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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Oct 2002
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Aug 2002
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Apr 2002
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
Development and Application of an Evaluation Model for Urban Biotope Appraisal
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 1~11
The purpose of this study is to construct an evaluation criteria based on the relative importance and various combinations of each evaluation index and then to appraise urban biotope in terms of nature experience and recreation. After the standard of evaluation had been developed through the review of existing literature, the relative importance of the evaluation index through expert survey was determined, and the evaluation model to assess biotope value was established. The results of this study are as follows; 1) We have constructed the seventeen evaluation criteria through literature reviews, and have provided relative importance to each evaluation index of the natural in biotope, the diversity of landscape patterns, the appearance-existence of water space, the special landscape elements, and the access based on the results of expert survey. and then we have constructed an evaluation system using the relative importance criteria. 2) To evaluate urban biotope using the evaluation system constructed, we selected 14 sites. The final evaluation results of each site is as follows; The first grade areas are the water space with semi-natural style in front of Gangchon Woobang apartments, the forest zone near Page Temple at Mt. Palgong, the edge area of Jisan and Gosan and the tendril yard against Anshim middle school. The second grade areas are Hyomyung elementary school, the farm land behind the third Anshim Jugong apartment, Ehyun put and the swampy land in front of the Kangchon and Anshim construction site. The third grade areas are Seohan and Hwasung high-rise apartments at Beummul-Dong, the Korea Manpower Agency in the Sungseo industrial zone, and the adjacent area of St. Tongil. The only fourth grade area is the commercial zone near Taegu Department Store. 3) It is highly useful to evaluate urban biotope using the evaluation criteria constructed for this research, the evaluation criteria we developed may be difficult to encompass all expert opinion and the period of space-formation is difficult to estimate urban biotopes. In the future, it is necessary to gather the basic data suitable to estimate biotope and it is necessary to develop detailed evaluation criteria applicable to estimate every biotope that has specific property.
A Causal Model on the Relationship between Resources of Natural Parks and User's Satisfaction
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 12~24
The purpose of this paper is to decompose the effect of resources of natural parks(NP) on user's satisfaction to answer the research question: What are the causal effects of resources of natural parks on user\ulcorner After reviewing the literature, classification of resources of NP, various approaches and analysis methods employed, we constructed the conceptual framework and have formulated the hypothesis of this research. We had obtained data through a questionnaire, which surveyed 414 visitors at 6 of the 73 NP in Korea in 2001, based on a stratified sampling method. We have analyzed the data using descriptive statistical methods, Pearson's correlation analysis, and a path analysis method. We found that 1) While the indirect effect of topographical feature and valley(TFV), socio-cultural resources(SCR), and climate, sound, and scent(CSS) turned out to be 2.75, 1.20, and 2.00 times higher than that of wild animal and plant(WAP), the direct effect of TFV, SCR, and landscape turned out to be 2.95, 2.88, and 2.64 times higher than that of CSS, 2) The magnitude of causal effects of the three exogeneous variables of TFV, WAP, and SCR and two intervening variables of CSS and landscape on User's satisfaction turned out to be 0.403, 0.048, 0.323, 0.188, and 0.243, respectively, 3) Total direct effect of the exogeneous and intervening variables on user's satisfaction is 0.871, while that of indirect effect is 0.334, and 4) Causal effect of tangible resources is 1.80 times higher than that of intangible while total effect of tangible resources are 1.36 times higher than that of intangible. The research results suggest that 1) Criteria for designation and maintenances of NP and results of previous studies on resources turned out to be unreliable and distorted, 2) In the criteria of planning and maintenance of NP, intangible resources must be included, 3) Remedial directions to increase user's satisfaction should be focused on maintenance of TFV and landscape in NP, and 4) The approach and path analysis adopted by this research is valid and highly useful for other resource based recreation area. It is recommended that more empirical study on seasonal variation of resources in NP based user's preference be performed in the future.
Influences of Urban Trees on the Control of the Temperature
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 25~34
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the function of microclimate amelioration of urban trees regarding the environmental benefits of street trees in summer, focusing on the heat pollution-urban heat island, tropical climate day's phenomenon and air pollution. We measured the diurnal variation of air/ground temperatures and humidity within the vegetation canopy with the meteorological tower observation system. Summertime air temperatures within the vegetation canopy layer were 1-2
cooler than in places with no vegetation. Due to lack of evaporation, the ground surface temperatures of footpaths were, at a midafternoon maximum, 8
hotter than those under trees. This means that heat flows from a place with no vegetation to a vegetation canopy layer during the daytime. The heat is consumed as a evaporation latent heat. These results suggest that the extension of vegetation canopy bring about a more pleasant urban climate. Diurnal variation of air/ground temperatures and humidity within the vegetation canopy were measured with the meteorological tower observation system. According to the findings, summertime air temperatures under a vegetation canopy layer were 1-2
cooler than places with no vegetation. Due mainly to lack of evaporation the ground surface temperature of footpaths were up to 8
hotter than under trees during mid-afternoon. This means that heat flows from a place where there is no vegetation to another place where there is a vegetation canopy layer during the daytime. Through the energy redistribution analysis, we ascertain that the major part of solar radiation reaching the vegetation cover is consumed as a evaporation latent heat. This result suggests that the expansion of vegetation cover creates a more pleasant urban climate through the cooling effect in summer. Vegetation plays an important role because of its special properties with energy balance. Depended on their evapotranspiration, vegetation cover and water surfaces diminish the peaks of temperature during the day. The skill to make the best use of the vegetation effect in urban areas is a very important planning device to optimize urban climate. Numerical simulation study to examine the vegetation effects on urban climate will be published in our next research paper.
