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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Dec 2001
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Oct 2001
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Aug 2001
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Apr 2001
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Feb 2001
Volume 1, Issue 1 - 00 2001
Selecting the target year
A Model on the Determinants of Visual Preference at Golf courses
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~10
The purpose of this thesis is to classify landscape-type of golf course, and t provide a better understanding of landscape of existing golf courses, seek a developed method for landscape, and other useful knowledge. In order to classify landscape type of the golf course, and analyze the preference for the determinants, we have selected 4 golf courses in Yongin, Kyonggi Province. The analysis in this study shows that a variable, 'familiarity' is the most potent influence of visual preference, (Sig 0.01), and it can be divided into five classes of landscape-type in golf course. More specifically, we conducted the analysis of the image of views and visual preference to bring out major factors which could decide visual preference in golf courses. The results between visual preference and physical variable are as follows; 1. It implies that a factor for a image of the view in golf course is analyzed by 4 districts from factor 1 to factor 4. An ability explaining those factors in the whole of variable quantity is 51.742%, implying factors for the image of the scene in golf courses are appeared as familiarity, changeableness, spaciousness, and naturalness. Among those factors, since familiarity(C.V.; 26.783%) and changeableness(C.V.; 112.200%) took high rank, this represents the fact that familiarity or changeableness highly affects the forming of image. 2. Defending on degree of image ability in golf course, we could classify as five types such as Type I, Type II, Type II, Type IV, and Type V. 3. As a result of calculating type of factor score, Type I had the lowest ranking in naturalness, and rather lower than others such as organization and spaciousness. The II is a top-ranked one in familiarity and naturalness, while it has the lowest ranking in spaciousness. Type III has the highest ranking in organization and preference. Type IV is the lowest-ranked one in familiarity and preference. Type IV is the lowest-ranked one is familiarity and preference. Type V has the highest ranking in spaciousness, but the lowest ranking in organization. 4. As a result of preference, Type III, Type II, Type V, Type I, and Type IV come out in order. That water-seen place type charges the highest rank shows the importance of changeable materials. 5. These factors-familiarity, organization, spaciousness and naturalness- are the major materials of the scene of view in golf courses. The possibility of how to use those for designing and making enhanced golf courses should be reinvestigated through these factors. Especially, it is acknowledged that the duction of changeableness, which is not mentioned in the study of informational approach, is much stimulating for the designing use. A further research on this theme should be made in the future, not limiting to the golf courses in Yongin.
A Choice Model of Visitor's at National Park in the Case of Mt. Kyeryong
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 11~21
This study investigates how motivations, preferences, and past experiences vary by each hikers trail choice at the Mt.Keyryong National Park. The purpose of this study is to find out the factors influencing behavioral choice in the recreation areas, and establish the fundamental theory for the efficient management of the resource and visitors. For this study, we have collected 472 respondents by on-site self-administrated questionnaire from the hikers in the park. The collected data were analyzed by the descriptive statistics and the discriminant analysis. The motivations variable of hiking participation on mountain trail were categorized three types; close-nature, escapism, and physical improvement. The preferences for trail environment were classified as four categories by factor analysis; preference for nature, safety, use density, and facilities. In descriptive statistics, the study showed that the experienced hikers prefer natural trials and hikers who have preference for close-nature select longer and deeper forest trails. The results of discriminant analysis indicate that the level of past experience is the most affectable in classification of trail choice. Such variables as motivation for close-nature and preference for nature were also appeared as affecting factors on classification of trail choice. Two discriminant functions were available, and 90.5 percent of analysis sample were correctly classified. In the validity analysis, 89 percent of holdout sample were correctly classified. These hit ratios ensures an accuracy by Press Q test. The result of this study is to be useful knowledge of the choice of detailed use environments in the same recreation areas.
