vegetation was investigated from 131 plots by Braun-Blanquet method. The distribution of riparian vegetation was significantly correlated with the stream microtopography. Various herbaceous species occurred at stream bank slop, high terrace and channel side. However, at channel side and concave part of terrace where soils were in high moisture level, only a few wetland species were dominated. The complexity of the microtopography in the stream corridors led to heterogeneous riparian vegetation. The vegetation showed more stability against flooding at the stream corridors with natural and complex microtopography than at the urban-type stream corridors with simple topographical features. The results showed that the development of riparian vegetation was influenced by the changes in microtopography, which was primarily determined by the shape and characteristics of channel. It seemed that a close-to-nature river system would be restored more readily with an understanding of microtopographical features affecting the distribution of riparian vegetation.
A Study on the Landscape Characteristics and Propagation Methods of Korean native Lindera obtusiloba Blume
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 50~58
This study was carried out to investigate the growth characteristics and propagation methods of L. obtusiloba as a woody landscape plant. The results are obtained as follows: L. obtusiloba was dioecious shrub and shaped with bush type. Leaves were ovate, obtuse, cordate, 7.05 cm long, 7.20 cm wide, and petiole 2.0 cm long. Flowers of L. obtusiloba were diclinous. Soil acidity ranged from pH 4.06 to 5.53 with the lowest at the Mt. Soo-Ri. Mt. Soo-Ri located near factory district, which was considered to damaged by environmental deteoration. While soil organic matter was highest at Mt. Soo-Ri, inorganic nutrients were low. L. obtusiloba grows in the area with low soil acidity and low content of inorganic. Therefore it seemed to be tolerant to air pollution. L. Obtusiloba was high seed germination rate in the plug box and its shoots were longer than seeding box and softwood cutting of L. obtusiloba showed the rooting rate of 50% at 5,000ppm on June 23. To develop a mass propagation method of Korean native L. obtusiloba through an axillary bud culture as a woody landscape plant, about 2∼3 cm shoots induced from explant were subcultured to new media contained different growth regulators. Shoots multiplied most effectively on a WPM containing 1.0 mg/l BA, producing 5.5 shoots with a shoot length of 2.5 cm per shoot explant.
A Study on the Landmark Experience for Anchorage in Pusan port
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 59~64
This study is about gaining orientation through anchorage act of a group of ferryman. In addition, a point acquisition and character of landmark that is closely realated to a point acquisition would be clarified by studying the form of configuration of the earth and object which is used landmark for anchorage. There are 13 anchorage points in the north part of Pusan harbor. 12 anchorage points are used to anchor. A ferryman let a ship which is temporarily anchoring move safely and speedily at the anchorage point. At that time, he uses landmarks by a technique of Overlay View. Between landmarks and viewer would be formed exquisite location combination. A mountain peak, a peak of island, nature configuration of land such as intermitent rock and location, size and form of buildings or structures of a city were variously appeared as landscape elements which were used landmarks. Looking at conditions to be easily captured as a target object, 1. A particular point of a mountain ridge line which was not shield by buildings. 2. In case objects have similar form, the building which was located in the front or the highest. 3. In case of a singular object, whatever there is physical elements, that would be a target object. Through this study a configuration of the ground such as a mountain peak which is become the background of harbor landscape is very important element to find anchorage point in configuration of the ground and object. So, the continuous preservation of the contour line of mountain is needed to do safe and effective anchorage act.