The Evaluation of Amenities of Rural Villages
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 35~45
This research is related to the evaluation of rural amenities. Since the UR negotiations, the wave of market liberalization has brought many difficulties to the rural areas. This paper serves to identify a number of important elements such as socialization, cultural and ecological resources and investigate the viability of rural areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate rural amenities by evaluation indices and establish planning direction of amenities for rural areas. The data have been collected by methods of a field survey and a questionnaire survey. The evaluation indices have been defined as socialization, safety, amenity and convenience by several researches. Villages have been divided into two groups. Seven(Shimchon, Ibaek, Muan, Dokpyong-li, Imchin-li Hyangyang-li, Wonwol-li) have been newly constructed, six(baeksa, Mokmyon, yongho-li, shindyae-li, hwangdun·songgae) have been redeveloped. There are considerable differences in the degree of satisfaction between he two groups. The results are as follows: 1) socialization is very necessary for amenities in rural villages. Especially the values of the resident's interactions and management of the village are most important in the preparation of an amenity plan in rural areas. So the plans and establishment of public facilities are requisite for the residents community. 2) The convenience of rural public facility plans is necessary for the improvement of the farmers'living conditions. For planning the rural villages, special regards are paid to characteristics of the village, such as the former place of residence and occupations. 3) Newly constructed village should improve their socialization and the redeveloped types should try to get a better life for amenity and safety, The residents of the redeveloped types show relatively high degree of satisfaction with indices of resident community, living convenience facilities, and management of village. On the contrary, amenity and safety are good in newly constructed types. This study has taken into consideration the characteristics of rural villages. It makes a contribution to the redevelopment of rural villages and improves amenities in rural villages. It is recommended that more studies classify the resources of rural areas and measure amenities which are significant to city dwellers in the future.
Landscape Design for the Culture.Welfare.Administration Complex of Youngin-City
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 46~56
This landscape design proposal was presented to a design competition for the Culture.Welfare.Administration Complex of Yongin-City which was held by Yongin-City in December, 2001. The site is located at 68-19 Yukbuck-dong, Yongin-City, Kyunggi-do and has an area of 236,449
. The judging criteria for landscape design set by the Yongin-City could be articulated as follows: an environment friendly design respecting the surrounding environment, a locale as a community center of Yongin-City, a resting place for the welfare of employees and visitors, and finally a place with diverse landscape elements reflecting the individual identity of each facility. This proposal chose the main design concept of this project as‘Nature meets City'. A grove of pine trees fragments the multi building complex, so that‘nature'was brought into the‘city'. A double ground system was introduced to respect the existing topography and to enhance the efficency of the land. This design proposal consists of four segments. Each segment has its own design theme. Outdoor space of this multi-purpose complex was designed with themes of nature, culture, welfare and administration. Space composition with grid and natural looking curvilinear lines was a design motive for this complex. The nature oriented planting design was introduced to respect the existing groves of Mt. Suksung. Specific species were chosen to follow its own spatial character in each space. An environmental sculpture called‘Dream Soaring'was placed in the middle of‘Citizen Plaza'. Its light and feather-looking shape symbolizes the vision of Youngin-City. At night people can watch the diverse color changes on its mirror-like surface.
Landscape Design for the Buchon Special School
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 57~63
This landscape design was proposed for the Buchon Special School Competition, held by the Kyonggi Province Office of Education. The authors collaborated on this design and won first prize in November of 2001. In the design proposal, on the basis of the knowledge of; mentally retarded children the children's activities, nature and health, and the healing gardens, the special school outdoor spaces were designed to meet the particular needs of the users. The school outdoor spaces are design for various types of users-children, adolescents, parents, siblings, staff, volunteers and visitors. The following are some of the basis concerns in the design of the school outdoor spaces : garden site planning, garden location, security, microclimate, entering and exiting, accessibility, usability, user group territories, supervision, attracting trained volunteers, a range of high-quality social settings, accommodation of different student types, accommodation of needs for both challenge and rest, child nature interaction, diversity of natural settings, hands-on activity, integrating the arts, and maintenance. The following are some of the major features in the design of school outdoor spaces : pleasant and inviting entry areas, sports grounds with different levels of challenge, gardens with plants having strong fragrances and/or tactile qualities, resting places with many types and forms of seating and weather-mitigating features, play grounds for all student types, roof gardens for users to experience nature in man-made environments, and walkways and winding paths with various trees, shrubs and flowers. In the special school outdoor spaces, people would perceive a unique sense of place through the various types of spaces and features described above. An example of the true meaning of a playing and resting place and a restorative and therapeutic environment is provided in the school outdoor spaces.
