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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Dec 2000
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Oct 2000
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Aug 2000
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Apr 2000
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
Analysis on Landscape Satisfaction Factors for Bicycle Lane in Kyongju
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 1~11
The aim of this study is to suggest guidelines of bicycle lanes in terms of landscape architecture with special reference to Kyongju. The research is mainly based on landscape satisfaction factors analysis regarding 16 variables and 10 slide photos of bicycles lanes. The 43 students of Landscape Department in Kyungpook National University were selected for the research. The major research findings are as follows; 1. Satisfaction degree of 16 variables are assessed in terms of semantic differential scale. The assess group is generally satisfied with variables concerning bicycle lane environment such as
inclination of the lane (5.2)
road pavement conditions (5.1)
. But the group expresses rather low satisfaction degree on the variables related lanes' surrounding landscape such as
visual variety (3.9)
, spacious resting place (3.7)
variety of facilities (3.1)
. 2. The level of satisfaction degree regarding 16 variables and 10 photos shows that the male gives relatively higher satisfaction degree than the female group. But there is no statistical significance between the group regarding satisfaction degree of each variable and photo except 4 variables and 2 photos. 3. The assess group gives the highest satisfaction degree on the
no. 10 slide (6.5)
and the lowest on the
no. 7 slide (2.7)
. The two photo shows variables of more than 4 points difference of satisfaction degree, such as
good looking planting threes (4.8)
enough shadows (4.8)
Aesthetic and amenity factor
use condition factors
ike lane environment factors
inclination and open view factors
are the main four factors influencing landscape satisfaction of bicycle lane. Regression model using factor scores for landscape satisfaction degree of bike lane is S(Satisfaction degree)=4.526+1.099(aesthetic and amenity factor)+0.720(use condition factors)+0.486(bike lane environment factors)+0.048(inclination and open view factors(
A Study on the Development of Planting Design Method for Creating an Ecological Park -Focus on a Correlation between Visual Preference and Ecological Diversity-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 12~24
This study seeks to find an approach tool that allows to consider both ecological and visual aspect in developing an ecological space. Main objective of this study is to develop a planting design method in consideration of correlation between high visual preference and ecological diversity. To this end, an integrated method based on visual design principles and landscape ecological principles was developed first. Then study areas of 20 natural areas and 10 urban areas were selected to survey and analyze visual preference and ecological diversity. The result showed that scale is an element that has the greatest impact on visual preference. In areas with high ecological diversity, scale and connectivity had the biggest impact. In order to have a planting design desirable visually and ecologically based on these factors, it may be divided into following three issues.(1) In oder to increase ecological diversity in areas with strong visual preference, a priority should be given to introduce techniques promoting harmony among dominant species of various scales and other species. At the same time, there should be efforts to secure connectivity. (2) To improve visual preferences in areas with high ecological diversity, close-range, medium-range, and distant landscapes should be ensured by aligning colors and connectivity of various scales with other factors. (3) Also, a target area should be developed into a visually preferred and ecologically sound area by supplementing form and interlocking issues and identifying the spirit of the place. This study offers a way to improve visual preference and promote ecological diversity indeveloping ecological parks for the future. In landscape planning and design, it is important to secure various scales and connectivity as high-priority principles.
Needs for Establishing Professional Personnel Position of Landscape Architecture in Local Government of South Korea -The Case of Chonju City, Chollabuk-Do-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 25~37
The purpose of this case study is to provide the basic knowledge and the rationale for establishing the professional personnel position of Landscape Architecture(LA) in local Government of Korea o the basis of the characteristics and adoption system of professional personnel organization in comparison with the cases of Japan, the United States of America, and Germany. I have analyzed the case of Chonju City, Chollabuk-Do, recruited professional personnel of LA by using informal career position, to justify the needs and the division of professional Landscaping works of the city and to figure out drawbacks of the current adoption system of professional personnel in South Korea. In have found the following results that 1) City Mayor in Korean local Governments do not have the proper authorizing rights of recruiting the special personnels for performing urban policy, which is under controls of the Official Appointment Regulations, 2) because of no official position status for specialist in the fields of LA, the Chonju City had been recruited them as Urban Planner status through an informal process, 3) the section of Park and Urban Forestry was established under the control of Department of Culture and multimedia Industry, 4) the fields of specialized works of LA are defined as the work of ecopolis design and planning, biotope networking, ecological bridge and ecological restorations, and 5) the professional positions for LA should be established in Official Appointment Regulation for the urgent needs of local Government sin South Korea.
