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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Dec 2000
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Oct 2000
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Aug 2000
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Apr 2000
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Feb 2000
Selecting the target year
Effects of Root Restriction by Clay Pot and Root Contrl Bag on Growth of Acer Palmatum
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 1~8
This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of root restriction on growth of maple(Acer palmatum Thumb.). Tow types of container such as clay pot(CP), root control bag(RCB) were used to restrict maple's root and each type of container was divided into 5 sizes. The containers with plants were buried just below the soil level and maples planted directly in the soil (nonrestricted root treatment) were included as comparison. Data were collected on dry weight of leaf, trunk, thick root, rootlet and soil water potential. We have analyzed, simple linear regression, Pearson's Correlation analysis, Duncan's multiple rang test, and Covariance Analysis using SAS statistical software. The results of analysis based on these data are as follows; 1. Total dry weight of maple in CP was significantly larger than in RCB. 2. Difference in growth reduction by the kinds of containers was induced by different hydraulic diffusion ratios between container and soil. Difference in growth reduction by the size of container was induced by the difference density of rootlet and soil moisture contents in the container. 4. Commercial products of root control of root control bag appeared not proper for countries in which fluctuation of rainfall is severe. Because maples in RCB were restricted by excess soil water in the rainy season, or by lack of soil water in the dray season.
Effects of Soil Environment on the Growth of Pinus Thunbergii and Zelkova Serrata at the Reclaimed Seaside
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 9~20
The purpose of thus paper is to provide the knowledge on preparing for the planting soil and planting method, and maintenance at the reclaimed seaside. Based on the collected data from the field work, the soil environment, the growth of height, inter-node, tree ring and roots of the two species had been analyzed. The determinant of soil factors, affecting the growth of trees, turned out to be six elements such as soil hardness, soil acidity, potassium, calcium, magnesium and total nitrogen. Because the variances of both growth of tree height and tree ring are greater than that of root, the growth characteristics of ground parts of the species by the individual tree species is more dynamical than those of underground parts. From the mean difference test the growth of height, root between Pinus thunbergii and Zelkova serrata, have been turned out to be statistically significant at 5 percent level. Pinus thunbergii is a sapling, so it grows faster than Zelkova serrata while Pinus thunbergii has better roots system than Zelkova serrata. From the correlation analysis, it showed the very strong correlation between tree height growth and potassim, while the lowest correlation coefficient was between soil hardness and potassim as 0.744. From the multiple regression analysis, both soil hardness and magnesium affect to the tree growth, soil hardness and potassium to the tree growth, potassium and calcium to the rot growth, respectively. Using this research results, we can be use the planting plan including revegetation, construction and maintenance of the reclaimed seaside. In the future, the planting method including the ground preparation and tree species selection for the reclaimed seaside should be accompanied in advanced through the soil survey and relevant analysis.
Effects of Soil Moisture on the Growth of Acer Palmatum under Indoor Low Light Intensity
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 21~28
This study is conducted to analyze effects of soil moisture on the growth of maple(Acer palmatum) under indoor low light intensity. Maples grew under three different light intensities such as sunny place(average 353.2W/
), half shade(average 7.7 W/
) and shade/(average 1.9W/
).Under half shady and shady condition, each 24 planters(2 maples planted in each planter) were used and divided into 3 groups treated with different watering points. Three levels of soil water potential were set for watering points, such as -200mbar, -300mbar or -500mbar. Under sunny condition, there were only group of 8 planters, as comparison. Watering was applied when soil water potentials reached -500maber. The results of plant growth experiment are as followed. 1. Under the shady condition, 32 maples died among 48 maples for 7 months. 9 maples survived, watered at soil water potential -200mbar, 5maples at -300mbar and 2maples at -500mbar. 2. Leaf water content ratios were higher under lower light intensity. For the cell wall became thinner under lower light intensity. 3. Maples in shady were easy to die due to having thin cell wall, therefore they were easy to loss the turgor pressure. 4. In case of half shady condition, the group, watered at soil water potential -200mbar, had much smaller amount of rootlet than -300mbar, because there were excessive soil water. The group, watered at soil water potential -500mbar, had smaller amount of rootlet than -300mbar and there was a remarkable difference in leaf water potential in spite of nearly same soil water potential, because leaves received the water stress under lower soil water potential. 5. When maples grew soundly, the leaf water potential was largely influenced by the soil water potential.