The Effects of Interior Landscape on Preference of Department Store
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 64~72
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of interior landscape that influence preference at a department store in order to answer the research question; What are the effective factors of interior landscape that affect preference at a department store. After review of the effect of interior landscape, and the interior landscape at a department store, we constructed a literature framework and have formulated the hypothesis of this research. We have analyzed the data which surveyed 108 visitors about the interior landscape in a department store, using factor analysis, Pearson's correlation analysis, and the multiple linear regression method. We found that; 1) eleven variables can be selected for the effects of interior landscape at department store: accessibility, image, stay, distinction, comfort, complexity, cleanness, mystery, purification of atmosphere, noise and harmony. Among the 11 independent variables used to study the effect of interior landscape at a department store, the image and purification of atmosphere highly affect preference. 2) These 11 variables are grouped by factor analysis as effects of amenity, attractiveness and identity. 3) As a result of multiple regression analysis, independent variables influencing preference were proved statistically significant at one percent level. 4) Regarding their relative contribution of interior landscape effect at a department store, the effects of amenity was the most important and it showed a level of importance 1.4 times higher than the effect of identity, and 1.25 times higher than the effect of attractiveness. The research results suggest the need for guidelines for the creation of interior landscape at department stores. The approach and analysis method adopted by this research is highly useful for the evaluation of interior landscape criteria at a department store. It is recommended that more practical study on factors affecting user's preference be performed in the future.
Relationship between Stream Geomophological Factors and the Vegetation Abundance - With a Special Reference to the Han River System -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 73~85
The purpose of this study was to develop prediction models for plant species abundance by stream restoration. Generally the stream plant is affected by stream gemophology. So in this study, the relationship between the vegetation abundance and stream gemophology was developed by multiple regression analysis. The stream characteristics utilized in this study were longitudinal slope, transectional slope, micro-landforms through the longitudinal direction, riparian width and geometric mean diameter and biggest diameter of bed material, and cumulated coarse and fine sand weight portion. The Pyungchang River with mountainous watershed and the Kyungan stream and the Bokha stream in the agricultural region were selected and vegetation species abundance and stream characteristics were documented from the site at 2~3km intervals from the upper stream to the lower. The Models for predicting the vegetation abundance were developed by multiple regression analysis using SPSS statistics package. The linear relationship between the dependant(species abundance) and independant(stream characteristics) variables was tested by a graphical method. Longitudinal and transectional slope had a nonlinear relationship with species abundance. In the next step, the independance between the independant variables was tested and the correlation between independant and dependant variables was tested by the Pearson bivariate correlation test. The selected independant variables were transectional slope, riparian width, and cumulated fine sand weight portion. From the multiple regression analysis, the
for the Pyungchang river, Kyungan stream, Bokga stream were 0.651, 0.512 and 0.240 respectively. The natural stream configuration in the Pyungchang river had the best result and the lower
for Kyunan and Bokha stream were due to human impact which disturbed the natural ecosystem. The lowest
for the Bokha stream was due to the shifting sandy bed. If the stream bed is fugitive, the prediction model may not be valid. Using the multiple regression models, the vegetation abundance could be predicted with stream characteristics such as, transection slope, riaparian width, cumulated fine sand weigth portion, after stream restoration.
Effect of Serpentine as Soil Conditioner on Growth of Turfgrass
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 86~93
The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of serpentine as a new soil conditioner for growth of turfgrass. To achieve the goal, pure sand or mixtures of sand and serpentine with various ratios were tested for soil physical properties and the growth effects of perennial ryegrass and zoysiagrass growth were compared. Major results of this research are summarized as follows; 1) Hydraulic conductivity of 10~30% serpentine mixtures were observed within the range of 1010~901mm/h which is good for USGA recommendation. Experimental results of pH and EC for various mixtures indicated that the 10% serpentine mixture was the most suitable for turfgrass growth. 2) Perennial ryegass treated with 10% serpentine mixture showed the highest visual quality(p<0.01) among all treatments. And serpentine treatment was more effective to improve visual quality of perennial ryegrass than that of zoysiagrass. The treatment of 10% serpentine had better visual qualities than that of 20% in both of zoysiagrass and perennial ryegrass. Treatment with the right amount of serpentine extends green period for one to two weeks during early winter in both zoysiagrass and perennial ryegrass. 3) In perennial ryegrass, the treatment of 10% serpentine resulted in an increase of total dry weight compare with those of zeolite or barley stone, and also dramatically promoted the dry weight by 15% compared with sand 100%(control). Total dry weight of zoysiagrass treated with 10% serpentine was 9％ higher than that of san. These results indicated that serpentine can be a good soil conditioner for both zoysiagrass and perennial ryegrass when it is blended with sand within a range of 10 to 20% by volume.
Land Use Change Detection at Kyeryongsan National Park by Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems
Shin, Jin-Min ; Kahng, Byung-Seon ; Lee, Kyoo-Seock ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 3, 2002, Pages 94~101