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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Dec 2003
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Oct 2003
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Aug 2003
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Apr 2003
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
A Cultural Reading on Tapgol Park
Park, Seung-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 1~16
This study seeks to find new strategies for the development of Tapgol Park and to identify Programs to promote this development. In addition, the study specifies the purpose and meaning of these efforts by revealing social aspects not apparent in the physical form of the site, and reading how these aspects influenced the development of Tapgol Park Because the focus of the study lies in reading cultural aspects of the site which have to be understood within the context of their social circumstances, the study drew materials from mass media such as newspapers and literary magazines, which best reflect these social aspects. Interpreting the over 100 you history of Tapgol Park in a cultural context, the study found a meaningful suggestion that such a small urban place located in a city forms a cultural identity in the course of communicating with its surrounding social situations. The change in the identity of Tapgol Park has been sensitive to changing social circumstances rather than the physical structure of the space. The original function of Tapgol Park as a traditional city park has gradually changed towards strengthening social functions, much like the character of an urban plaza. In the process of change the park developed a unique culture. This park culture, however, came not from the original design but from its close interactions with social circumstances changing over time. At the same time, the change in identity seen in Tapgol Park has not been fresh formed. It can be said that the inertia came into light with the potential powers under the place over the long history having been combined into the then social circumstances. In early 2002, the park re-opened, refurbished as one of the relics of the March 1st Movement. Investigating how cultural inertias that have been developing in various forms to date will change and be maintained in this new paradigm is an important assignment for researchers.
Determination of the Minimum Instream Flows for the Landscape of Riverside
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 17~25
The physical components of a river, such as water surface width/river width ratio, water level, and flow velocity vary according to different flowrates. Moreover, the riverside landscapes are greatly affected by the change of physical components of the stream or river. This paper provides an analysis of the influence of changing physical components of a river on the riverside landscape using a survey-based quantification method. The questionnaire was developed based on current literature, and was submitted to 326 people who each visited a representative station along the riverside.This survey was implemented three times at each representative station during periods of different flowrates. The results of this analysis and survey have Produced an understanding of the relationship between the variation of physical components and riverside landscapes. Survey results about the flow comparison are summarized as follows. Viewing riverside landscapes, most respondents are sensitive to the change of the flow velocity and prefer high water levels to low water levels. As a whole, respondents prefer abundant stream flows and moderate flow velocity in which they can perceive the flow of water. The minimum instream flows for riverside landscapes is estimated at each representative station by using a survey-based quantification method, and the estimated results of some representative stations were greater than the mean monthly flow at each station. The result of this analysis shows that establishing minimum instream flows for riverside landscapes is not only a technical problem, but also a legal problem. Therefore, in the to establish the instream flows in a river, the estimated results have to be considered as a relative standard. Regarding the survey results, respondents' satisfaction level didn't show any clear inclination according to the variation of various hydraulic properties. In determining the minimum instream flow using such an inquiry method, the structure of riverside scenery may vary according to the change of seasons or months. Therefore, to determine a consistent general inclination about the flow rate, it is necessary to have more detailed flow rates for each season or month combined with more inquiries.
Reinterpreting Frederick Law Olmsted's Idea of Urban Parks
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 26~37
Urban park are indispensable elements of contemporary cities. However, the structure and culture of contemporary cities is currently changing. There are prevalent discourses that Olmstedian parte are no longer relevant to our new societies and cultures. New kinds of parks have emerged with different forms and functions. In order to propose a new paradigm for parks in the 21st century, we need to look back to the origin of modem parks, which is to say, Olmstedian parte. This paper aims to trace the background of park movements in the 19th century America and to identify and describe Olmsted's idea of urban parks. In addition, the paper will clarify the limitations and reinterpret the meaning of Olmsted's idea of urban parks. One idea behind the development of urban parte was to mitigate urban problems such as public health, alcoholism violence and class conflicts in 19th century industrial cities. The aim of urban park was partially achieved at that time. However, those parse did not serve the use of diverse classes. Olmstedian parks were designed for passive and civilized recreation, and lower classes were more attracted by active theme parks and areas such as Coney Island and John Wood. The strengths of Olmsted's idea of urban parte can be outlined as follows: First, designing parte goes beyond shaping physical lands to embrace social reforms. This means that park designers should have a critical understanding of society and culture. Also, landscape designers should have a bold vision for the future. Without such a vision and social agenda, landscape architects cannot postulate alternative possibilities through engaging in new practices. Second, Olmsted successfully adapted British landscape aesthetic ideas such as the picturesque, the sublime and the beautiful into an American context. Finally, his vision and idea of urban parks show us that landscape architecture is not just technical work, but that it can create a locus to engage a new cultural praxis by inventing cultural products - parks.
