Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Dec 2003
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Oct 2003
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Aug 2003
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Apr 2003
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Spatial Characteristics Shown in Landscape Design -Focusing on Five Winning Design Proposals for the Seoul City Hall Plaza Design Competition
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 1~11
The purpose of this study is to investigate how five winning design proposals for the Seoul City Hall Plaza Design Competition have shown the spatial characteristics by comparing and reviewing them. Each design proposal shown different approaches that reveal the spatial characteristics. Through scrutinizing these design proposals, some similar and different aspects among them were identified. In order to examine these aspects, the winning design proposals were analysed and compared based on five categories such as design concepts, main facilities, representation of historical images, spatial connection, and event programs. Gilles Deleuze explained the spatial characteristics as striated space and smooth space. Striated space could be defined as sedentary space. It is distant vision-optical space that has dimensional, metric, and centered characteristics, whereas smooth space is defined as nomadic, close vision-haptic space that has directional and acentered characteristics. This study focused on the analysis of spatial characteristics according to smooth space and striated space. Based on the analysis of the spatial characteristics according to the smooth and striated space, some design proposals shown more characteristics of striated space while other proposals shown more characteristics of smooth space. Those design proposals that shown more characteristics of smooth space reveal flexible or changeable shape and void space, whereas the others that shown more characteristics of striated space try to suggest apparent guidelines for the future use by retaining the idea of a plaza through the concrete shape. This study, which analyzed the winning design proposals based on the spatial characteristics according to the smooth and striated space, can be used to analyze the designs and could help to develop a new methodology with a different perspective. furthermore, it could provide practical and creative design strategies for landscape design.
A Study on Environmental Design Method based on Open Narrative Structure - A Case of Designing of Arirang Culture Park -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 12~27
The purpose of this study is to look for an environmental design method based on open narrative structure, and to promote various experiences and interpretations of space through user's engagements. That is to say, the designer does not lead specific events through separate Boning but using the continuous open composition users are provided with margins for their imaginations. Spatial formulation through open narrative structure gives us various thoughts and it plays an important role in making a sequential space. Like an abstract painting, it is a complex story making or arranging a montage of images containing stories that elicit the reader's engagement through diverse interpretations. Like this, open composition exists in an ambiguous state and it is possible to interpret unfinished‘evolving work’within it. Utilizing open narrative structure, this study attempts to apply the idea of sequencing and open composition in the case of designing Arirang Culture Park. Open composition should induce various engagements by users and could be a medium which organically connects nature, culture and people. The spatial strategies of‘ambiguity’ and‘transparency’are like a bundle of complex and heterogeneous factors. Finally, the study focuses on the ‘integration’of the main ideas that compose multilayered space. ‘Voidness’and‘thickening’are also used for spatial strategies in open narrative structure. As alternative plans for undecided programs of the space, the voidness can be a strategic design program with flexibility about changes of futures. Also, thickening can be a strategic design program for functional reinforcement of the space, for the dramatic effects and for the generation of incidental events. Although both voidness and thickening seem paradoxical, we can see they are similar in the way that both focus on various spatial uses and by how they do not function as one-to-one correspondence, but as multiple correspondences. Therefore, open narrative structure is possible to apply in designing space and it can be an alternative design strategy for inducing multiple interpretations of space.
Study on the Social Carrying Capacity in the Mega-Event - The Case of the International Kwangju Biennale, Korea -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 28~35
This study was conducted to identify the characteristics of social carrying capacity at mega-events, especially the 2000 Kwangju Biennale in Korea. In particular, this paper has proposed some management policies for mega events taking into account the relations between social carrying capacity, satisfaction and crowding. The research method was to look into the general characteristics and distributive forms of the location, and then to confirm the possibility of sampling the factors involved in satisfaction degree; last, A factor analysis for causal analysis of perceived crowding was performed. The study needed correlation analysis in order to compare expected crowding and perceived crowding, and performed regression to examine the causality of perceived crowding and satisfaction. The research results were as follows: the correlation of expected crowding, perceived crowding, and the total satisfaction was very low or meaningless. The relation between satisfaction and elements for factor analysis such as convenient facilities and value experience showed partial meaningfulness. The factors of convenient facilities, entrance fee, parking lot use, toilet convenience, and exhibit room use had meaningful results; on the other hand, the factors of value experience showed a meaningful result in the guide service of an event place. In conclusion when those holding an event make a basic project, they should consider management measures for convenience of facilities, proper education for guide service, and systematic guidance. Also, as a method for perceived crowding lower than expected crowding, the study has proposed that it is possible to lower expected crowding by providing appropriate information on the number of tourists expected on the weekends and weekdays. Future research should control variables such as personal characteristics, seasons proper for vacation and holidays, and carefully consider their investigation and design. Moreover, it is necessary to study variables involved in expected crowding of more various space-intensive sightseeing places (mesa-events).