Energy Saving and Reduction of Atmospheric
Concentration by, and Planning Guideline for Urban Greenspace
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 38~47
Carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas causing climate change. This study quantified annual direct and indirect uptake of carbon by urban greenspace, and annual carbon release from vegetation maintenance and fossil fuel consumption. The study area was whole Chuncheon and Kangleung, and also two districts of Kangnam and Junglang in Seoul, cities located in middle Korea. Carbon uptake by urban greenspace played an important role through offsetting carbon release by 6-7% annually in Chuncheon and Kangleung. For Kangnam and Junglang, where the population density was relatively higher, urban greenspace annually offset carbon release by 1-2%. Future possible tree plantings could double annual carbon uptake by existing trees in urban lands (except natural and agricultural lands) of a study city. Based on study results, planning and management guidelines for urban greenspace were suggested to save energy and to reduce atmospheric
concentrations. They included selection of optimum tree species, proper planting location from buildings, design of multilayered planting, amendment of existing regulations for greenspace enlargement, avoidance f intensive vegetation maintenance, and conservation of natural vegetation.
The Characteristics of Spatial Organization of the Royal Tomb Area in Chosun Dynasty
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 48~56
This study aims to find out the norms and principles reflected in the spatial organization of royal tombs in the Chosun Dynasty through the modern interpretation of traditional oriental philosophy theory. We examined the characteristics of royal tomb sites including Jeshil(Shrine), Hongjunmun, tomb mound, ponds, and attached buildings employing an analysis of the spatial formation and landscape. This study covered 36 tombs of kings and queens in the Chosun Dynasty. The entire layout of royal tombs, including annexed buildings, was informal in may cases. This was due to following the natural contour rather than adhering to certain philosophical principles. The royal tomb site is divided into three zones. Jeshil and pond constitute a space for living people, visitors. Secondly, the semi-scared space includes the space from Hongjunmun to the entrance to the Chungjaka. The last space is for the dead, from the back of Chungjakak to tomb mound. This is in line with the layout of palaces of the Chosun Dynasty which is characterized by "three gates and three zones": outer yard-court yard- back yard. The size of the space for holding memorial ceremonies, from Hongjunmun to the Chungjakak entrance, was set at 900m until the early Chosun Dynasty. Since that time the distance varied according to the land topography due to the influence of metaphysics. It can be summarized that the spatial organization of royal tombs in the Chosun Dynasty is based on the Confucianism value, the natural contour of the site, and inner spiritual value.ual value.
The Characteristics of Korean Vernacular Landscape through the Traditional Village
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 57~65
Vernacular embodies a culture and economy that are unique to one particular region at a given period, expressed in the lifestyles of the ordinary people of the region. This study aims at interpreting Korean Vernacular Landscape by applying the analytical tool thus developed to the lifestyles of ordinary people found in their permanent dwellings (e. g., villages). By so doing, this study hopes to contribute to building a framework with which to understand the tradition of ordinary people by exploring the uniqueness and basic characteristics of Korean Vernacular Landscape. This study relies primarily on filed studies on, and publications relating to, the agrarian and residential landscapes. The Korean vernacular landscape has not only crude and simple generality, but also individuality derived from cultural circumstances and natural feature. Korean Vernacular Landscape may be characterized as the practical Vernacular Landscape, consisting of the raw materials that were only available in a particular region, shaped by the terrain, and maintained by the customs that varied from a region to a region.
An Evaluation on the Efficacy of Landscape Impact Statement -through Content Analysis of Landscape Impact Statements and Environment Impact Statements-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 66~79
Landscape impact assessment(LIA) is an aid to decision-making. For the decision maker, LIA provides a scientific examination of the predicted landscape implications of a proposed action and of the mitigation measures, before a decision is taken. Thus, the efficacy of LIA depends on the scientific credibility of the prediction and mitigation measures described in the landscape impact statement. The purpose of this paper was to examine the efficacy of LIA through the content analysis of prediction and mitigation measures in the selected 39 landscape impact statements and 34 environmental impact statements. The content of the selected statements was analyzed in terms of the quantification, precision, significance, and likelihood. The results showed that both prediction and mitigation measures were very low in the scientific credibility. Specifically, the prediction was ambiguously described without scientific probability, and the effect of mitigation measures was not specifically presented in the reports. Thus, landscape impact statement can not give credible information in the decision making process, which weakens the efficacy as an aid to decision-making. Based on the results, several suggestions were presented to enhance the efficacy of LIA.