Calculation of Pollutant Loadings from Stream Watershed Using Digital Elevation Model and Pollutant Load Unit Factors
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 22~31
The purpose of this study is to compare calculated pollutant loadings using pollutant load unit factors and vector type coverage, and expected mean concentration(EMC) and raster type of digital elevation model(DEM). This study is also focusing on comparison of the advantages and the disadvantages of the two methods, and seeking for a method of calculation of pollutant loadings using DEM. Estimation of pollutant inputs using pollutant load unit factors has limitations in identifying seasonal variations of pollutant loadings. Seasonal changes of runoffs should be considered in the calculation of pollutant loadings from catchments into reservoirs. Evaluation of pollutant inputs using runoff-coefficient and EMC can overcome these drawbacks. Proper EMC and runoff-coefficient values for the Koeup stream catchments of the Koheung estuarine lake were drawn from review of related papers. Arc/Info was employed to establish database of spatial and attribute data of point and non-point pollutant sources and characteristics of the catchments. ArcView was used to calculate point and non-point pollutant loadings. Pollutant loads estimated with either unit factors-coverages, i.e., pollutant load unit factors and vector coverages f point sources and land use, or EMC and digital elevation mode(DEM) were compared with stream monitoring loads. We have found that some differences were shown between monitoring results and estimated loads by Unit Factors-Coverage and EMC-DEM. Monthly variations of pollutant loads evaluated with EMC-DEM were similar to those with monitoring result. The method using EMC-DEM can calculate accumulated flows and pollutant loads and can be utilized to identify stream networks. A future research on correcting the difference between vector type stream using flow direction grid and digitalizing vector type should be conducted in order to obtain more exact calculation of pollutant loadings.
Design of Haebaragi Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 32~40
The purpose of designing Haebaragi park, legally designated as children park, is to make a place for children including residents performing outdoor recreation, various social interactions, and cultural activities. Design concept for space plan have twofold; the one is a positive and creative playing space and facilities for children, escaped from a monotonous playground, and the other is a cultural and social space for neighboring communities. The site having the area of 1,316.7 square meters, located in Nowon-Dong, Buk-Gu, Daegu metropolitan City, is just like a vest pocket park. The adjacent area had been developed a slum area with mixed ad visually conflicting land use patterns and low income groups. The children and residents living in the area do not have any public space suitable for playing and/or rest. After analyzing such locational characteristic as accessibility, land use of the communities, and potentials for park development, and such design concept as arrangement of facilities, efficient use of site, and functional allocation of park space, We have mad a plan for composition of spaces for various activities, provision of facilities based on estimation of user-demand and activities, and planting. In the design process, we have tried to harmonize functional spaces with facilities, and to organize all the functions as a whole. To improve urbanity and aesthetic shape of park design, we have introduced a central plaza, design of a pave floor, a torrent, large trees for shade, colonnades and so on. From this design project, we can develop the site as a children park for increasing creativities and various playing opportunities, and as a resident space for rest, cultural activities. In the future, it is required that many attempt to design and develop urban small space as a park for children and residents.
Design of Seoul Park in Paris
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 41~50
The seoul Metropolitan Government has announced a program of the realization of a Korean garden named 'Seoul Park' in Paris 'Jardin d'Acclimatation' in June, 2000. The program for 'Seoul Park' in Paris has double objectives which aims celebrating the 10th anniversary of the establishment of sisterhood relationship between Seoul and paris and to promote the mutual cooperation and the amity between the two metropolitan cities. The purpose of this study is focusing on the issues on the setting procedure of characteristics of the 'Seoul Park', type of the Park, and design realization of expression of Korean identity, and the cultural consolidation between parks in Korean and French. The Seoul Park will be constructed on the shore of a lake of the Jardin d'Acclimatation, and the size of the area is 4,675㎡. In July, a design competition for the preparation of a schematic plan of the Seoul Park was held in Seoul. In this competition, the author won with a scheme which proposed a Korean Garden as expression of "between" two cultures which is fitted into the French environment. Although, the Seoul Park in Paris is a small Korean garden, its significance would be emphasized in terms of that it represents the adaptation of a Korean culture to the French territory. Throughout the winning entry, we could recognized hat the author defines Korean garden as 'time device', and 'Seoul Park' as 'Situation' which is the consolidation of the cultures between korea and France. And also the author pursued Korean garden as a net type of 'sequence of the event'. In this paper, we have discussed the concept and the schematic plan of the winning entry. focusing on following issues: Definition of the garden; Form of the garden; Expression of Korean garden; Representation of the reconciliation between two environments. Since many parts of the garden are under designing, and the discussion on the resetting of the existing trees in the garden is in progress, more specific investigation will be done in the next thesis.
