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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Oct 2002
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Aug 2002
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Apr 2002
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Difference in the Visual Preference of the Bridges - The Case of the Han River -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 1~11
The purpose of this study is to investigate landscape image and define elements of difference in visual preference of bridges on the Han River. To do this end, video was used as a media for the evaluation of the landscape image of 16 bridges on the Han River using a Semantic Differential scale. Data is collected by 50 students from Woosuk University, majoring landscape architecture. Final analysis utilized a total of 704 samples of data. Data is analyzed through descriptive statistics, and spatial image is analyzed by factor analysis algorithm Principle component analysis using Varimax method is applied far extraction and factor rotation. T-test is used to find the difference between the bridge type of preference with the data of factor score. Logistic regression is used to select the factors that influences the visual preference among the image factors. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; The image of whole bridges on the Han River is somewhat orderly, sequential and open. The degree of visual preference of unique bridge type is higher than normal but there are some differences in visual preference within the same type of structure. This suggests that the surrounding landscape is one of the important factor for visual preference. Factors covering the image of bridge are found to be 'aesthetic', 'structure','spatial factor', and 'shape'. Total variance is obtained as 60.4%. The aesthetic variables are the most important factor for visual preference and the structural factor presents no significant difference in visual preference between more preferred and less preferred bridges. Since the collapse of Songsu Bridge, we thought the structural factor is very important but the results of this study suggest that it is more important to consider the aesthetic and spatial factors of the bridge to increase the visual preference when planning and designing bridges. Simulations with more detailed data about surroundings should be utilized practical design.
An Evaluation on the Physical and Psychological Image of Insa-Dong
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 12~22
This study examines the visitors'evaluations of tourism resources in Insa-dong, which the Seoul metropolitan government has improved recently. This study adopted the method of Importance-Performance Analysis by collecting data through questionnaires. A random sampling of visitors to Insa-dong was conducted in June and July,2001. The survey included questions on the physical and psychological components of Insa-dong's tourism resources. In the case of physical components, eight factors(ancient arts shop, art gallery, atelier, calligraphy shop, pottery arts, traditional tea house, antique shop, traditional clothes) out of thirteen were categorized as 'keeping up the good work'. None of the Physical components was shown as 'low priority'or'possible overkill'. In particular, four factors(restaurant, heritage, Korean-style house and alley, traditional cultural festival) need to be impoved most urgently in terms of visitors'satisfaction. Survey results realize them as high priority in importance but low in performance, thereby designated as, 'concentrate here'. An image of the 'street' showed to be high in importance and identical in performance, so can be categorized between'keeping up the good work'and 'concentrate here'. The results show that unusual outdoor spaces and the festivals of Insa-dong have a significant meaning to the visitors. In the case of psychological components, three factors(general atmosphere experience of unusual atmosphere, appropriateness of stroll time) out of seventeen were categorized as 'keeping up the good work'. Ore factor (shopping) was designated as 'low priority'and not found to be 'possible overkill'. Thirteen factors (various events, possibility of various activity, various flood, richness of play, new experience, education cultural inheritance, parking facilities, resting places, green spaces, meeting places, guide map and information, cleanliness of facilities/convenience) need to be improved mast urgently in terms of visitors' fulfillment. They are perceived as areas of 'concentrate here'. This confirms that attractive events are essential for the recent visitor satisfaction. Furthermore, visitors are not satisfied with its amenity and acccss in Insa-dong despite the improvements. In conclusion, positive impressions, both physical and psychological, should be maintained while factors mentioned to be lacking should be prioritized in order of necessity to improve the image of Insa-dong and solutions need to be found and implemented. The results of this study would be helpful in the planning and management of nsa-dong considering the visitors'requirements.