A Study on the Slope Stability Analysis by Shearing Reinforcement of Vegetation Roots -Focused on the Pinus Koraiensis Roots-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 80~93
This study measured the shearing resistance of the roots of the Pinus Koraiensis by the tensile strength gained through their individual tensile test for the Root Reinforcement Model. On the basis of the shearing resistance value calculated through such a process the factor of safety(Fs) was comparatively presented by using the simplified Janbu Method in PCSTABL5M, the slop-analyzing software which had been developed in Purdue University of the U.S.A according to the shape of a slope and the type of soil. The results to have measured a stress and the factor of safety(Fs) by experiment are as follows. 1) The mean root diameter of the Pinus Koraiensis used for this experiment was 2.483mm and the mean tensile stress was calculated as 422.846(kgf/
). In the strain ratio of material and the elastic modulus was measured 7.8%, 9,291.92(kgf/
). 2) The shearing strength including the resistance of soil and root is expressed as Rt=C+Cr+
.tan . ΔCr(kg/
) of the shearing resistance calculated by estimating the areal ratio of roots at 10 is 0.253(kgf/
). 3) As the result of making an analysis of the natural slope stability by the soil parameter, the factor of safety(Fs) was calculated at 1.795 in CL, and the stability analysis of the root reinforcement slope, Fs was calculated at 1.952. However, since a precise analysis of the controlled factors of the slope analyses are demanded for more accurate dynamic analyses, the future demands a study on this.
Post-Occupancy Evaluation for Village Parks in Seoul
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 94~106
The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for planning and designing Village Parks in Seoul in the future, which result from analyzing post-occupancy evaluation. For conducting this study, 10 Village Parks among 45, built between 1996 and 1997, were selected and analyzed. The results of this study are as follows. The degree of satisfaction of 10 Village Parks in Seoul has been evaluated on a scale of 10, to be a 6.68 average. This result means that the most respondents are satisfied with the existing Village Parks in Seoul. The correlation of the degree of satisfaction with major planning factors for 3 types of Village Parks shows that accessibility is the most important factor. As for future directions of planning and designing Village Parks, many kinds of sitting, leaning and resting place need to be provided. It is also necessary to improve the visual quality of the parks with various spatial elements. The research also shows that various facilities for people's use should be provided in Village Parks.
Effect of Soil Amendments at Heavy Traffic Area in Golf Course
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 107~113
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of soil amendments for reducing soil compaction at heavy traffic area in golf course. Major results of this research are summarized at follows: 1. In the Lab. experiment, the porosity was improved significantly when the materials, such as peatmoss, charcoal, and tire chip mixtures were used respectively. Especially mixture of sand and 20% peatmoss showed higher effectiveness (10%) in porosity, comparing with ordinary sand. This soil mixture(sand 80%+peatmoss 20%) was observed the best in water retention, soil hardness and hydrauric conductivity. 2. In the greenhouse experiment, traffic pressure was given 7 times a day on several combination of mixture treatments to see the top dry weight. The soil mixture of 20% peatmoss showed the highest in the top dry weight. When the more traffic pressure(15 time/day) were given on the different treatment, the top dry weight was significantly reduced. However, the mixture of 20% peatmoss also had the least influence on this type of heavy traffic. 3. In the field experiment, the soil amendments were treated in traffic area f golf course, and observed at 30days, 60days, 90days, 120days after treatment. Visual turf quality(color), root length and soil compaction were compared to those of control. As a result, overall treatments with soil amendments were effective, which showed better turf quality and less soil compaction. 4. In the field test, physical characters of soil (such as soil hardness and hydrauric conductivity) in sand+tire chip+peatmoss(60:20:20, %, v/v) treatment was significantly improved. Also in the slow increasing of traffic, the soil compaction was the most effective in reducing soil hardness.
