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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Dec 2002
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Oct 2002
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Aug 2002
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Apr 2002
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Feb 2002
Selecting the target year
A Comparative Study of Ancient Palace Ponds of Korea, China and Japan - Focus on the Recent Excavated Palace Pond -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 1~8
The place of South Weol Dynastys authorities exhumed in the region of KangChoWu, China lies adjacent to a stone ditch through which water streams crookedly, and a dark trough of stone pond in the north side. There is a sharply curved stone ditch and a crescent-shaped water entrance made by stones. The place was separated by using stone columns and stone walls. There is a beam of ditch, a crooked entrance, a flat bridge of slate, a stepping-stone, a sluice gate, and a crooked corridor. There are big and small artificial islands, and reinforcing stone drainage way in the palace pond recently exhumed at the building site for the pavilion of Hwang-Yong Temple in Kuhwang-Dong, Gyeongju city, Korea. There are four facilities assumed to be entrance and exits at four corners and an open space on which gravel was spread extensively. A narrow road and a middle road with indefinite curves at the south of Asukakyoseki exhumed by the first, second and third and two stone buckets which one is to fill with water and the other is to drain water off like fountain are there, and besides wave protecting dam and north pond and the part that water pass were excavated. Palace ponds that were extensively distributed at old residential cities are a general phenomenon of countries in eastern Asia. Anap pond of Silla and Gungnam pond of Baekje were in Kroea. We believe that Asutnkyoseki is on the extension. Although more investigations in the background of thought and the genealogical relation about the palace pond are required, it seems that an idea was surely received from China.
A Study on the Relationship between Influential Range and Cognition Factor of Landmark
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 9~18
This study investigated the influential range of landmarks and the relationship between landmarks and cognition factor so as to offer basic data to be used for the effective use and the management of landmarks. In this study, eighteen famous landmark in Seoul were selected and analyzed. The result of this study can be summarized as follows : 1) First, eighteen determining elements of cognition factors were selected via documents survey. Second, general cognition factors of landmarks were analysed using these elements through questionnaires to specialists. As a result of factor analysis, historic cultural factor, scale factor, visual form factor, locational factor and uniqueness factor were revealed. 2) According to revealed cognition factor, eighteen landmarks are categorized into four types using MDS method via questionnaire to resident in Seoul city. These four types of landmarks are: type I that are recognized by historic cultural factor; type II that are recognized by scale factor; type III that are recognized by uniqueness factor; and type IV that are recognized by visual form factor. 3) As the result of regression, the influential range of landmarks were revealed at about a 10km radius(type I : 12km type II : whole area of Seoul city≒15km, typeIII : 8.7km, typeIV : 8.5km). 4) As a result of analysing the correlation between the influential range and the cognition factor through multiple linear regression analysis, the locational factor is the main factor affecting the influential range of landmarks in every type. The uniqueness factor comes next, which affects influential range partially. 5) Except type 1, as a result of analysing the correlation between influential range and the physical heights of landmarks, a quadratic equation is revealed, showing that the influential range of landmarks over 200 meters in height shows a radical change. Landmarks can be used as reinforcement tools of legibility, effective tools for landscape management and for the improvement of a community's image. This study on the influential range of landmarks and main cognition factor can be utilized as a landmark management plan and in urban planning, such as a new town plan.
Viewers' Visual Preferences of Seasonal Landscape
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 19~27
When we research a landscape or make a Landscape Impact Assessment, we use the image of a specific season like summer or fall. Since there are four distinct seasons, each with a different landscape, researchers need to understand viewers′visual preferences for individual seasonal landscapes. The purpose of this study is to investigate viewers′visual preferences according to seasonal change and the respondent′s age, gender and profession. In this research, the independent variable is season: suing, summer, fall, winter and snowy winter. Three landscape types used in the experiment: forest, street and agriculture. Each landscape type has two sites for reliability. The assessment media for this research are pictures featuring landscapes taken in each of the four seasons. The study used the "paired comparison" method for taking the score of visual preference. The results of this study are as follows: 1. The summer landscape has the highest visual preference score. However, spring and fall landscapes should also be considered for visual landscape evaluation. 2. The visual preference of winter landscape covered with snow is very high, but since snow is temporal and irregular, it is difficult to consider this factor for visual landscape evaluation. 3. The visual preference score of winter is the lowest of four seasons. The attractive factors of spring are flowers, summer is greenery and fall is autumnal tints. But these are not present in winter. 4. The result of visual preferences according to age groups, gender and profession have no serious differences. 5. Visual preference to scenery of 4 seasons by age group was not different from general preference and thus was concluded to have no connection with age. 6. As a result from the research of visual preference to scenery of 4 seasons by sex, women were shown to like snow-scene more than men. This study presents an indication of general preferences of seasonal landscapes. It is expected that more advanced study will proceed after this one.