A Study on the Urban Symbolism of Capital City of Shilla Dynasty -Focused on primitive religion and it's affects on the Matter and Form-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 65~72
This paper tried to find out the various symbolic meanings and functions of landscape elements which Capital City of Shilla Dynasty contains, and what is the symbolism and identity of the city. Basically, this research took the thought of the place and the theory of cognition on landscape as a research tool, and undertook the process of surveying the physical surroundings of the city such as mountains, forests, tumuluses, mountain fortress walls, etc. Especially, the study referenced to a myth, thought, and a tale related to them of the surroundings. The research scope in time had been reached to the year of BC 57 which is beginning year of Shilla Dynasty form AC 467 which is year of introduction of new urban block system delivered from Dang Dynasty of ancient China. The results of research showed symbolic meanings of mountains and forests which is surrounding the Shilla capital from 4 directions of east, west, south and north. Namely, it was the places that the king of the kingdom of Shilla decent into the earth from the heaven. Also, the tumuluses which are located on the center of the capital imitated the surrounding mountains in forms, meaned the place that the dead king rised to heaven. All of these symbolized the Capital City of Dynasty as a sacred city which linked the heaven to earth, and earth to heaven. Finally, this paper suggested the Kyongju which is one of the most representative historic and tourist city in Korea should reflect this kind of symbolic meaning of ancient Capital City of Shilla Dynasty in case of arranging the urban identity plan to promote the quality of urban environment of Kyongju.
A Study on an Experience of Seascape through Korean Popular Songs
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 73~79
This study is on the production and the classification of a new appreciation methods of seascape through materials in the words of Korean popular songs. In advance, it is necessary to understand the popular songs as collective representation and the songs are analytic data. In this study, some essential elements of seascape in popular songs are analyzed and classified. They are; 1. visible elements-weather, time, season and object. 2. all senses-vision, audition, olfaction, tactile sense, and spatial sense. 3. the line of vision-static line of vision and dynamic line of vision. In this way data is produced, and then the result of this study makes appreciation methods of seascape developed. In this way, this study results in developed appreciation of seascape. This study on new understanding of appreciation methods of seascape is on the basis of a design method of water-front that is considered a visible scene, not a design of construction elements.
The Visual Impact Assessment in Dam Construction Using Visual Impact Assessment Method
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 80~86
The purpose of this study was to suggest a case study and anlaysis of the visual impact in dam construction through visual impact assessment method in Dong-sang river. The results can be summarized as follows; 1) For the evaluation of the visual impact of dam construction, five steps such as field analysis of visual status, finding visual sensitivity area and visual control point, making visual simulation material and evaluation, and visual impact analysis and assessment were suggested as desirable. 2) In the case study, the visual impact of dam construction was evaluated to be simple, unique, modern, static, cool and unfamiliar. 3) There was a few difference between the pre-construction and post-construction in statistical test. Especially, The dam in Man-Jee area was evaluated to be artificial, unique and destroyed in statistical difference, and then we design dam structure with visual friendliness. 4) In conclusion, there was high correlation between pre-construction landscape and post-construction landscape through semantic differential scale method using eleven adjectives. Therefore, we state that there is no visual impact for the dam construction for the moment.
A Study on the Analysis of Landscape Preference in the Road-landscape by Index of Shape -The case of Sorak National Park-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 87~93
This study is focus on exploring the relationship between the index of shape and the factor of perception. This study site is a Sorak National Park which sciences of road-landscape. Slides, which were used in the study, were taken in the Sorak National Park along the roads. For this purpose, the study used the questionnairy about the Road-landscape which was presented by a slide projection, also used th index of Shape. This research used analysis method of multi-regression between the preference and perceptional factors, and between the preference and index of shape. 1) The regression result of
is 00827 between the preference and perceptional factors, therefore we can positively consider that the preference is related to the perception. The preference is affected highly by the intimacy which is the one of perceptional factors. 2) The regression result of
is 0.692 between the preference and the index of shape. The preference has a relation with the index of shape, and it is affected highly by the index of sky. 3) Therefore, this study identifies the relationship between the preference and the perceptional factors, and the index of shape makes this relationship possible.