Visitor Adjustment and Coping Behavior for Use Level in a Recreational Setting - A Case Study of Bukhansan National park -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 38~46
Perceived crowding is known as a necessary method to evaluate social carrying capacity in recreational settings. But according to the results of previous research, perceived crowding, use density, and satisfaction have shown weak and indirect correlations. The theory of visitors’ adjustment is one of several possible explanations for this poor relation. But the validity of the visitors’ adjustment theory has not been not inspected clearly. Therefore, the purposes of this study are to understand visitors’ adjustment theory and to examine visitors’ adjustment to the overuse of recreational settings. Study hypotheses were formulated through literature review and related to visitors’ adjustment in recreation density. Pour hypotheses were established and inspected with the case study, i.e., Rationalization : Visitors’ satisfaction isn't related to use density in recreation setting, 2) Product-shift : Preference norm is related to current use density, 3) Self-selection : Visitors’ satisfaction for the use level is generally high, and 4) Displacement : Norm interference is related to willingness to revisit. The case study was conducted during May and June,2001. According to the results of this survey, visitors adjust to overuse of recreation setting through rationalization and product shift (hypotheses l/2 acceptance). Current use density isn't related to visitors’ satisfaction and willingness to revisit (see table 3). And visitors’ preference norm is modified by situation (see table 4). Visitors’ satisfaction and willingness to revisit don't show a high correlation but moderately high (see table 5, hypothesis 3 acceptance). Differences between visitors’ preference norm and current use density is norm interference. Norm interference isn't related to willingness to revisit (see table 7). Therefore, the norm interference concept is not a useful method to explain visitors’ adjustment to the degree of overuse in a recreational setting (hypothesis 4 rejection). As for future directions, the following are proposed: 1) correctly understanding and reestablishing the visitor norm and norm interference concept, 2) introducing a composite research method to monitor visitors’ behavior and survey visitors’ attitudes and coping responses. These efforts would be helpful in the Planning and management of recreational settings to improve the quality of visitors’ experiences.
Evaluation on the Outdoor Space in Farmhouse
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 47~56
The purpose of this study is to clarify the components for the improvement of outdoor spaces in farmyards and to suggest guidelines for the planning of these spaces. The objects of this study were the general farmyards located around farmhouses which had government support for the construction of on-site gardens. The results were as follows: 1. Although over 50% of the general farmyards did not have gardens, most gardens of farmyards (90% and over) featured trees and/or flowers. This demonstrated that the residents of the farmyards thought positively about green spaces. 2. With the establishment of a garden, the self-image of the household improved along with the physical environment. Thus, the construction of the garden brought about psychologically and physically positive results. 3. Regarding the degree of satisfaction with green space and shade, the rate of farmyards with gardens was higher than those without. With more government support for developing such green spaces, satisfaction with them could increase. The same result was obtained regarding the degree of satisfaction towards visual harmony with nearby farmyards, indicating that neighboring farm households want to have positive relationships with one another. 4. The frequency of use of living space increased through the construction of gardens in farmyards, in spite of decreased working space. %is aspect could be used as data in the planning of gardens in farmyards. 5. The perceived necessity of gardens in the general farmyards and desire to construct new gardens rose. This preference was high in gardens with abundant greenery and a lot of rest facilities. This study suggests those reasons result from a poor farm economy. With government support, general farmyards without gardens could construct gardens. And we might infer that the residents' desire to construct a garden in general famyards had been influenced by a neighbor with a garden.