The Effects of Urban Forest on Summer Air Temperature in Seoul, Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 28~36
The main purpose of this study was to estimate a new regression model to explain the relationship between urban forest and air temperature in summer, 2001. This study consists of two parts: correlation coefficient analysis and regression analysis. According to correlation coefficient analysis, thermal infra-red radiations of the major land use categories found significant difference in each category. However there were no significant relationship between the data (thermal infra-red radiation and NDVI) derived from Landsat-7 ETM+ image and air temperature at Automatic Weather Stations(AWSs). After estimating various regression models for summer air temperature, the final models were chosen. The final regression models consisted of two variables such as forest m and traffic facilities area. The regression models explained over 78% of the variability in air temperatures. The regression models with variables of forest area and traffic facilities area showed that the coefficient of the first variable was even more significant than the second one. However, the negative impact of the traffic facilities area was slightly greater than the positive impact of the forest area. Consequently, the effects of forest area and traffic facilities area were apparent to explain summer air temperature in Seoul. Therefore two policies have the most important implications to mitigate the summer air temperature in Seoul: to expand and to conserve the urban forest; and to change the Oafnc facilities'characteristics. The results from this study are expected to be useful not merely in informing the public that urban forest mitigates summer air temperahne, but in urging the necessity of budgets for trees and managing urban forests. It is recommended that field swey of summer air temperature be Performed for the vadidation of the models. The main purpose of this study was to estimate a new regression model to explain the relationship between urban forest and air temperature in summer, 2001. This study consists of two parts: correlation coefficient analysis and regression analysis. According to correlation coefficient analysis, thermal infra-red radiations of the major land use categories found significant difference in each category. However there were no significant relationship between the data (thermal infra-red radiation and NDVI) derived from Landsat-7 ETM+ image and air temperature at Automatic Weather Stations(AWSs). After estimating various regression models for summer air temperature, the final models were chosen. The final regression models consisted of two variables such as forest m and traffic facilities area. The regression models explained over 78% of the variability in air temperatures. The regression models with variables of forest area and traffic facilities area showed that the coefficient of the first variable was even more significant than the second one. However, the negative impact of the traffic facilities area was slightly greater than the positive impact of the forest area. Consequently, the effects of forest area and traffic facilities area were apparent to explain summer air temperature in Seoul. Therefore two policies have the most important implications to mitigate the summer air temperature in Seoul: to expand and to conserve the urban forest; and to change the traffic facilities'characteristics. The results from this study are expected to be useful not merely in informing the public that urban forest mitigates summer air temperature, but in urging the necessity of budgets for trees and managing urban forests. It is recommended that field survey of summer air temperature be Performed for the vadidation of the models.
Influence of New Town Development on the Urban Heat Islands - ln the Case of Pan-Gyo Area and Bun-Dang New Town -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 37~46
The main purpose of this research is to discuss the urban heat island which will be caused by urbanization, especially by the construction of new town on a wide green zone. Over the last ten years, five new towns have been developed around the Seoul metropolitan area. However these new towns become bedroom communities and create traffic problems between Seoul and its surrounding areas because of an increase in population and a lack of roads and other infrastructures. The construction of another such new town is under consideration in the Pan-gyo area. But it is important that Pan-gyo remains a wide green zone. Many studies show that green space can play an important role in improving urban eco-meteorological, ameliorative capability and air hygiene. The objective of this study is to analyze the urban heat islands of Bund-Dang Si which was constructed in 1996 and of the Pan-Gyo area planned as new town. To investigate the local thermal environment and its negative effects caused by change of the land use type and urbanization we used LANDSAT TM images for extraction of urban surface temperature according to change of land use over 15 years. These data were analyzed together with digital land use and topographic data. As a study result, we found that the thermal island of this area from 1985 to 1999 rapidly increased with a difference of mean temperature of more than 12'E. Before construction of Bun-Dang Si the temperature of this area was the same as the forest, but during the new town construction in 1991, an urban heat island developed. The temperature of forest with a size of over 50% of the investigation area was lowest, which leads us to conclude that the forest cools the urban and its surroundings. The mean temperature of the residential and commercial area is more than +4.5
higher then forest, so this method of land use is the main factor increasing the urban heat island. Urban heat islands and green space play an important role in urban wind systems, i.e. Thermal Induced Air Exchange and Structural Wind Circulation, because of their special properties with regard to energy balance between constructed urban and land. The skill to allocate land use types in urban areas is a very important planning device to reduce air pollution and induce the fresh cold air from green space. An urban climatic experiment featuring a numerical wind simulation study to show the air corridor will be published in a following research paper.