A Study on Reforming the Adornment of Buildings in the Provinces
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 36~47
The purpose of this study is to examine the present problems relating to the legislation and execution of adornment of buildings in the provinces, and to explore ways to improve the role and function of adornment of buildings in terms of public art. In order to do that, the related national law and enforcement decree and the local regulations and rules were analysed. In addition the catalogues on the adornments of buildings that are managed by 31 cities and counties of Gyeonggi-Province were also compared and analysed. As a result of our survey, it has been determined that the reform of the adornments of buildings must be executed on the national and local levels. On the local level, the revision of regulations must occur simultaneously with the changes of national law and enforcement decrees. In many local self-governing bodies, there are quite a lot of discrepancies between their regulations and the upper law. Therefore, people can be confused regarding the sensitive problems such as the types of buildings that are required to display adornments and the proportion of the cost to the construction cost. In addition the effects of the improvements to national laws are often delayed. For example, the updated national law requires committee members to be appointed on the basis of merit, the announcement of the deliberation results, and the establishment of provisions regarding the management of existing structures. Unfortunately, improvements to the national law are not followed through on a local level. Concerning national legislation, the following improvements are necessary to minimize these problems. First, the western concept of‘public art’must be imported to Korea and applied to future legislation regarding adornment of buildings. Second, the perception of the purpose of adornment of buildings must be changed from‘art promotion’to‘improvement of the urban environment’Third, it is impractical to require private citizens to fund public worts of In. Korea requires an organized federal funding system for the commission of public art, which is to be controlled by committee. Finally, the definition of public artwork must be enlarged to include a more broad range of art, such as landscape architecture. In addition, continuing care of existing public worts of art must be managed systematically and strengthened.
An Empirical Study on the Function and Effect of Urban Openspace - Focusing on Urban Roadside Trees -
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 48~57
The objective of this study is to review and verify whether the functions and effect of roadside trees generally hewn in theory are actually realized in urban roads and how well they are performed if the function and effect are realized. The study was conducted with a focus on 3 functions and effects including roadside tree's urban landscape improvement function (green area visibility ratio), effect of introducing green area within a city, and urban green network building function. The major study results are as follows: First, the average green area visibility ratio of 41 study areas is currently about 25.90%. The green area visibility ratio of commercial area within downtown was lowest among 5 road types. It showed that it is possible to raise the average green area visibility ratio up to 32.49% through roadside tree management and additional plantation. Second, in a section between Paldal Mountain and Suwon City Hall where there is no forest fragments and parks at all, a green area of 4,826 roadside trees represented 2.4% of total area and served as the only linear green area. Third, an analysis of 15 cities in Kyonggi province showed that urban forests are concentrated in outskirts. The suey showed that because forest fragments and parks exist in a form of points in urban areas, roadside trees are the only green areas that link each other and build a network
The Effectiveness of the Hemi-sphere Projection Method in the Analysis of Streetscape
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 58~69
The Hemi-sphere projection method produces an image that includes all surrounding visual landscape from a view point. This characteristic can solve the problem of perspective method that has only a limited view angle, and thus can be a potentially effective method for the analysis of visual landscape. This study tried to adopt the hemi-sphere projection method in the evaluation of streetscape, and examined its effectiveness and possibilities. Computer animations using the perspective method and the hemi-sphere method were produced for Bang-Hak Ro, Seoul, and the kames of the animations were reclassed to identify the visibility ratio of physical elements(buildings, sky and mountains). A preference questionnaire was given to 51 university students, and the relationships between the visibility ratio and visual preference were analyzed. The results showed that visual preference of streetscape can be explained by three factors: Openness, Uniformity, and Variousness, accounting for 63.2% of the total variance, and among which Openness showed the highest proportion at 32.1％. The visibility ratio calculated by the hemi-sphere method yielded strong correlation coefficients with Openness, and it was much higher than with the perspective method. The hemi-sphere method also produced significant correlation coefficients about Uniformity and Variousness, but the perspective method could not. The results demonstrated that the hemi-sphere method can provide more accurate observation of visual changes, and that it can be an effective method for the analysis of streetscape.