Visitor Behavior and Satisfaction in Suburban Recreational Forests - Focused on the suburbs of Seoul -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 57~65
This study researches attributes , behaviors , satisfaction factors and degrees of curiosity of visitors to recreational forests in the suburbs of a large city. It aims to present suggestions for urban forest development and management policy by offering basic data which help to plan, design and manage recreational forests to increase the quality of these environments. The results are as follows First, in attribute, the visiting rate of males is higher than that of females, and the main users are in their thirties and forties. Sixty percent of visitors graduated from university and their rate of employment is evenly distributed. 95 percent of visitors are residents of the metropolitan area. In terms of behavior, major visitors are family units visiting during summer seasons and for overnight stays. 75% are re-visitors. 85% of visitors came to escape the city with families and friends, keep in good health and experience nature. Second, to extract the factors affecting visitor satisfaction in recreational forests, the natural environment, facilities, and management/use systems were identified as independent variables, while subordinate satisfactions were dependent variables. so regression analysis was used. Thus, the variables affecting the natural environment are quality of water, stream use, biodiversity, fresh air and landscape factors. The variables affecting facilities are puking, convenience, play facilities, sanitary arrangement and camping. Most important among the variables affecting management/use systems are educational facilities and access condition. On the basis of generalizing the study in the existing individual site, we must verify the visiting characteristics in recreational forests in the suburbs of a large city. Since development of recreational forests is understood as a sequence considering a site and a given condition, and since management and improvement must unfold according to these characteristics, a strategy is needed to reveal visitors' opinions about the site. Depending on the facilities and service, satisfaction of recreational forests is generally influenced by social and economic qualities. Also, this study can look into the effect according to use pattern motive and season. As suburban recreational forests have many overnight-users and younger men, programs suitable for these groups are needed. On the basis of variables affecting satisfaction according to natural environment, facilities, and use system, policies which can manage the natural environment and introduce educational programs are needed.
Strategies for Minimizing Forest Disturbance During the Construction of Power Transmission Towers
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 66~78
The purpose of this study was to minimize the forest disturbance around an entry road of a power transmission tower construction site between Taean and Sinsesan, Chungnam. The main study field was classified into existing materials and a GIS, remote sensing analysis, and a field examination. This information was used to identify the most suitable entry road using a degree of green naturality map, eco-naturality map, actual vegetation map, and a forest state map as the existing materials. Also, the study used an normalized difference vegetation index, altitude and slope map in order to make the evaluation materials which used an remote sensing image, and GIS. This data was used to choose an optimum area, and diagnosed the current condition of the vegetation with a field survey of the area. It analyzed vegetation structure, species diversity, the age of trees in a field examination. Subsequently, we proposed four area types based on the analysis results--preservation area, transplantation area, restoration area and development area. As a result, the preservation area was categorized into 8 grades, according to the degree of green naturality, large area of breast diameter at Pinus densiflora community, competition area of Pinus densiflora and Quercus spp. and Quercus spp. community of over 20 years old. A transplantation area established 46 optimum areas according to the GIS analysis and vegetation investigation results. Vegetation restoration plan for disturbance area should be made based on ecological value of existing vegetation to worthwhile area as Quercus spp. mixing forest proposed. The development area selected a ecological worthless place as an artificial forest where Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii growth is poor. This research results suggest that restoration of vegetation will be possible in the real world. Also, ecological restoration guidelines will be made through building and analyzing data base and routine monitoring of transplantation and restoration area.
An Analysis of Social Carrying Capacity in Natural Park
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 79~97
The purpose of this paper is to analyze a causal model determining social carrying capacity(SCC) in natural parks, to answer the research question: What is the mechanism for determining SCC in natural parks (NP)\ulcorner After reviewing the literature on SCC and recreation activities in Korean natural parks, we constructed a conceptual framework and formulated the hypothesis of this research. We obtained data through a questionnaire which surveyed 487 visitors at 6 of the 73 NP in Korea during 2001, based on a stratified sampling method. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistical methods, the mean difference test, Pearson's correlation analysis, and path analysis method. We found that 1) The direct effect of resources, activity space(AS), visitor's expectation(VE), encounter, crowding, damage of resources(DR), maintenance condition of resources and facility(MCRF) to SCC are 3.45, 3.62, 2.75, 2.72, 1.32, and 4.77 times more important than that of crowding, respectively, while the indirect effect of resources, AS, VE, encounter, and DR to SCC is 13.03, 11.19, 3.34, 1.3, 2.05, 1.10, 0.05 and 2.30 times more important then that of crowding, respectively, 2) Causal effects of resources, facility, AS, VE, number of visitors(NV), encounter, crowding, VM, DR, and MCRF to SCC turned out to have 0.3523, 0.3321, 0.1751, 0.1465, 0.0307, 0.0762, 0.0604, -0.0510, -0.1177 and 0.2165, respectively, and 3) The causal effect of activity base(AB) and activity atmosphere(AA) to SCC turned out to have 2.57 and 1.1 times higher than that of MCRF, respectively. The research results suggest that 1) this conceptual framework is highly useful for the development of substantive theory and methodology; 2) management issues of AA and MCRF turned out to have 0.81 times in SCC that of AB, i.e, SCC can be significantly improved from control of AA and MCRF; and 3) supply of excellent resources and convenient facilities is needed to increase social carrying capacity. It is recommended that more empirical studies be performed in the future according to the season, visitor characteristics, and AS by NP.