Managemtn Devices of Urban Forest in Accordance with Ecological Characteristics in the Case of Buncheon City
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 51~66
The purpose of this study is to suggest the ecological management based on ecological characteristics of urban forest in Bucheon city. The actual vegetation area in the survey sites(7,426,587
) consisted of Robinuia pseudoacacia forest(61.6%; 5,574,168
), Pinus rigida forest(6.1%), Quercus mongolica community(3.2%), Q.spp.community(2.9%), etc. According to the importance value of artificial planting forest, 58(/300
) survey plots were divided into 6 groups; 1) R. pseudoacacia forest, 2) R. pseudoacacia-Q.serrata community, 3) R. pseudoacacia-Q.mongolica community, 4) P.rigide forest, 5) P.rigida-Q.serrata community, 6) P.rigida-Q. mongolica community. As the result, the artificial planting forest was expected to the proceeded to Q. serrata community and Q.mongolica community. The ecological succesion stage in the survey sites (7,426,587
) was divided into 5 states based on actual vegetation, succession trend of artificial planting forest in Bucheon; 1) Stage of impossible succession(4.7%, 2)Stage of inducible succession(78.7%), 3) Stage of progressive succession(2.7%), 4)Sage of last succession(1.4%), 5)Stage of native plant forest(12.5%). The ecological management of urban forest was suggested as the management method for succession promotion, according to density controlling and native species planting in Bucheon. Individual numbers of R. pseudoacacia might be reduced to 6~8 individuals/300
at canopy, 9~21 individuals/300
at under-story by selective cutting in order to keep 63~70% of total basal area at R. pseudoacacia forest. Individual numbers of P.rigida might be reduced to 8~9 individuals/300
at canopy, 27~30individuals/300
at under-story by selective cutting in order to keep 68~75% of total basal area at P. rigida forest. 24 species that were selective by constancy analysis were chosen as the ecological appropriate species. Since, this studyis discussing the ares of urban forest and botanical ecology, it is suggested that a study on the relations between of environmental factors such as soil, climate, and vegetation will be performed in the future.
An Evaluation of Biotope to Develop Its Green Network -in the Case of Susong-Gu in Daegu Metropolitan Area-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 67~79
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the biotope value in a metropolitan area after constructing the biotope evaluation model to develop biotope networking in the light of ecological landscape planning. In addition this study is to provide a basic frame of constructing the biotope networking system in the future with the evaluation results. The scope of this research is limited to high density residential area including some part of the forest adjacent to urban boundary. The results of the classified biotope in the research area have been turned out to be 24 patterns. According to the result of estimated nature value having the forth grade, three were forests combined with urban natural parks, schools near forests, and grasslands. There is a little place having first grade. We an deduce this fact that we have surveyed biotopes, having the minimum nature value and wider than children's park. As for the result of evaluated the structure, there were the forests of Seong-Dong, Meaho-Dong, and Kumho river, which is the forth grade. As for the evaluation of connection-function, the followings area were evaluated as the third grade-linear biotopes having highly valued and sustainable similarity - Seoul-Pusan Railroad, Dong-Daegu St., Kumho river, river basins. Bum대 park and a botanic park near Suesung lake, As for the evaluated the buffer-function, higly valued production biotopes, existing at a transition belt between he residential density areas, are Sawol-Dong, Meaho-Dong and Kumho river. When each of the indexes was evaluated, the core of the biotop contained most of natural biotopes. Large artificial biotopes were evaluated as an important biotopes, while small artificial biotopes were classified as a dot biotope. The future research on the concrete biotope networking construction, based upon performed evaluation in this research, should be conducted.