Beneficial Effect of Forest Landscape on Relieving Stress Based on Psychological and Physiological Measures
Kyoung, Yi-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 70~82
Vegetation Structure and Environmental Characteristics of Native Habitats for a Vulnerable Plant Species"Penthorum chinense"- A Focus on the Southern Part in Ibaraki, Japan -
;Ohkuro Toshiya;Ide Makoto;
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 83~93
This study was conducted for an understanding of a threatened plant species,“Penthorum chinense”, which is a vegetation structure and environmental characteristic in the southern part of Ibaraki, Japan. We selected distribution and contiguity area where P. chinense is not distributed and we set up 69 sites by the quardrat method. The surveyed general characters in each site include mean-height, mean-coverage, moisture condition water depth coverage and depth of litter layer. We calculated the degree of succession by the survey data and grasped the main distribution area, vegetation structure, growth environment of P. chinense by TWINSPAN classification and DCA ordination. The results of this study are as follows. First, P. chinense habitat was categorized into the riverside and abandoned paddy fields. The riverside was influenced by natural disturbance caused by flooding and drought. These conditions led to a poor P. chinense growth. The abandoned paddy fields as the artificial disturbance area have high potential value, because the area can preserve P. chinense growth space by succession control and water management. second, we executed TWINSPAN analysis based on vegetation coverage data of survey sites. The vegetation types were classified into the three categories: annual plant flora(P. chinense dominates in wet state), perennial plant flora(Solidago altissima dominates in dry state), and perennial plant flora(Phragmites communis dominates in wet state). Third, the data was ordinated by DCA. The sample sequences along the first and second DCA axes effectively reflected moisture condition, number of species, mean height, coverage of litter layer and degree of succession. Especially, P. chinense flora has the high correlation with moisture condition and number of species.
Physiological Characteristics and Death Rate of Planted Trees in Reclaimed Seaside Areas
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 94~101
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the correlation between Death Rate of Trees (DRT) and the Physiological Characteristics of Trees(PCT) in POSCO Gwangyang works, which is a reclaimed area. To analyze the DRT, 15 species of deciduous trees were selected, for example Ulmus davidiana var., Zelkova serrata, Melia azedarach var. etc. Though there were numerous factors to affect the growing of trees, 5 PCT were considered to be main factors, soil salt tolerance, wind salt tolerance, water needs, transplanting difficulty, and nutrient needs. According to two kinds of soil-base: mound and pot area, we tested the relationship between 5 PCT and DRT by use of t-test and multiple regression analysis. The results are as follows. 1. The DRT of Acer palmatum, Cornus kousa, Magnolia kobus, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Albizzia julibrissin were high by more than 20%. On the other hand, Chionanthus retusa, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Celtis sinensis, and Lagerstroemia indica were low by less than 10% in the DRT and are considered to be species suitable for planting in reclaimed areas. 2. The DRT of trees in pot areas was meaningfully higher than in mound areas; for this reason the mound technique is desirable as a soil-base for planting in reclaimed areas. 3. In the pot area, the independent variables, in the order of soil salt tolerance, wind salt tolerance, transplanting difficulty, had an effect on the DRT more significantly than in mount area. On the other hand, wind salt tolerance and soil salt tolerance affected the DRT in mount areas. This means that soil salt tolerance, wind salt tolerance, and transplanting difficulty have to be considered as significant factors to the DRT. Although the researchers tried to interpret how the PCT affected the DRT in order to analyze the relationship between the two in reclaimed areas, it was neglected at an experimental level. Therefore, future research should work on this aspect in detail.
Effects of Artificial Substrate Type, Soil Depth, and Drainage Type on the Growth of Sedum sarmentosum Grown in a Shallow Green Rooftop System
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture, volume 31, issue 2, 2003, Pages 102~112
This study was carried out to research and develop a shallow green rooftop system which would require low maintenance and therefore could be used for existing rooftops. To achieve these goals, the conceptual model was induced by past studies and the experimental systems were deduced from the conceptual model. On the growth of Sedum sarmentosum grown in these rooftop systems, the effects of artificial substrate type, soil depth, and drainage type were investigated from 3 April to 11 October 2002. Artificial substrates were an alone type and a blending type. The alone type was an artificial substrate formulated by blending crushed porous glass with bark(v/v, 6:4). The blending type was formulated by blending the alone type with loam(v/v, 1:1). Soil depths were 5cm, loom, and 15cm. Drainage types were a reservoir-drainage type and a drainage type. The reservoir-drainage type could keep water and drain excessive water at the same time. The drainage type could drain excessive water but could not keep water. Covering area, total fresh and dry weight, visual quality, and water content per 1g dry matter were measured. All the variables were analyzed by correlation analysis and factor analysis. The results of the study are summarized as follows. The growth increment was higher in the blending type than in the alone type, the highest in loom soil depth and higher in the reservoir-drainage type than in the drainage type. The growth quality was higher in the blending type than in the alone type, the highest in l0cm soil depth, and higher in the drainage type than in the reservoir-drainage type. In consideration of the permissible load on the existing rooftops and the effects of the treatments on the growth increment and quality, the system should adopt the blending type in artificial substrate types, 5~10cm in soil depths, and the drainage type in drainage types. This system will be well-suited to the growth of Sedum sarmentosum, and when the artificial substrate was in field capacity, the weight will be 75~115kg/