Characteristics and Correlation between Green Management Practices and Speed in Korean Golf Courses
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 29~43
This study is carried out to investigate the cahracteristics of green management practices and green speed(i.e., ball-roll distance) on 129 Golf Courses in Korea, and to explain the effects of managemet practices that affect green speed. Data collected from green-keepers were subjected to frequency, correlation analysis, and multi-regression analysis using SPSSWIN(Statistical Package for the Social Science). The results are as follows. 1. In spring mowing height, 3.5-4 mm appeared the highest frequency(44.4%) and 4-4.5mm mowing height appeared the high frequency(41.0%). In summer mowing height, 4.5-5mm appeared the highest frequency(51.3%). In fall mowing height, 4-4.5mm appeared the highest frequency(41.0%). 2. In N-fertilizing amount of February and November, 0(zero) g/
appeared the highest frequency. In N-fertilizing amount, of June and July 0-2 g/
appeared the highest frequency. In N-fertilizing amount, of March, May, August, and September 2-4 g/
appeared the highest frequency. In N-fertilizing amount, of October 2-4 or 6-8 g/
appeared the highest frequency. 3. In spring topdressing times, 3-6 times appeared the highest frequency(52.6%). In spring topdressing amount, more than 2mm appeared the highest frequency(35.9%). In summer topdressing tierms, 0-3times appeared the highest frequency(71.8%). In summer topdressing amount, 0.5-1mm appeared the highest frequency(46.2%). In fall topdressing times, 0-3times appeared the highest frequency(47.4%). In fall topdressing amount, more than 2mm appeared the highest frequency(35.9%). 4. In spring irrigation tiems, 3-4times/a week appeared the highest frequency (30.6%). In spring irrigation amount, the irrigation below 5mm/day under appeared the highest frequency(38.7%). In summer irrigation times, 4-7times/ a week appeared the highest frequency(38.9%). In summer irrigation amount, 5-10mm/a day appeared the highest frequency(45.2%). In fall irrigation times, 2-3times/a week appeared the highest frequency(36.1%). In fall irrigation amount, the irrigation below 5mm/a day under appeared the highest frequency(45.2%). 5. In spring aeration times, 2 times appeared the highest frequency(55.2%). In spring aeration depth, 5-10mm appeared the highest frequency(81.6%). In fall aeration times, 1 time appeared the highest frequency(82.5%). In fall aeration depth, 5-10mm appeared the highest frequency(86.8%). 6. In spring green speed, 1.98-2.28 or 2.59-2.89mm appeared the highest frequency(32.7%). In summer green speed, 1.98-2.28mm appeared the highest frequency (46.9%). In fall green speed, 1.98-2.28mm appeared the highest frequency(38.8%). 7. The factors which affect green speed were mowing height, N-fertilizing, season, topdressing, irrigation, and aeration. Vertical mowing did not affect green speed. The order of the relevant important factors was mowing height >: N-fertilizing > season > topdressing > irrigation > aeration. Mowing height and N-fertilizing were the most important factors in green speed. As mowing height decreased, green sped always increased. As total N-fertilizing amount decreased, green speed increased. In summer, green sped decreased remarkably. As topdressing times increased and the topdressing amount decreased, green sped increased. As irrigation times increased and irrigation amount decreased, green speed increased.
An Assessment on Environment Friendliness of National Park Facilities in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 44~53
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate environmental friendliness for facilities of national park to improve naturalness of national park. We have evaluated environmental friendliness of the facilities in Chirisan national park in terms of resource conservation and environmental integration, which are consisted of 9 and 8 evaluation indicators, respectively. Environmental friendliness of the small facilities was not good due to not using locally obtained materials and natural material, and that of large and complex facilities was bad in the field of excessive damage during construction, inadequate maintenance, use of natural material, locally obtained material, environmental integration with surroundings. In evaluating environmental attributes, new facilities is better than the older ones. The small facilities appeared to be worse than those of the complex, and the large facilities are the worst in terms of environmental friendliness. In general, environmental friendliness turned out to be lower in the light of the facilities in the clustered area than those of the facilities of the other area. In the future, It is required that criteria for evaluating environmental friendliness of natural park facilities is established.