A Study on Development Priority of Undeveloped Urban Neighborhood Park in Case of Daegu Metropolitan City
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 80~91
The purpose of this research is to provide a basic knowledge to open up for undeveloped park in process of the park policy establishment by setting up the priority of park development and valuation factor, valuation index as well as building a basic material to undeveloped neighborhood park in Daegu Metropolitan City. Thirteen urban neighborhood parks(1,841,663
) in the Daegu Metropolitan City were selected for this study. Analyzing and reviewing the previous research and literature review were conducted, and the evaluation index and analysis criteria were constructed to decide the development priority of parks. The results of this research are as follows; 1) Following to the result of the expert questionnaire test in order to estimate weight of valuation factors. It had a high score in available population, and estimated amount of the gross compensation, unpurchased land rate. On the other hand park rate of autonomous district, altitude, rate of population increase in autonomous district and a low score. 2) Generally, most f the plain type parks had a high score in the Sea level, land using pattern, an estimated amount of the gross compensation, but hill type parks had a high score the rate of green covered, park area for one person of administration building. 3) Daebong, Soosung, Dosan, 2.28 youth, Kyungnam parks were selected high priority. Soochang, Donsibong, Janggi, Dongin parks were selected middle priority. Bokhyun, Galsan, Manchon, Gusoosan parks, which were selected low priority. This research for undeveloped park is a basic research step to open up. Three many difficult things in shortage of the basic material for building valuation factor and measuring of the method measurement. The application of weight which make a decision importance among the valuation factor should have ore reasonable study and more scientific research from now because there still remains a lot of shortage of positive materials in there.
Effects of Illumination on Satisfaction of Night Use at Urban Neighborhood Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 92~99
This study analyzed the effects of illumination on psychological accessibility from a view of satisfaction of night use at urban neighborhood park for actual night users. For this, we have classified the effects of illumination as five sampled independent variables from 12 effects of illumination, and tested the relationship with satisfaction of night use of a dependent variable by multiple regression analysis. The results of this study are as follows; 1) The effects of illumination for night use at urban neighborhood park were divided into five factors; (1) direct effect, (2) effect of promoting use, (3) effect of ensuring security, (4) effect of preparing landscape in the night time, and (5) psychological effect. Among independent variables indicating characteristics of effects of each illumination, uneasiness at night use was high. 2) In a multiple regression model, when other conditions were not changed, the value of security of night use (X\ulcorner) had maximumly an affect on the value of dependent. And, the value of danger to meet the depraved(X\ulcorner) had minimally an affect on the value of dependent variable. 3) For the contribution of security of nigh use(X\ulcorner) and brightness of present using space(X
) to satisfaction of night use(Y) of dependent variable, they had a nearly equal effect on that, and showed about 2 times importance compared to familiarity with park(X\ulcorner) and the beauty of park(X\ulcorner). Also, they showed about 7 times contribution to satisfaction of night use compared to danger to meet the depraved(X\ulcorner), which had minimally an affect on the value of dependent variable, as the most important variables. 4) For the effects of illumination on satisfaction of night use, the effect of ensuring security - pursues security of park for the general rather than security for the specific class or subject - and direct effect to offer proper brightness in using space relatively affected on it much compared to psychological effect, effect of preparing landscape in night time, and effect of promoting use. A research on the psychological effects among the variables related to illumination as well as physical circumstances such as the height, location, direction of illumination should be studied.