Devices for Greening and Conservation of Small City in Korea - Focused on Implementation of 'Local Agenda 21'-
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 23~38
The purpose of this paper is to propose directions for urban greening and nature conservation in small-to-medium-sized cities in Korea for implementation of the Local Agenda 21 (LA 21 hereafter). In this paper, the status of implementation of the LA 21 in both Korea and Japan have been examined. In addition, the green-related plans of both countries have been compared. The cities of Jeonju and Sagamihara were chosen as examples to compare. The result of the research is as follows: 1)With regard to the responsible bodies, in Korea, the implementing plans were initiated by the environment-related authorities of local governments while, in Japan, the plans of action were initiated through consultative committees reflecting opinions from citizens and business entities. 2)Concerning the status of implementation of LA 21, the city of Jeonju has adopted a plan of action and then implemented the plan through a consultative body without adequate legal ground. On the other hand, the city of Sagamihara has enacted a local ordinance to implement the LA 21 It was learned that the newly enacted ordinance has positively been interrelated to existing environmental plans. 3)Regarding urban greening and nature conservation plans, the city of Jeonju has focused on comprehensive measures to preserve and restore ecology while the city of Sagamihara has clearly suggested educational purposes in its plans in addition to preserving and restoring ecology. 4)In terms of support by law or legal system concerned, it has been teamed that, compared with Japan, Korean plans have not been properly supported by law or the legal system to urban greening and nature conservation plans. The same was shown in the city of Jeonju as compared with the city of Sagamihara. As for future directions, the follow are proposed: 1) establishment of a local Committee on Sustainable Development, 2) enactment of relevant and regulations such as the Master Plan of Parks and Green Open paces, 3) establishment of ecological greening plans.
The Evaluation Model for Natural Resource Conservation Areas - Focused on Site Selection for the National Trust -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 39~49
The purpose of this study is to propose an objective and rational methodology for the selection of proposed sites far the National Trust(NT), which is the new alterative proposal far the conservation of natural environments destroyed by injudicious land development and economic growth. That is to enforce many analysis for the effective estimation of rare ecological and landscape resources and to propose a model based on estimation and united indicators. Using the estimative model, we apply it to the selection of the proposed site in micro scale and simultaneously offer the basic methodology of effective and systematic land conservation in macro scale. The results of this study are as follows: 1) The results of analysis for the reliability of estimative items and indicators, presented no problem in that the coefficient of reliability was over 0.7. 2) The correlation measure of the estimative indicator indicated that 'succession'and 'regenerating restorability' were highly correlative in the item of plants. Another three items showed a tendency to be alike. 3) The results of factor analysis on the characteristics of indicators, classified plants into four categories including a stable factor. The item of animals was classified as a stable and rare factor. The item of landscape was classified as a physical and mental factor and the environment as a pollutional and conditional factor. 4) The model of estimation created through factor analysis was valid for the approval of the regression model because significant probability was 0.00. When we consider the NT proposed site as a complex body that is composed of diverse natural and manmade resources, certainly the synthetic methodology of estimation is needed. If these studies are carried out, NT sites will be selected more rationally and effectively than at present. Consequently, they have the potential to play a core role of natural ecosystem conservation in Korea.
Environmental Design Methods Based on the Idea of Fold : The Re-Design Proposal of Do-San Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 50~62
From modernism to post-modernism, the practice in the design field often reduced the complexity of environment and to remove variety. However, contemporary ideas of space have been changed. The current thought premise is that the environment is mutable and is evolving according to inner and outer forces and elements. Therefore, leading designers recognize that the environment is complex in itself while anticipating a new theory explaining on-going trends. The idea of fold formulated by Gilles Deleuze can provide a theoretical base for new environmental design in constrat to current design practices. The fold is a hybrid by accommodating complex relations within an object. It carries a dynamic world view through continual process and yields a topological space against absolute space like Euclid geometry. The characteristics of the fold can be paraphrased as rhizome, stratification and smooth space. Rhizome forms a non-hierarchial connection like networking in internet space. Stratification is a kind of superimposition of autonomous potential layers within a single object. Smooth space is a free space and event oriented space keeping non-linear form. This study tried to incorporate the idea of fold to environmental design methods and design process in order to make space which can correspond with complex environment and topological form. In the design process adapted to fold theory, rhizome analysis accepts the complexity of environment and stratification strategy embraces the possibility of accidental use. As a result, the designed park carries a monadic image and produces an ambiguous space. Lastly, smooth space makes topological space unlike Euclid geometry and is free space comosed by the user themselves. Transporting the idea of fold into environmental design could be an alterative way for indeterminate and flexible design to accept new identity of place. Therefore, this study accepts the concept of incidental morphogenesis to make space based on the complexity of environment. The designed space based on the idea of fold searches to create free event space determined by user rather than designated by designer.