A Study on the Establishment of Guidances for Natural Stone Arrangements
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 94~100
Stone is one of the oldest material for construction and artistic works. This study investigates the current use of stones in landscape constructional works, and the design criteria to advance the arts of natural stone arrangements. Thirty four experts and thirty two others were surveyed with various photos of simulated construction works of natural stone arrangements fond improved design guidelines. Major findings are as follows: -The payment for the use of stones ranges approximately 5 to 10% of total cost of landscape constructional works. More stones may be used when better retailing system is introduced, working skill is standardized, and more of the substitute natural stones made of blasted rocks are provided and the cost goes down. -Preferences showed little difference for the mixed use of different sizes, colors and shapes of stones, and for the use of similar ones, in the construction of walls. This does not match with the current design guidelines. -Arranging three stones, which symbolizes heaven, earth, and human being, was the most preferred. As the supply of natural stones is limited and more substitute stones are used, it its needed to establish guidelines for the production of substitute stones. -Grasses are much more preferred between pavement stones than mortars. -In current practices, top of piled up natural stones is usually arranged level. More freely curved top lines are preferred to straight line.
Design of Miarigogae-park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 101~107
In 1994, Songbuk-gu Office of Seoul held a design competition for Miarigogae-Park, Miarigogae has a special sense of place. It was a place where bararians had crossed the boundary to this country during the Manchu war of 1636. It was a public cemetery where only Koreans had been buried under the rule of Japanese imperialism. It was a place where national patriots had been kidnapped to the North during the Korean War. It's sorrows have been sung in the name of song-'Danjangeui-Miarigogae'(one of the most popular song in Korea). It's sense of place has been kept in every Korean people's mind in the form on 'non-physical image'. Even though, the site itself was a small space - only 1000㎡, the meaning of park-making was very significant. It meant that it would create a physical 'setting' to express the sense of place which has been existed only in our mind as a form of 'non-physical image'. In the winning scheme proposed by the author, the sense of place of Miarigogae was expressed in the form of 'castle walls' which could be easily come into everyone's mind as an image of war. The scope of work also included a crossing bridge and symbolic features. It was meaningful that a landscape architect won the competition including on those items which were not usually handled in pure landscape architectural offices. The purpose of this paper was to articulate the concept of the winning entry in detail and to describe how the concept actualized in reality.
A Study on the Necessity of the Implementation of "Plastic Arts" in Environmental Design Studio Programs -Focused on the cases of France and Korea-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 108~121
Creative spatial production in Environmental design relies, in large part, on the artistic talent of the designer(s) that is applied to the design solutions or schematic plans. This study proposes the importance and necessity of the use of 'Plastic Arts" or the technique of artistic manipulation and definition of space in Environmental Design studio programs. This fundamental design approach is currently lacking in Korean design studio programs. Moreover, the current trend of interdisciplinary design (that is, between landscape architecture, architecture, urban and environmental planning) emphasizes the importance of such techniques. "plastic Arts" techniques can serve as a basic code of communication between design disciplines and can in itself be a common approach. The method of this study is based on the empirical datas, that is, the educational performances which are executed in Landscape studio programs of some Korean Universities. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The program, "Plastic Arts" Should be included in the basic organization of Landscape design studio programs. 2. Unlike France where "Plastic Arts" program is implemented through out Landscape Architecture programs in Korea, "Plastic Arts" should be intensified and continued for longer period of time for students in the initial years. 3. In creation of "Plastic Arts" programs for Korean Landscape Design studios, the traditional and contemporary values of aesthetic of the Nature should be taken in consideration. 4. In order to confirm the necessity of "Plastic arts" program in the organization of landscape curriculum, more studies should be done, with empirical datas.pe curriculum, more studies should be done, with empirical datas.