An Applicability of Bioregional Planning Theory
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 54~65
The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept, general framework, planning process of bioregion, and bioregional impacts on landscape planning of future and to discuss the application possibility of landscape planning. Bioregionalism is defined in the course of following: knowing the land, learning the lore, developing the potential, liberating the self. Bioregional paradigm was composed of policy system insisted on diversity and decentralization based on region and community, sustainable economy structure focused on conservation and stability, and society structure through cooperation with common consciousness in the community. A general bioregional framework was organized to be able to achieve a sustainable future with interaction for humans being, other living things, and important earth life system. Bioregional mapping should be able to explain three important aspects about how localised and sustainable cultures would exist: to define the external boundaries, to describe forces of energy, and give a hint for th productive capability. In conclusion, according to the result of reviewing the total environmental planning, bioregional paradigm, examples of projects, technique of bioregional mapping, and actions of Nongovernmental Organizations(NGOs). this study is helpful to show an applicability of bioregional planning theory in Korea
Characteristics of th Distribution of Night Illumination Level at Urban Neighborhood Parks
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 66~74
The purpose of this study is to research and analyze the distribution of night illumination level at urban neighborhood parks and to show its characteristics. And this is used basic data ensuring safety and satisfying aesthetic and psychological desires of people who use urban neighborhood parks at night. To research and analyze the distribution of illumination level at urban neighborhood parks at night. To research and analyze the distribution of illumination level at urban neighborhood parks, I selected 8 urban neighborhood parks as the subject of research in this study, set the measuring standard of illumination level, and measured the illumination level by the measuring standard. The results of this study are as follows; 1. Currently, total average illumination level of urban neighborhood parks was lower than the minimum standard of illumination level I KS A 3011-1993. 2. Average illumination level of each place in urban neighborhood parks appeared variously from low level to high level. But this was lower than the minimum standard illumination level in KS A3011-1993 like total average illumination level. 3. The higher was total average illumination level of urban neighborhood parks, the more various was brightness of places. Although users' aesthetic and mental desire or behavioral aspect relate with safety cannot be found by only survey and analyses of illumination level, it is judged that first, illumination level of the standard of the lightness should be analyzed to find user's mental states and behaviors in external space at night. Therefore, it is considered that this study, which analyzed characteristics illumination level as basic data, has a significance. The study continuing for other illuminative environmental factors suitable in the place is required because the brightness of places may not be measured by only illumination level. And the proper illumination level in outdoor places should be showed in considering psychological and behavioral aspects of human as people may have their own sense of brightness.
The Potential Assessment and Creation Programming of Biotopes in Small and Medium City in Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 75~90
This study suggests the methods of the assessment and creation of biotopes in small and medium sized cities, in Korea. For this purpose, Chonju city was selected to classify and asses the biotope types. Moreover, relevant legislations to conserve and enhance urban biotopes were examined. The results of this study are as follows: 1) There were two approaches to asses the potential of urban biotopes in medium-sized cities. One was the urban scale evaluation for urban green spaces and the other was the biotope scale evaluation for the classification and evaluation of biotopes. 2) The urban scale evaluation was developed through overlaping analysis of landuse and vegetation factors. This study also included the conception of watershed. In this conception, three watersheds in Chonju city were characterized. According to these characteristics, individual programs for conservation and enhancement of urban green space were suggested. 3) For the biotope scale evaluation, Selected site was inclusively mapped and field investigation actually was carried. There were total 9 types of bitopes. Especially landuse was appeared in various evaluation items were vegetation structure, area of green space, condition of vegetation and vegetation profile. Mt, Gonji and Dukjin park, Chonbuk national University and fields were evaluated highly I the potential. 4) The biotope programs were based on the results of assessment and physical characteristics of biotopes. The uniform and simple levels on vegetation must be modified with various levels of vegetation structure and vernacular plants. And the physical characteristics like Points, Corridors and Patches can be organized by the conception of biotope networking theory. 5) The proper legislative environment was the clue elements for the biotope programs. Until now, only five types of parks and two types of green space are defined and the minimum size of green space has been proposed by the law. So, it is necessary to enlarge the conception of green space in legislation and improve the quality of green space by amending the related regulations. This study has limitation because it was selected only in Chonju. Through the continuous studies, we need to apply this other small and medium sized cities, South Korea. Also the data collection and management of theme maps such as actual vegetation, landuse and a soil must be done preliminary.
An Analysis of Management Methods for Traditional Village in Japan -The Case of Tumago Village and Shiragawa Village-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 91~104
The traditional village, which is subject for this paper, can be defined as a community having unique combinations of natural, cultural, and social characteristics of that nation, which reflects settlement environments during hundreds of years. Now, in spite of tis potential power of traditional village, national strategies do not find satifsactory directions in Korea. In terms of this concenrs, this paper tries to analyze and diagnose about successful precedents(Tsumage village and Shiragawa village, Japan) with focus on the village management. And this paper aims to explore concrete management systems of Japanese cases, to find clues for practical application, and to suggest several instructive concepts in the light of management system of traditional village management. The analysis is progressed in three viewpoints(village space, village attraction, and village community). And it is extracted that diverse management systems are necessary to secure sustainable traditional village and their way of life, particularly in the face of the pressure of tourism. As a result of exploring of Japanese two cases, representative characteristics, which are found, are as follow; Fist, objective of management is not tourism development but maintenance of sustainable life system. Second, management systems are having not compulsory but spontaneous open decision making process, and in particular, village management is mainly operated by the local government and semipublic institute(inhabitants-oriented0 which have the strongest influential power in village composition units. Finally, village management programs are mostly experience-type and are composed of public law and regulations, diverse operation program, and individual efforts of inhabitants for village management. Because this paper mainly focused on two precedents, there should be more diverse cases. however, extracted conclusions have practical meanings for village management and can be used in re-establishing management concepts of Korean traditional villages.