An Evaluation of Biotope Based on Its Valuation Criteria in Terms of Conservation of Species and Habitat
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 100~112
The purpose of this study is to construct the evaluation criteria based on the relative importance and various combination of each evaluation index and then to evaluate urban biotope in terms of conservation of species and habitat. After the standard of evaluation had been developed through the literature review, the relative importance of the evaluation index through expert survey was found out, and the evaluation model of biotope value has been established. The results of this study are as follows; 1) We have constructed the nineteen evaluation criteria through literature reviews, and have provided relative importance to each evaluation index of the diversity of typical species in biotope, afforestation rate, stratification, Hemeroby grads, and the diversity of landscape patterns based on the results of expert survey. and then we have constructed the evaluation system using the relative importance criteria. 2) To evluate urban biotope using the evaluation system constructed, we selected 14 sites. The final evaluation results of each site is as follows; The III grade areas are Seohan and Hwasung high-rise apartment at Beummul-Dong, Korea Men Power /Agency in Sungs 대 industrial zone, the adjacent area of St. Tongil, and Hyomyung elementary school. The II grade areas are the farm land behind the third Anshim Jugong apartment, and Ehyun park. The I grade areas are swampy land in front of Kangchon and Anshim construction site, water space with semi-natural style in front of Gangchon Woobang apartment, forest zone near page Temple at mt. Palgong, the edge area of Jisan and Gosan, and the tendril yard against Anshim middle school. The only grade IV area is the commercial zone near Taegu Department 3) It is highly useful to evaluate urban biotope using the evaluation criteria constructed for this research, the evaluation criteria we developed may be difficult to guarantee the ability for reproduction and recovery, the appearance-number of the rare and endangered species are difficult to estimate urban biotopes. In the future, it is highly useful to evaluate biotope in terms of conservation of species and habitat through its valuation criteria developed in this research and it is necessary to develop the evaluation criteria applicable to estimation of biotope inventory and reproduction of biotope.
A Study on the Green Mapping and Its Application in the Case of Seocho-Gu
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 113~123
The purpose of this study is to help out the settlement of the Green Map in Korea, and to suggest how to map, and help community people and environmental planner systematically take care of their own towns. This study is also to introduce the green mapping and its usefulness, based on the Green Map Movement, which originated from Net York City and has been expanding through the World. Environmental elements shown on the Green map vary between countries and for the Seocho-Gu Green Map, we have decided to indicate the places that we are proud of, and dishonored of. Especially, this paper is focused on finding the hidden environmental resources in our daily lives. Seocho-Gu, one of 25 self-governmental resources. Since the citizens and government officials are open-minded in their environments, it is a suitable area to start the first Green Map in Korea. As a method of locating the environmental resources, the "Foot Sensing Method" by which residents directly research, is the main difference from typical maps by the "Remote Sensing" which focused on the variety participation of the residents such as questionnaires, investigation with youth volunteers, users interviews which may be more meaningful than the Green Map itself. The purpose of application plan is to preserve the environmental resources through the smooth feedback with the residents. Thus, it must be acted as a opening window linking them with the local circumstances. In line with this, this study proposed the trial-version Web Green Map and Green tour plan. Recently, a need for an environmental map has been reflected in the environmental policies of Seoul Metropolitan City, and it is in place now. If environmental experts of different disciplines use the Green Map for landscape architecture, design, and city planning, it will help them make a better understanding of the needs of the community and to practice the user-centered design. Eventually, the Seocho-Gu Green Map will help its residents, tourists, government, and environmental planners continue establishing the healthy city environments. It is expected that the green map will be employed as a useful method for establishing healthy city and town through right way of use and contents.of use and contents.
A Exploratory Research on the Construction Techniques of Ponds in Korean Royal Palace Gardens
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 124~130
We have increasing number of new ponds planned and designed in traditional styles. However, many of the stoneworks at the edges of those new ponds are not the characteristics of our traditional ponds. This study is aiming at surveying and analysing the building techniques of Korean traditional water edges built with stones, by investigating selected ponds in royal palace gardens. This study was conducted through field investigation and literature reviews. Nine ponds from Gyongbok Palace, Changdeok Palace, and Changgyong Palace, which have many well-preserved ponds of various styles, were surveyed. First of all, the building materials (stones), or the kinds and sizes of stones used for the edges of ponds were surveyed. Secondly, construction methods, or the height and techniques of buildings stone walls were surveyed. Major findings were, first, the edges of most ponds constructed with granite Jangdaeseok, usually 120cm-140cm long, and 30cm-40cm thick. The only exceptions were those ponds which seemed to have been influenced by Japanese style. Second, typical pond ages were up-right vertical walls. Granite jangdaeseoks were piled-up 2 stories or up to six stories. Exceptions were Bandoji Pond and Chundangji Pond which had been constructed during latest period(King 'Ghojong' period). Third, heith of stone walls were between 60cm and 220cm. The depth of ponds were about 150cm or less, and the rest of the edge wall height was freeboard. Though the results of this study was not made by precise investigation and actual measurement, they could be fundamental information and data for the traditional styles of the Chosun dynasty Palace. It is believed that continuous researches on this matter will result in important and fundamental data of the establishment of traditional water edges.