User Demand on the Crematorium Facilities
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 122~130
The main purpose of this project is to improve the funeral and grave culture which has brought about many social problems, and to fix the crematory culture as the future funeral ceremony in our country. In this study, we first investigated the actual condition of cremation culture. Second, we survey three representative crematorium as an object of study and investigated similar sample buildings in Japan, we analyzed the problem of existing crematorium. Finally, we arranged the basics to approach the space program and design criteria of this project. 1. The entrance of vehicles has been commonly concentrated to the opening time of crematorium. therefore, Peak time has come out as circulation of cremation and waiting time is increasing, also it is difficult to manage the congestion normally. 2. The whole problem of crematorium is poor environment, inferior buildings, noise, unsatisfactory ventilation and privacy, insufficient convenience facilities. 3. The user demand on the crematorium facilities is a private family room for waiting area, a farewell room for family members in a direct line, an outdoor rest area, and the various service facilities, and so on. 4. For improvement of the funeral and grave culture, it is necessary that crematorium is not a hatred facilities, as the conversion of consciousness, and to new shape of charnel as it wore family tomb.
Land Cover Classification and Accuracy Assessment Using Aerial Videography and Landsat-TM Satellite Image -A Case Study of Taean Seashore National Park-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 131~136
Aerial videography techniques have been used to inventory conditions associated with grassland, forests, and agricultural crop production. Most recently, aerial videography has been used to verity satellite image classifications as part of the natural ecosystem survey. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use aerial video images of the study area, one part of Taean Seashore National Park, for the accuracy assessment, and (2) to determine the suitability of aerial videography as an accuracy assessment, of the land cover classification with Landsat-TM data. Video images were collected twice, summer and winter seasons, and divided into two kinds of images, wide angle and narrow angle images. Accuracy assessment methods include the calculation of the error matrix, the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of agreement. This study indicates that aerial videography is an effective tool for accuracy assessment of the satellite image classifications of which features are relatively large and continuous. And it would be possible to overcome the limits of the present natural ecosystem survey method.
Development of a CAD-based Utility for Topological Identification and Rasterized Mapping from Polygonal Vector Data
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 137~142
The purpose of this study is to develope a CAD-based tool for rasterization of polygonal vector map in AutoCAD. To identity the layer property of polygonal entity with user-defined coordinates as topology, algorithm in processing entity data of selection set that intersected with scan line was used, and the layers were extracted sequentially by sorted intersecting points in data-list. In addition to the functions for querying and modifying topology, two options for mapping were set up to construct plan projection type and to change meshes' properties in existing DTM data. In case of plan projection type, user-defined cell size of 3DFACE mesh is available for more detailed edge, and topological draping on landform can be executed in case of referring DTM data as an AutoCAD's drawing. The concept of algorithm was simple and clear, but some unexpectable errors were found in detecting intersected coordinates that were AutoCAD's error, not the utility's. Also, the routines to check these errors were included in algorithmic processing. Developed utility named MESHMAP was written in entity data control functions of AutoLISP language and dialog control language(DCL) for the purpose of user-oriented interactive usage. MESHMAP was proved to be more effective in data handling and time comparing with GRIDMAP module in LANDCADD which has similar function.
Visualization of Landscape Tree Forms Using Computer Graphic Techniques: Using the Plant Editing Module in AccuRender
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 4, 1999, Pages 143~150
The purpose of this research is to find som ways to model tree forms more efficiently in reference with surveying structural data and handling parameters in plant Editor of AccuRender, the AutoCAD-based rendering software adopting the procedural plant modeling technique. In case of modelling a new tree, because it is efficient to modify an existing tree data as a template, we attempted to classify 81 species' data from existing plant library including conifers and deciduous tree. According to the qualitative characteristics and quantitative parameters of geometrical and branching structure, 8 types of tree form were classified with factor and cluster analysis. Some critical aspects found in the distributions of standardized scores of parameters in each type were discussed for explaining the tree forms intuitively. For adaptability of the resulted classification and typical parameters, 10 species of tree were measured and modelled, and proved to be very similar to the real structures of tree forms. CG or CAD-based plant modelling technique would be recommended not only as a presentation tool but for planting design, landscape simulation and assessment.