A Growth Responses of Indoor Ground Cover Plants according to a Light Source of Aritificial Light
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 114~119
This study was carried out to obtain fundamental information of growth response of ground cover plants under artificial light quality at indoor. Aglaonema 'Silver Queen', Hedera helix L., Hoya carnosa 'Tricolor' and Saintpaulia ionantha 'Frances' were examined under a 400lux light intensity consisted of Mercury lamp, True-lite lamp, incandescent lamp, dark-room and sunlight indoor condition. A data analysis were performed by GLM, Duncan's multiple range test and mean score with SAS program. Results of experiments are as follows; 1. A plant growth status was better showed under the True-lite lamp than sunlight. 2. A Saintpaulia ionantha flower color was responded in the first place, the deep pinkish red color of Saintpaulia ionantha flower was obtained under Mercury lamp and "True-lite lamp", "sunlight", and incandescent lamp were follow. Flower numbers of Saintpaulia ionantha after 60 days tended to decrease under every artificial light quality. 3. Leaf length and leaf width were increased under True-lite lamp, but most of plants was not significantly affected by artificial light quality. 4. A stem length of Hedera helix was increased the highest rank under sunlight also, one of artificial light, the highest increase rank was showed under incandescent lamp. 5. Chlorophyll content was highly increased under Mercury lamp, but was responded poor under incandescent lamp.
A Safety Evaluation on Play Facilities for Children -In Terms of Construction Work and Maintenance-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 120~129
This main study was the subject of the play facilities of children picnicking place which was installed in apartment complex. As to the production period of the facilities, the materiality and the materials of the play facilities, we examined the safety estimation about them. And we drew up a plan which could build and manage the children play facilities improved the better. According to the installation place, the result of safety estimation, the safety of play facilities in Ga-Kyeong-dong apartment complex which built up after 1997 years was the most excellent, the play facilities of Sa-Gik-Dong apartment Complex which built long ago have showed even poorer in all items of safety estimation. According to the materiality of play facilities, though the safety of association play rod in the safety estimation was the most excellent, the safety of swing was the very poor. According to the materiality of materials, the association of wood, stainless in the safety estimation was the safest. Especially, even though wood is soft and kind materials, as it has a shortcoming, the practical use depreciates. If iron materials like stainless associates with wood, we have thought that they have the good effect of the practical use. We have judged that the distance of contiguity facilities and the safety of corrosion or rottenness within the item of safety estimation as a subordination variable were the poorest. The arrangement of play facilities and the selection of materials happened to these problems. And we have known that they should get accomplished the construction work to make a plan thoroughly from it early.
Assessing the Biotope for Urban Nature Conservation -In Case of New Seoul Town-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 130~137
New Seoul Town is a new town in Seoul Mapo-Gu, Which is planed by Seoul metropolitan government. There are Nanji Waste reclaimed land and Seoul world-cup stadium, which is under construction in the new town. This study is executed for urban nature conservation by assessing the biotope in the new town. The biotope map is mae by the selective mapping method, and assessing the biotope is executed by a quick method, which is originated with R. Wittig and Scheriber(1983). The assessment criteria include the period of development, area, rarity and variety of habitat condition. In the result from this study, biotope type of the new town is classified eight types, and all biotope type is valuable for nature conservation. The reason of this result is because of little natural area which is rice field, farm field, forest, swampy land, etc, except New Seoul Town, in Seoul Mapo-Gu. And so, Biotope in New A Seoul Town, must be conserved and restored in new town urban planning.
An evaluation of stream naturalness for Close-to-nature stream restoration -In case of Suwon stream-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 138~149
The purpose of this study is to evaluate Suwon stream naturalness Index(S.N.I). and tofind out stats, problems and opportunities of the Suwon stream by assessment standard. Assessment standard is mainly based on physical structure of stream environment. the purpose evaluating sectors and elements are physical form and structure restoration of stream. To find out assessment standard of stream naturalness index, conceptual frame of assessment standard has been established, for which four sections, for example, longitudinal section, lateral section, stream bottom structure and water environment, have been selected. Overall stream naturalness index of the Suwon stream has been distributed at 3rd to 4th grade, and 3.3 of assessment index and mode were 3rd grade respectively. stream naturalness index of each section was as follows: Longitudinal section accounted for 3.7in average to be 4th grade, lateral section did 3.8 to be 4th grade, and water environment did 2.4 to be 2nd grade. Analysis of assessment outcome of stream naturalness index has checked status, problems and opportunities of corresponding stream. Assessment of stream naturalness index of the study provides useful information for restoration of close-to-nature stream, and furthermore has its meaning in checking problems and opportunities of Suwon stream.