Playground Facilities for Physically Challenged Children
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 47~65
The purpose of this paper is to study and propose playground facilities for physically challenged children to cultivate adaptability in society and advances the opportunity of participate in physical exercise. This study carried out site investigations by visiting and inspecting various facilities: a recreational walking path for physically challenged people, a care facility for physically challenged children, a special school for physically challenged children, and "Madel Park", a private-use playground for physically challenged children. The result of the site investigation found that, overall, play facilities are difficult to use for physically challenged children. In addition, because park space is often small and narrow, children who are restricted to wheelchairs find it impossible to access such facilities. By carefully inspecting each of the facilities, the author found suitable elements to apply for outside play space. These elements include the introduction of an essential slope way to allow for safe movement, the provision of special seats which support the body to outside play equipment and the adaptation of treatment room instruments that assist balance to outdoor playground facilities. On the basis of the site investigation the interview and the indoor education program for physically challenged children the author completed an outside play program. Each item in this program was classified as belonging to either a "sense play" program or and "exercise play" program. Finally, the author designed suitable play equipment for physically challenged children corresponding to each item in the exercise programs in order to research the appropriateness of the equipment to its intended use. This research is the first step. From this point the author expects that specific applications will be developed through a practical space plan and sufficient clinical experiments involving use of the new equipment.
Landscape Design for the New Government Buildings of Dalseong-gun
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 66~73
This landscape design proposal was presented to a design competition for the New Government Buildings of Dalseong-gun which was held by the municipal authority of Dalseong-gun in June, 2002. The site is located at 1313 Gumpo-ri, Nongong-eup, Dalseong-gun, Daegu Metropolitan City and has an area of 50,000
. The judging criteria for the landscape design set by the Dalseong-gun could be articulated as follows : an environmentally friendly design which respects the surrounding n a locale which functions as a community center of Dalseong-gun, a resting place for the welfare of its employees and visitors, and finally a place with diverse landscape elements reflecting the individual identity of each facility. The main design concepts of this project could be summarized as follows : an environmentally friendly design which respects and utilizes the existing natural landscape resources, a design which features a harmony of nature with architecture and exterior space with interior space, and a design which balances esthetic form and practical function. This design consists of four major outdoor spaces ; the lawn, the entry plaza, a pine grove, and a deck area on the third floor. The multi-purpose lawn area near the main entrance area can be used for flea markets, outdoor weddings, and picnics for its neighbors. The adjacent plaza and parking lots can be unified as one space in case of large events. The entry plaza has three axes. Each of them represents the Assembly, the Administration, and the Culture. A big circle in the paving pattern unifies the three individual axes. A group of Zelkova trees was introduced to reflect local flavor. The existing pine grove was preserved as a symbolic 'park' for the Gumpo district. The outdoor amphitheatre within the grove was introduced by utilizing the existing topography, The flow of 'nature'on the deck area was designed to connect Mt. Gumkae with the 'city'. It is a comfortable resting place for its employees and visitors.