The Impact of Frank Stella's Work on Landscape Architecture
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 98~108
The research purpose of this study, together with the study of Frank Stella's work and his expansion of the formative arts field, is to rediscover "Amabel" and to present a fresh perspective in evaluating and assessing environmental art objects. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. 1. The study investigated the effect how Frank Stella's work affected American modem art trends. 2. The study helped to re-evaluate Stella's work by examining its expansion into the plastic arts. 3. The study analysed the plastic works of Prank Stella and his effect on plastic arts within the modem art trend of America. In conclusion, Frank Stella played a leading role in today's American art style and had a potent influence on the trends of America's modem U. In recent years, his work has had an impacted on the design of parks and art galleries. America's industrial society is led by the growth of economic power and the development of science and technology. In America's architecture and landscape architecture, such new forms as minimalism functionalism, cubism and abstract expressionism, which have been influenced by art movements, emerged in California and the east coast. Influences of Stella such as these are the remedy for a vested stubborn concept of architecture and landscape architecture by introducing a sense of pictorial space in these fields. In landscape architecture, the introduction of art trends appears in several ways. Mainly the trend of Minimalist Art, influenced by Modernism, can be seen in much Landscape Architecture. Frank Stella contributed to the development of such minimalist art.
Landscape Design of Busan Yeonje Post Office
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 109~118
This design is for the landscape of Busan Yeonje Post Office. The design requirements were: the preparation of an open space, the expression of regional identity, total design concept, and application of environmentally-friendly materials. The Busan Yeonje Post Office is not a just post office building but also a place for people including a communications center, rental offices, and a post office, facilities which require publicity, functionality, and symbolism. Therefore, this design reflected the design requirements, and considered the following to include the theme of "Pleasant messages and a pleasant post office with vitality and comfort. First, the open space was to be increased in the adjacent public vacant lot and street park by pulling back the construction line. In this way, the publicity, accessibility, and spatiality of the prepared open space were strengthened. Second, a sense of place for the landscape was expressed through the image of a wave representing Busan, a coastal town. Recognition of the space was strengthened, while regional identity and the concept of transmission of information were expressed. In addition, Citrus junos Sieb., representing 'Happy news' was Planted as a symbolic tree to denote a meaningful resting Place. Third, with respect to the design of reception facilities, considering the general purposes of the construction, post office stamps, envelopes, and postal delivery persons were portrayed on the walls, decorative walls, and environmental formations respectively The flooring was decorated with stamps and waves in keeping with of the total design concept. Fourth, to select environmentally-friendly materials, soil block and eco-grass block were introduced as major paving materials, and folk kinds of trees were included on site. According to the aforesaid plans, the researcher attempted to convert the public agency and office space characterized by feelings of dullness and rigidity into a soft and vivid outdoor space. It is expected that the location will be an open place in the downtown area and be recognized as a 'shared' space for citizens of Yeonje-gu.
A Master Plan for the 2002 World Cup Sports Complex in the Suwon City, Korea
Kim, Sung-Kyun ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 119~127
Ecological Landscape Characteristics in Urban Biotopes - The Case of Metropolitan Daegu -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 30, issue 6, 2003, Pages 128~140
The purpose of this research was to present characteristics for the classification of biotopes and classification method of biotopes as basic data for ecological landscape planning in Metropolitan Daegu. The results of this study were as follows. 1) The study identified fifteen characteristics for classification of biotopes. Ecological landscape characteristics were divided into structural and functional factors. There are six structural factors such an inclination, and nine functional factors such as temperature. 2) The study area was separated into sixty eight biotope types. For example, an industrial district was divided into two biotope types: a biotope type of an industrial district with abundant green space, and a biotope type of an industrial district with scarce green space. 3) In the result of cluster analysis using the average linkage method between groups, biotope groups were divided into fifteen clusters and biotope groups were divided into seven clusters. Each cluster was named according to the features of a descriptive statistics analysis. For example, cluster 8 was identified as a biotope type with an impermeable pavement rate of more than 90 percent and an afforestation rate under 10 percent. 4) Fifteen biotope groups were converted to land use patterns for remote application and utilization of urban biotope in city planning. Biotope groups of a building area beyond an intermediate floor with an afforestation rate under 20-30 percent was converted to a land use pattern such as a tall apartment complex or commercial district. When examining the characteristics that were established in this research, there was a limit to achieve the objective of grade-classification because of a lack of related basic data. The research of landscape ecological characteristics for the classification of biotopes could not be completed due to a lack of time and resources, thus the study of ecological landscape characteristics will be accomplished over time.