Landscape Design for Renovation of the Second Namsan Tunnel
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 63~69
The Second Namsan Tunnel required renovation. The landscape design was conducted as part of the comprehensive programs for renovation. The landscape design covered site analysis, design development, a working drawing and a maintenance plan. In May of 2001, the Second Namsan Tunnel was renovated and reopened to traffic. The tunnel was recreated as a new type of tunnel with function and beauty. The entrance and retaining wall of the tunnel has public character. Users are greatly affected by the entrance and retaining walls along roads. The landscape architect had to find new materials and methods to improve the environment and to combine artwork with the entrance and walls of the tunnel. The surface of the tunnel entrance and retaining walls are artistically treated with ceramic tiles and paint. Various regional characteristics and cultural meaning are symbolically expressed. Or the tunnel entrance from the Joong-gu side, entitled "Glory of the Future", the hibiscus symbolizes the bright and glorious future of Korea. On the retaining walls, entitled "Hope", the promising Joong-gu is symbolized through image of Korean magpies, mountains, rocks, roses, winds and nature. As for the tunnel entrance from the Yongsan-gu side, entitled "Vivid Spirit", pine trees symbolize the Koreans′strong will and an enterprising spirit. On the retaining walls, entitled "Lively Motions", Yongsan-gu is symbolized through image of pigeons, mountains, rocks, roses, winds and clear skys. The entrance and retaining wall of the Second Namsan Tunnel, whose surfaces are treated with tiles and paint with artistic value, would create an atmosphere using large-scale wall paintings. In this artwork, users would perceive a unique sense of place through the symbolic images of the vertical planes of the tunnel.
Landscape Design of Gamcheon Wholesale Fish Market
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 70~78
The landscape disign of Gamcheon wholesale fish Market was designed around a turnkey base to promote the economy of Busan Metropolitan City, to establish a fishery marketing center and to modernize existing facilities. The objectives of the project were to promote the mood of an old market, while preserving its functions and efficiency as a market, to design outdoor spaces with natural resources and amenities in balance, and to create attractive tourist spots in connection with the wide area development plan. The project was oriented, fast, to enhance the functions of the market. For this purpose, a multi-dimensional space layout was designed in consideration of functions as a wholesale market. The safety of pedestrians was secured by separating lathes for vehicles and for pedestrians. Tree planting with various functions such as sheltering, wind breaking and guiding was planned. Secondly, nature-friendly and human-friendly landscaping design was attempted. For this, the beautiful natural resources of Amnam Park were utilized, and green spaces such as green bridges linking buildings in the wholesale market, and rooftop gardens were to be arranged. In addition, environment-friendly facilities such as roads paved with natural materials(i.e. gravel, shells) and program parking lots were to be planned. Thirdly, landscape design was considered to create attractive tourist spots. For example, a fish farm was created as a theme street for pedestrians and various water-friendly spaces such as pedestrian ramps, observatories and seaside streets were to be secured. The main contents are as follows. First, a green bridge to Ahnnam Park was introduced for a tour source and flower garden, an event plan and viewing deck open to the sea were planned on the bridge's axis. Secondly, for the effective land use plan concerning open space and convenience to visitors, a promenade was planned, which is connected with the theme plaza and small plazas by environmental sculptures in front of the market hall and at the gate. As well, an observatory and a roof garden help create three dimensional multi leveled space, with a good view of the natural landscape of the sea, sky and park Thirdly, landscape materials, such as trees and those for facilities, strengthened for protection against the seawind and salt damage were selected. The commercial market area was intended to be transformed a traditional functional area of efficiency and economy into an attractive marine leisure area where both tourists and neighbors can make use of it.
Landscape Design of KangWon Provincial Police Agency
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 79~87
This landscape design proposal was presented to a design competition for the KangWon Province Police Agency(KPA). The site, about 27,711
, is located at 293-4 Udu-dong, Chunchun, KangWon-Do. Design objectives of the KPA were to build a symbolic place which fall community members with pride, to elevate an identity and status of the KPA by creating a landscape correspondent to the concept of the building design, to provide community residents with a space to enjoy cultural and social activities, and to make environment friendly space. The main concept was developed by one of characteristics of the traditional spatial structure of Korea known as an, 'Open and Closed spatial structure.'By re-interpreting the traditional spatial structure and applying it to the site, the design met the various desires of the KPA. The site is primarily segmented into 6 sub spaces; entrance space Podori plaza, symbolic court, police billeting area, sports area, and rear rest area. The entrance space, Podori plaza, and symbolic court on the south-west part of the site represent the publicity of the site as the concept of ″open space.″ On the contrary, considering the specialty of police affairs, the north-east part of the site, which contains the police billeting area and rest area, were designed to maintain security by using the concept of ″closed space.″ To express an identity of the KPA, 'Podori', a police mascot, the plaza was designed and is suppose to function as the hub of the community. In the front section of the plaza, a symmetrical planting pattern, centering the strong axis, was introduced to strengthen its symbolic meaning. Traditional window frames such as the pattern of 'Pisal-jige'and 'Umulsal-jige' were used for the paving system which is applied as the environment friendly design. Site facilities and furnitrue were placed at every important spot in order to connect various spaces organically. As these well-tied spaces properly shared their function, spatial sequence and management would be promoted. The entire space was designed to allow free access of handicapped people. This proposal is meant to create a new image of KangWon province and to enhance the way of inhabitants' think about their community.