An Optimization Model for Concurring Landscape Detailed Design with Final Products
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 105~116
The purpose of this paper is to minimize differences between landscape detailed design (hereafter 'design') and final landscape construction products in working sites (hereafter 'products'). Ten landscape sites constructed in recent two years were selected to examine the differences. Differences in quantities and quality between design and products were surveyed and the results were analyzed with the 'differential analysis method'. The method employed in this paper can be used as an optimization model to minimize the differences between design and products. This paper suggests that every landscape field should mark less than 13.672% calculated from the 10% of total amount for excellent construction products. This should be approved by the president, according to the Clause 20 of General Conditions of the Contract, divided by the ratio of quantities affecting mainly he average Difference in Value between Design and Construction(DVDC). This value can be the critical point from the differential analysis method for the optimal maximum DVDC between landscape design and final landscape construction products in fields.
Design of Unam-Ji Waterfront Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 117~124
This paper presents a design of urban waterfront park using agricultural reservoir in urban fringe area to meet increasing leisure demand for urban resident and to improve resident's quality of life through preventing the reservoir from urban use after reclamation. The site, Unam-Ji, is located on northern part of Taegu metropolitan area, having 17,791 square meters. We had designed this park from 1997 to 1998. After analyzed such factor as accessibility, current land uses, topography, hydrology, vegetation and landscape, climate, and soil, we constructed basic design scheme and principes such as conservation of natural resources, meeting user's recreation demands, providing opportunities for experiencing natural process, integrating naturalness and amenity of the site, and comfortable place with natural dynamism. Based on these principles, we have designed Unam-Ji waterfront park having intrinsic characteristics of the site, maintaining water quality and ecological restoration and improving water-based recreation opportunities. After evaluation of such criteria of design alternative as land use and circulation, spatial organization, convenience for use of and maintenance, conservation of natural environment, and degree of achieving planning and design goals, and maintaining landscape, we have visualized and formalized waterfront park in design process, which is consisted of four squares-- green square for multiple uses, water-based recreation square, pedestrian roads and decks near waterfront, performance square and fords near waterfront. In conclusion, this waterfront park design contributes to improve quality of urban development through preserving agricultural as an important component of urban water system and provide important planning and design implications in urban open space planning.
An Impotance-Performance Analysis of Planning Factors for Teenager Leisure Space
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 125~131
In order to collect basic data for the plan, design, and improvement of teenager leisure space as well as to contribute to the preparation of various youth leisure spaces, this study is to examine and analyze leisure space planning factors under the consideration of leisure patterns changing rapidly in youth activities. We used sufficient amount of questionnaires and a physical environment analysis at downtown parks and Tongdaemun fashion complexes where various leisure activities of teenager are happened. In addition, an importance and performance analysis was attempted on planning factors of each derived leisure space. on sequently, effective and efficient preparation of youth leisure space for desirable youth leisure activities should be carried out after finding out characteristics of teenager leisure spaces, deriving and integrating suitable planning factors for each characteristics, and finally adapting such derived planning factors by performance and importance. The future space for youth leisure should be improved and prepared after mature consideration about importance and performance of planning factors, which are suited for leisure patterns and characteristics of teenager leisure spaces.
Design of Seoul Park in Paris
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 28, issue 4, 2000, Pages 132~137
In June, the City of Seoul held a design competition for
in Paris to promote friendly relations with its sister city. The purpose of this paper is to articulate the design concept of a scheme submitted by the author. The author interpreted the object of this design competition as follows: if we regards a park not as one of urban planning facilities but as a space for expressing a culture,
in Paris is a space expressing Korean culture, or a culture of the City of Seoul in Paris, France. Three points were emphasized in this scheme: 1. Physical and non-physical aspects of Korean culture, or a culture of the City of Seoul were expressed separately. In physical part, a traditional Korean garden was reappeared to express its authenticity compared to its counterpart, French classical garden - its formal and grand style. In nonphysical part, Seoul's features and its citizen's facial expression were engraved on 'free standing walls' named 'Seoul Expression'. In addition, Korean traditional and modern performing arts will be performed in a square named as 'Seoul madang' surrounded by the free standing walls. 2. A space clearly divided by the fence was necessary to distinguish a traditional Korean garden from the place which looks like an amusement park. Traditional wall, mounding and pine tree groves were included. 3. Bamboo grove with the way taking a walk was introduced. The author expected that Parisian feels oriental mystery, the sound of wind, and the time lag of past and present in this sounding bamboo grove.