A Case Study on the Creating Artificial Planting Ground on the Waste Landfill Sites -In Case of the Bank Isolated Section Planting Layer at the Landfills of Satellite Cities of Seoul-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 131~139
This paper aims at surveying through case studies the planting possibility on the interval artificial ground between the bank and the core landfill of the first section of works in the SUDOKWON Landfill area landfill area which was completed, followed by the layer-on-layer landfill process involving the latch or sealing layer against emitting landfill gas from the reclaimed waste. The survey results are as follows; 1. The layers of the artificial planting ground on the landfill were established on the basis of top-on-top procedure for a waste layer, a topping soil layer (T=50cm), a gas blocking layer (broken stones T=30cm), a filter layer (non-woven fabric 700g), a sheet protecting soil layer (T=20cm), and a blocking layer (HDPE SHEET 2.0mm), an irrigation layer (SAND T=30cm), a filter layer (non-woven fabric 700g), a sheet protecting soil layer (T=20cm), and a blocking layer (HDPE SHEET 2.0mm), an irrigation layer (SAND T=30cm), a filter layer (non-woven fabric 700g), a planting layer (T=90cm+), a top mound (T=2m). 2. Since no direct damage on the planting layer affected by the landfill gas was detected, planting is found to be still possible and successful except the severely unequal subsidence portion. 3. The mortality rate is discovered different on different trees: Pinus thunbergii (H3.0
W1.0m) 11.25%, Pinus thunbergii (H2.5
W0.8m) 4.73%, Koelreuteira paniculata 8.67%, Hibiscus syriacus 5.68%, Deutzia parviflora 6.50%, Forsythia koreana 8.17%, Rho. yedoense v. poukhanese 32.22%, and Spiraea pru v. symplicifolia 18.89%; although the last two of which are generally considered to have a strong generic growing character, they are subject to be weakened when exposed to the contaminated microclimate of the site like landfill gas. 4. The damage rates, on Pinus thunbergii, Koelreuteria paniculata, Hibiscus syracus, Forsythia koreana, Deutzia parviflora, Rho. yedoense v. poukhanense were shown to decrease to 7.31-17.69% in the second check (June 2000) lower than 5.77-46.92% in the first examination (June 1999), whereas the damage on Spiraea pru v. symplicifolia relatively increased. It is believed that preparatory method of the air pollution, change of temperature, odor by emitting landfill gas, and minute dust from vehicles should be made, and a research on this matter will be conducted in the near future.
An Analysis of Status Quo on the Multi-layer Planting at the landscape Planting Area in Apartment and Neighborhood Parks in Seoul Metropolitan Area
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 140~151
This study based on the theoretical understanding of multi-layer planting which have engineering, ecological and landscape benefits, was conducted to find out the status of multi-layer planting in the apartment and neighborhood park in Seoul. This study was also aimed to seek for the problematic matters, and suggest a solution on the current multi-layer planting. The results of this study were as follows; 1) Since landscape woody plants have been classified just as tree and shrub in Korea, the classification for the multi-layer planting has been unreasonable, and landscape woody plants might have been classified as tree, sub-tree and shrub, or upper, middle, and lower-layer, It could be defined that upper layer is over eight meters in full growth, middle over 3-8 meters and lower under 3 meters. 2) In apartments, the upper layer consisted of eighteen species, the middle and lower layer seven species each. In neighborhood parks, the upper layer consisted of fifteen species, and the middle and lower layer five species each. 3) In terms of planting year of the surveyed areas, there were no differences in the number of species when planting year of the apartment was divided into two groups, the first half(1900-1995) and the second(1996-2000). But, in terms of individual occupation, the percentage was decreased in upper layer, while there was increasing in middle and lower layer. 4) As the result of survey of multi-layered area, it appeared that apartment was shown 0.65 percent and neighborhood park 0.61 percent of the planted area, which was less than 1 percentage of landscape architecturally planted area. 5) In apartment, the number of individual in middle layers has been increased in the first half and the second, but with respect to the correlation with multi-layered area, the apartments had the "
=0.208", saying that increasing middle layer was scattered planting instead of multi-layered planting. 6) In planting at the apartments in Korea, the planting density was limited, because the layer division was restricted to only tree and shrub. On the contrary, it was divided into upper, middle and lower tree in Japan. Therefore, in Korea, it should be classified as the planting density by dividing into tree, sub-tree, and shrubs, or upper, middle and lower tree by the law. And, it should be considered that the multi-layered planting has a proper organic relation as well as the planting density.g density.