Turfgrass Selection for Soccer Fields - A Simulation of the Inchon 2002 World Cup Stadium -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 88~94
This study was conducted to select suitable turfarasses for use at 2002 world cup soccer fields in Korea. A 1/1000 scale Inchon worldcup soccer dome was constructed for this research. Species and seeding rates of cool-season grasses used inside and outside the dome were Kentuck bleugrass 10g/
(KB), Kentucky bleugrass 10g/
+ perennial ryegrass 10g/
mixture (KB+PR) and Kentucky bleugrass 6g/
+tall fescue 14g/
+ perennial ryegrass 4g/
mixture (KB+TF+PR). Warm-season grasses also used in this study were Zoysia japonica 'Anyangjungzii' (ZA) and Zoysia japonica 'Zenith'(ZZ) which were layed as sod. So, total 5 types of grasses were used inside and outside the dome. The rootzone was constructed by the multi-layer method(United States Golf Association method). The plots were designed by randomized block design. Cool-season grasses(KB, KB+PR, KB+TF+PR) were found to be better performers for visual rating and visual color than the zoysiagrasses(ZA, ZZ). There were no significant differences in turf performance within cool-season grasses, while ZA showed better turf performances than ZZ within zoysiagrasses. The green color was maintained for about 10 months in the col-season grasses(KB, KB+PR, KB+TF+PR) compared to about 5~6 months in the zoysiagrasses. Root length and density data revealed higher values for KB, KB+PR and KB+TF+PR compared to ZA and ZZ. Root performance of 22 was better than ZA within zoysiagrasses which was the opposite result of turf performances. There was also no significant difference between U performance inside and outside the dome. However, the decreasing tendency of turf quality inside the dome at the end of the study showed that more proper maintenance technology was needed inside the d[me. It could be concluded by this study that cool-season grasses(KB, KB+PR, KB+TF+PR) were more suitable turfgrasses than waits-season zoysiagrasses(ZA, ZZ) for use at 2002 world cup soccer fields in Korea.
The Effect of Pyroligneous Acid on Turfgrass Growth - The Case of Yong-Pyong Golf Course Green -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 95~104
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of pyroligneous acid on turfgrass growth and to propose usage for sustainable management on Korean golf course green. Each plot was treated with 0, 300, 500, and 800 acid to water solution. On all the plots, turfgrass growth increment and visual quality were measured at fried times. The data were subjected to paired samples t-test and corelation analysis. The summarized results are as follows; 1) Leaf growth increment, density, and root spread depth of turfgrass treated with 1: 500 and 1: 800 diluted pyroligneous acid were significantly superior to the control. Particularly, 1: 500 diluted solution was superior to the others. 2) Color, texture, and uniformity of turfgrass treated with 1: 500 and 1: 800 diluted pyroligneous acid were significantly superior to the control. Especially, 1: 500 diluted solution tended to be superior to the others. 3) There were no symptoms of disease in all plots treated with the diluted pyroligneous acid. 1 500 and 1: 800 diluted pyroligneous acid were not thought to trigger or promote disease. 4) Before and after investigating the effect of pyroligneous acid on turfgrass growth ,the soils were analyzed. In all treatments, the chemical properties of the soils did not change noticeably. The chemical properties of the soils might be not changed by the diluted pyroligneous acid treatments. 5) Considering the results mentioned above, 1: 500 diluted pyroligneous acid was the most effective. Though pyroligneous acid is an organic fertilizer and contains only a little nitrogen and phosphorus, 1: 500 diluted pyroligneous acid promoted turfgrass growth effectively. Thus this use might lead to a reduction in the amount of fertilizers used and result in ecologically responsive management of Korean golf courses.