Landscape Design for Remodeling of the National Theater of Korea
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 74~81
Ihis landscape design was proposed for the Remodeling for the National Theater of Korea Competition. Today, the National Theater of Korea, located in Jangchoongfong, Joong-gu, Seoul, asks plans for renovation. The landscape design for the remodeling of the theater is conducted as part of comprehensive programs for its renovation. The Government sought design proposals through a design competition in April, 2002. The authors proposed a landscape design for remodeling the National Theater of Korea and won first place in the competition. The landscape design covers the following a survey of the present status, a site analysis, a schematic design, and design, development. In the authors'design, heavens, humans, earth and nature are symbolically expressed within the site. The outdoor spaces of the National Theater of Korea are organically composed of the following low spaces : 1) a field of creation; 2) a field of recreation; 3) a field of meeting; and 4) a field of contemplation. The field of creation consists of a main entrance, spaces for public performance and plays, spaces with symbolic water features, and resting areas. The field of recreation is composed of various exhibition spaces. The field of meeting consists of traditional Korean-style gardens and an outdoor cafeteria. The field of contemplation features lawns, grasses and trees, and provides an area for pedestrian strolling. The outdoor spaces of the National Theater of Korea would produce an atmosphere suited to a cultural and artistic place. In the spaces, people would perceive a unique sense of place through various types of fountains, pergolas, columns, walls, light poles and bollards. An example of the true meaning of a cultural space and a resting place is provided in these spaces. The renovated National Theater of Korea would be a new type of theater with regional context, cultural meaning, spatial identity, various amenities with symbolic images, function and beauty.
Design of Priest Naong's Memorial Area
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 82~91
The site for this plan is located at the foot of Mt. Unseo at Galcheon-ri, Changsu-myon, Youngdeok-gun. On the site stands Jangyutsa Temple, built by priest Naong in 1355 (in the 4th year of King Gongmin during Koryo Kingdom). The purpose of this plan is to widely publicize and commemorate priest Naong by designing a district centering around the temple. The basic directions of design can be summarized as follows 1) A special Buddhists'pilgrimage and sight-seeing district aimed at commemorating priest Naong will be developed to preserve the historic figure of priest Naong. To this end, a facility will be built to collect, preserve and exhibit materials related with the great priest in order to preserve his legacy and enhance the image of the space. 2) Special fractions which are rare in other districts will be introduced to create an image different from the conventional memorial districts or sight-seeing zones. To this end, the district will be divided into the Jangyuksa Temple area proper and a district memorial area, each of which will have its own unique characteristics with different functions. On the other hand, the two different areas will be related with each other and complemented by each other. Such planning techniques as articulation and superimposition will be used for a synergistic effect. 3) The plan will accommodate various programs centering around historical and cultural assets, and at the same time will allow tourists to have various experiences and access to the natural environment as well as to a variety of events. 4) In order to plan such landscapes as shown in the traditional mountain temples, the traditional tectonic forms will be used for the facilities. It is expected that the district surrounding Jangyuksa Temple will become a popular sight-seeing destination, and with new historical and cultural environments will become a valuable resource to widely publicize the culture of Youngdeok-gun.
A Study on the Transplantation Methods of Large Trees - The Case of Celtis Sinensis in Chonan and Ginkgo biloba in Andong -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 4, 2002, Pages 92~104
This study investigates, analyzes, and summarizes Dansplantation techniques and methods through practical methodology centering on fieldwork in order to present effective planting methods for large trees that have important significance. The conclusions are as follows : 1. The transplantation process of a large tree generally consists of the stages of digging up a tree, manufacturing a carrier frame, loading the tee on a vehicle, transporting, transplanting the tree, installing a strut and maintaining and managing the new transplant. In addition, planting a tree on a mounted place includes the primary procedures of trimming out the root, and preparing for transplanting the tree on a mounted place, as well as the secondary work of trimming out the root, transplanting a tree on a mounted place, maintenance and management. 2. In order to decide on a transplantation method for a large-sized tree, a structure calculation has to be performed first. That is, one must calculate the weight of the tree and the allowable stress of the strut (H-beam, etc.) fhst and then decide on the upper method through computer modeling based upon this structural calculation. 3. As a result of the analysis of a transplanted tree using the life soil method, it was confirmed that large quantities of feeder roots had developed around the root within a short time after the transplantation. The life soil method has proven to be very effective for transplantation of large-sized trees. 4. As for the production method of an H-beam strut frame, it was found that the manufacturing process and disassembly process were simple and proper; therefore, the H-beam frame is an appropriate structure to be used in the transplantation of large trees. 5. The concavo-convex method, which consists of filling the life soil in the concavo-convex area around the root, was found to be a method that promotes the growth of feeder roots within a short period of time and saves the supply of water at the same time.