The Effects of Containerized Landscape Tree Production Methods on Post-tansplant Strees
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 152~160
This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of containerized landscape tree production methods on post-transplant stress. Two types of container such as plastic pot(pot), fabric growing bag(bag) were adopted to restrict tree roots. Each types of containers was divided into seven sub-types. One traditional production method was included as comparison. Two landscape woody plants species (Magnolia denudata, Albizzia julibrissin) were implanted in the 7 sub-types of container. After one or two growing season in the container, each types of container trees was transplanted. Half of the trees were transplanted in the mild spring season, and another half of trees were transplanted in the improper summer season. The data were collected on the crown wilting ratio and trunk die-back ratio. The result of the analysis based on these data were as follows; 1) The container production methods were lower than the traditional production methods by 3 times in the average wilting ratio of summer season's transplanting point. 2) Post-transplant stress was more successfully mitigated, in case the "pot" type as was the "bag" types of container. 3) The effective and economic way of mitigating post-transplant stress by container production methods was selecting container plants of vigorous and deep root systems. 4) The "pot" type of container was to restrict tree roots more successfully, But, winter chilling and low temperature attacked the "pot" type tree's twigs and suckers. These results indicated that "pot" grown container plants should managed carefully during the winter after transplanting. Based upon the results of this study, a subsequent research on the development of container material, growth type of the container trees, and other maintaining method will be required.es, and other maintaining method will be required.
A Study on the Estimation of Zoysia matrella's Evaporation Using Makkink Model
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 29, issue 1, 2001, Pages 161~167
The purpose of this study is to find out the difference of Zoysia matrella's evaporation in between 100 percent soil and mixed soil with 50 percent of perlite to create green spaces on the artificial ground. It is believed that the weight against the artificial ground will be reduced, provided the vegetation is possible in the circumstance of the mixed sol with 50 percent of perlite. The study employed a modified Makkink's model by Iwasa who had developed the model for estimating Zoysia matrella's evaporation in the natural ground using the Makkink's formula in 1997 at Chiba University, Japan. The parameter of Makkink's formula is the solar radiation. For that reason, the Makkink's formula is simple and easy to measure the parameter and has a high utility. If the outcomes from mixed soil are close to modified Makkinks formula, the modified Makkink's formula will be applied to estimate in the artificial ground with mixed soil with 50 percent of perlite. Weather observation and actual amount of evaporation of Zoysia matrella have been measured, and the relation between weather condition and actual amount of evaporation had been also investigated. In line with this, we found out that there is a relevant relationship between daily average temperature, the modified Makkink's model by Iwasa, and the actual amount of evaporation. As the results of the experiment, the outcomes from mixed soil with 50 percent of perlite have very high relation to 100 percent soil. In addition, mixed soil has more adhesion with water than natural soil. However, it needs to be adequately maintained in terms of fertilization and damage from disease and harmful insects until the gras fastens its roots into the soil. By using mixed soil with 50 percent of perlite, the load from soil on the artificial ground can be reduced. The study on the growth of the grass throughout the plant vegetation and the actual amount of evaporation in the mixed soil with 50 percent of perlite should be performed in the future.