A Study on the French Modernist Garden of the 1920-30s and Cubisum
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 150~160
The french modernist garden of the 1920-30s, significant when studying the history of gardens, has been disregarded in landscape architecture studies. This study aims to review and examine the main characteristics of the French modernist garden in relation to Cubism. In addition this study seeks to recover an unnoticed phase from landscape architecture history and lies in a same thread with studies on the theory of Modernism in landscape architecture. The french modernist garden is closely connected with Cubism, as Cubist garden is a popular synonym for the French modernist garden. used simplified and geometrical forms like Cubist painters. In spacial composition, the French modernist garden offered images of various views in one space, much like the Cubist paintings which showed various aspects of an object simultaneously on the canvas. In the French modernist garden, gorgeous colors and various textures were emphasized, much like the synthetic Cubism. Moreover, in the history of landscape architecture, the state of the French modernist garden which tried to change the traditional gardens into a space more suited to the new life style, is similar to that of Cubism as an art movement in the history of art of the early 20th century.
Temporal Changes and Correlations Between the Chemical Characteristics of Soils in the Case of the Reclaimed Costal Area of Kyung-Gi Province, Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 161~169
In this study, the temporal changes in the chemical characteristics of soil in a reclaimed coastal area, the Shihwa Industrial Complex in the West Coast in Kyung-Gi Province, and the correlations between chemical components were investigated to provide useful information needed for introducing vegetation in the area. The sites were filled with mountain forest soils from 1987 to 1996, and developed into various landuses such as neighbourhood parks, children's parks, buffer greens, pedestrian roads and others. The correlation analyses shoed that pH, organic matter(OM) and available P205 had not been closely related to other chemical parameters such as various cations electro-conductivity(EC) and cation exchange capacity(CEC): especially, pH showed a very low correlation with other factors. The EC turned out to have positive relationships with cations, especially with Na+ ions. There seemed to be fairly good correlations between cations except Ca++ ion. The relation between cations and OM was inconclusive possible because the OM contents in the soils were too low for the analysis. The OM seemed to increase slowly with time and the EC decreased slowly. The salinity and CEC in the original soils decreased rapidly possibly because of leaching. It is believed that there were some external disturbances such as rainfall which had affected the soil properties. The soils sampled in dry season showed a very high salinity. From this it is possible to assume that the rainfall would affect the sol properties significantly. So it is necessary to continue further studies to investigate the impacts of external disturbances such as rainfall on vertical soil profile and temporal variations as well as to delineate correlations between parameters with external disturbances controlled.
Estimation of Ponding Times for various Soil Textures and Ponding Depths -Using the Green-Ampt Infiltration Model-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 170~180
The surface-drainage system, which consists of bio-swale and detention-infiltration Basins and carries out the function of temporary detention-infiltration of runoff, is defined as the "natural drainage system". It is an environmentally sound and economically beneficial practice to reduce run-off by retaining it in swales as much as possible and letting run-off infiltrate into the ground. In order to estimate appropriate capacity of swales, it is necessary to know how long will it take for certain depths of water to infiltrate. The ponding times, or infiltration times, of various depths and of various soil textures, could be estimated with the Green-Ampt Infiltration Model. Included soil textures are loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silty loam, sandy clay loam and clay loam. Ponding depths are from 10cm to 100cm intervals. Newton-Raphson method is used for the solution of the Green-Ampt equation by a computer program. The computer program was written with the FORTRAN Developer 4.0 v.. Selected ponding depth is acceptable when the sum of the ponding time and the breeding time of mosquitoes is less than the tolerance period of innundation of grasses and trees.and trees.
A Survey on the Residents' Perception and the State of Facade Greenery of Residential Buildings in Metropolitan -A Case Study of Seoul-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 27, issue 5, 2000, Pages 181~190
The purpose of this paper is to promote the usage of facade greenery in order to improve the quality of life in cities and to improve their ecological worth. It is necessary to find out what people think about facade greenery, what problems they think, they might encounter and to promote the use of facade greenery. The survey was grouped according to three housing types; family house, tenement house and apartment. We distributed questionnaires individually to 140 people in each of the three housing types. All 420 people answered. The major questions in the questionnaire relate to the following issues: opinions about facade greenery, opinions regarding reasons to install facade greenery and expected problems, favourite plants, and to provide an analysis of the current usage of facade greenery. The results of this study show that most people like facade greenery and revealed that there was a significant difference in the kinds of responses from the three types of housing. The most important factor to affect respondents' positive preference for facade greenery is that it provides opportunities to experience nature near the housing and the improvement of the aesthetic appeal of facades for those living in apartment housing. Negative responses were based on the inhabitation of insects, and the difficulties in maintaining facade greenery. The favourite plants are parthenocissus and climbing rose. Generally people were lacking in an understanding of the ecological value of facade greenery. Most of the respondents indicated a liking for facade greenery and so the situation is now suitable to promote it.